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Romanesque Art: Pilgrimage and the Crusades

nichsara
April 20, 2013
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Romanesque Art: Pilgrimage and the Crusades

nichsara

April 20, 2013
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  1. Romanesque  Art:    
    Pilgrimage  and  the  Crusades  
    Reading  
    Stokstad,  459-­‐493.  
     
    Range  
    1000-­‐1150  
    Romanesque  
     
    Terms/Concepts  
    pilgrimage,  relic,  reliquary,  bodily  
    relic,  contact  relic,  idols,  idolatry,  
    martyr,  saint,  pilgrim,  absoluCon,  
    pilgrimage  plan,  furtum  sacrum  
    (furta  sacra),  peregrini,  crusades.    
    Monument  List:  
      16-­‐7,  Reliquary  statue  of  Sainte  
    Foy  (St.  Faith),  Conques,  France,    
    9th-­‐10th  centuries.    
      16-­‐5,  Transept,  Cathedral,  
    SanCago  de  Compostela,  
    1078-­‐1122.      
      483,  Giselbertus  (?),  Last  
    Judgment  Tympanum,  Autun  
    Cathedral,  1120-­‐1130,  or  
    1130-­‐1145.  
      Not  in  Book,  Tympanum,  Ste.  
    Madeleine,  Vezelay,  France,  
    1120-­‐1132.  

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  4. 10˚

    40˚
    Paris
    Tours
    Orléans
    Conques
    Rome
    Naples
    Anagni
    Catania
    Palma de Mallorca
    Pisa
    Ferrara
    Trieste
    Roscoff
    Cluny
    Cologne
    Nantes
    Syracuse
    Cahors
    Zamora
    Lisbon
    Seville
    Cartagena
    Nantes
    Barcelona
    Palermo
    Winchester
    Bury St Edmunds
    Canterbury
    Amalfi
    Maiori
    Monte Cassino
    Carcassonne
    Monte Sant’ Angelo
    Genoa
    Chartres
    Poitiers
    St Jean d’Angély
    Saintes
    Silos
    Moissac St Gilles-du-Gard
    Arles
    St Guilhem le Desert
    Toulouse
    Avilés
    Salerno
    Atrani
    Venice
    Santiago de
    Compostela
    Vézelay
    Kermaria
    Chatelaudren
    Limoges
    Périgueux
    Le Puy
    León
    Bordeaux
    Roncesvalles
    Puente-la-Reina
    A T L A N T I C
    O C E A N
    A
    D
    R I A T I C
    S E A
    P
    Y
    R
    EN
    E
    E
    S
    A
    L
    P
    S
    M E D I T E R R A
    N
    E
    A
    N
    S E A
    A F R I C A N
    0
    0
    250 miles
    350 kms
    2 Trade and Artistic Influence
    major pilgrimage route
    city on pilgrimage route with major site
    movements of artistic style
    stylistic influence from the Holy Land
    movement of Arab gold and gems
    centre for trade of gems and bone
    centre for import of alabaster from England
    bronze doors from Constantinople
    SOU
    in Germany. A major confrontation developed CRUSADES AND ISLAM
    order to keep t
    Muslim contro
    and good cont
    opened up new
    artistic exchan
    Saint James fus
    that of the Reco
    Spain. Between
    Córdoba was a
    Despite this co
    enjoyed cultur
    TRADE AND A
    Mediterranean
    From the Islam
    were imported
    towns like Gen
    trading centres
    the south and

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  5. RepresentaCon  of  a  
    typical  pilgrim.  
    Floppy  hat  with  
    scalloped  shell  
    Shabby  tunic  
    Walking  sCck/
    staff  
    PracCcal  boots  

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  7. lSantiagoz is Spanish for St.
    James

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  10. entrance

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  12. France   Town  

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  13. Lantern  
    Transept  

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  14. Nave  

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  15. radiating
    chapels
    radiating
    chapels
    radiating
    chapels
    radiating
    chapels

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  16. Windows with rounded arches permit light to enter.

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  17. entrance
    westwork
    Each  radiaCng  chapel  contains  some  kind  of  
    relic  or  holy  image.  
    San2ago  
    (St.  James)  

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  18. Reliquary  

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  19. Thought  to  be  where  the  
    boat  carrying  the  saint  body  
    docked,  but  actually  
    dedicated  to  a  Roman  god.  

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  23. Main  Entrance  
    Transept  
    Apse  and  Chapels  

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  24. Apse  
    Chapel  
    Chapel  
    Chapel  
    Chapel  

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  25. Entrance  

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  27. Tympanum  

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  28.  
     
     
     
     
     
    Christ  in  Majesty  
     
     
     
     
     
    Good                                    Wicked  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Hell  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Heaven  

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  33. Hell  Mouth  
    Ammut  the  Devourer,  The  Book  of  the  Dead  of  
    Hunefer  
    Ladder  of  Divine  Ascent,  
    St.  Catherine’s,  Mt.  Sinai  

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  35. Scales  
    Monastery  of  Ste.  Foy,  Conques,  France,  11th  and  12th  Century.  

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  36. Heaven   Hell  

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  39.  
     
     
     
     
    Ste.  Foy  (St.  Faith)  being  blessed  by  the  “Hand  of  God”  

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  40. Furtum  Sacrum  =    
    “Sacred  Thee”  

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  41. St.  Madeleine  =  Mary  Magdalene  

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  42. At  first,  the  crusades  were  referred  
    to  with  the  same  language  as  
    pilgrimage.  

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  47. People  of  the  World  
    People  of  the  World  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Zodiac  and  the  Labors  of  the  Seasons  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Christ  and  apostles  

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  48. Rays  of  Holy  Power  

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  49. Gemini  
    Cancer  
    Threshing  Hay  

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  50. Pygmy/Dwarf  
    Big-­‐eared  People  

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  52. Reliquary  of  Ste.  
    Madeleine  

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  57. CriCcal  Thinking  QuesCons  
    1.  How  is  the  relaConship  between  monasteries  
    and  their  royal  benefactors  complicated?  
    2.  What  is  the  relaConship  between  monasteries  
    and  pilgrimage?  
    3.  How  did  relics  funcCon  in  the  devoConal  
    pracCces  in  Western  European  ChrisCanity?      
    4.  What  is  the  so-­‐called  “Pilgrimage  Plan”?    What  
    funcCon  does  it  serve  in  some  Romanesque  
    churches?  
    5.  What  does  furtum  sacrum  mean?    Why  is  it  
    important?    How  is  it  jusCfied?  
     

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