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Romanesque Art: The Basics and Monasticism

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=47 nichsara
April 20, 2013
23

Romanesque Art: The Basics and Monasticism

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=128

nichsara

April 20, 2013
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  1. Romanesque  Art:       The  Basics  and  Monas6cism  

    Reading:   Stokstad,  459-­‐489.     Range:   1000-­‐1150   Romanesque     Terms/Concepts:   Monas6cism,  Benedic6ne,  Cistercian,   barrel  vault,  groin  vault,  oblates,   novices,  postulants,  cloister,   historiated  column,  trumeau,   tympanum,  jambs.   Monument  List     16-­‐2,  Exterior,  Saint-­‐Mar6n-­‐du-­‐ Canigou,  French  Pyrenees,   1001-­‐1026.     16-­‐8,  Reconstruc6on  Drawing  of   the  Third  Abbey  Church  at  Cluny,   Looking  East,  1088-­‐1130.     16-­‐9,  Nave,  Abbey  Church  of   Notre-­‐Dame,  Fontenay,   1139-­‐1147.     16-­‐21,  Christ  in  Majesty,  South   Portal,  Priory  Church  Moissac,   1115.     16-­‐36,  Hildegard  and  Volmar,   from  Liber  Scivias  of  Hildegard  of   Bingen,  1150-­‐1175.  
  2. Reminders   •  Image  and  Text  is  due  Thursday  May

     2nd.   •  Your  final  exam  is  Tuesday  May  14th   8:00-­‐10:00.   •  Study  Guide  goes  up  this  Thursday.  
  3. None
  4. 2 Art and Trade border of Holy Roman Empire, c.1095

    sources of: silver copper iron lead tin trade centre for Viking sculpture (wood/stone/bone) and metalwork centres of metalwork centres of alabaster centres of ivory-working export of alabaster trade route Cu Pb 109 0˚ 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ 40˚ 50˚ 60˚ 60˚ 50˚ 40˚ 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ Pb Pb Cu Cu Cu Limerick Cork Dublin Wexford York Durham Cammin (Kamien) Gdansk ´ ´ Lund Vejrum Lade Urnes Borbjerg Trondheim Lincoln Norwich King’s Lynn Hull London Paderborn Utrecht Hamburg Bruges Paris Tours Vienna Florence Venice Barcelona Perpignan Gerona Valencia Palma Toledo Seville Lisbon Cartagena Zurich Naples Rome Basle Milan Pavia Genoa Siena Pisa Avignon Limoges Bordeaux Fuenterrabia Aviles Morella Nantes Ecaquelon Kermaria Chatelaudren Roscoff Cologne Toulouse Montpellier Santiago de Compostela Burgos Zamora Silos Palermo Messina Catania Otok Prague Buda Kiev Novgorod Waterford Winchester Tutbury Dartmouth Bristol St Albans Poole Evreux Southampton Wolin Zuchau Gross-Grönau Ribe Kaupang Oseberg Flatalunga Dorestad Sigtuna Po Danube Dnieper Dvina Volga Rhône Loire Sein e E lbe Od er Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N N O R T H S E A BAY O F B I S C AY BALT IC SEA B L A C K S E A MEDITERRANEAN SEA PYRENEES A L P S HARZ MTS SICILY CORSICA SARDINIA NORWAY ICELAND SWEDEN POLAND ENGLAND FRANCE NORMANDY SCOTLAND IRISH KINGDOMS WELSH PRINCIPALITIES HUNGARY KINGDOM OF ITALY BYZANTINE EMPIRE KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF GERMANY DENMARK S E L J U K E M P I R E S FIN N O -U G RIA N S T U R K I C P E O P L E S carved wood carved wood N 0 0 250 miles 350 kms 2 THE SUPPLY OF MATERIALS was essential for art production. In Germany and in England, local stone was in good supply and was a perfect source for buildings and sculpture, while in Scandinavia patrons and artists exploited the rich timber resources. Rare materials like alabaster and metal were exploited at source and then exported to other regions. Trade, a crucial factor in the growing European economy, fuelled the arts. In turn, trade routes contributed to the dispersal of craftsmen and their methods. their newly found positions of power by patronizing the arts. They constructed castles cathedrals. The monasteries that dotted the landscape were also important centres of much of the intellectual creativity was concentrated on devotional subjects.
  5. 10˚ 0˚ Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St

    Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême Lisbon Alcobaca Tomar Coimbra Oporto Ávila Sigena Santiago de Compostela Evora Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir T agus Rhône Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern 1000-120 borders border o Holy Rom cathedra with scu cathedra with no castle palace centre o illumina mural pa bronze d stained mosaics centres early Go - Poncé - Tours - Orléans - Vendôme - Dourdan - Château-Landon - Bourges - Brinay - Loches - Tavant - Montmorrillon - Nohant-Vicq - Paray-le-Monial - Berzé-la-Ville - Rocamadour - Ravello - Parma - Pianella - Bominaco 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 2 10˚ 0˚ 4 Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême a rto Ávila Sigena ompostela ra Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir us Rhône Rhine N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern Europe, 1000-1200 borders c. 1180 border of the Holy Roman Empire cathedral/abbey with sculpture cathedral/abbey with no sculpture castle palace centre of manuscript illumination mural paintings bronze doors stained glass mosaics centres of metalwork early Gothic architecture andon illon cq Monial ille ur - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
  6. None
  7. ★ The  Romans  were  known  for  their   advancements  in

     arch  and  vault  technology.  
  8. Groin  Vault   ★ Roman  vaults  were  typically  made  with

      concrete,  which  is  lighter  and  easier  to   form  than  stone.  
  9. ★  The  knowledge  to  make  concrete  was  lost  to  

    Medieval  Europe.   Groin  Vault  
  10. None
  11. 50˚ 40˚ London Ghent St Omer Valenciennes Ingelheim St Quentin

    Worms Orville Lorsch Quierzy Verberie Frankfurt Soissons Koeth Compiègne Corbeny Salz Fulda Ven Kissingen St Denis Würzburg Chelles Svalafeld Remiremont Karlsgraben Geneva Ratisbon Metz Lechfeld Diedenhofen Bodman Longlien (Longlier) Speyer Seilles Brumath Herstal Schlettstadt Duren Sinfeld Eresburg Herstelle Lügde Thuringen Paderborn Brunsberg Üffeln Rehme Minden Hocheleve Oker Ohrum Schöningen Wolmirst Steinfurth Verden Hollenstedt Armagh York Canterbury St Riquier Winchester Rouen Reims St Amand 1 2 6 7 3 4 5 Cologne Echternach Aachen Bremen Hamburg Gniezno Salzburg Esztergom Magdeburg Tours Germigny Bordeaux Auch Bourges St Gall Reichenau Paris Toulouse Narbonne Aix-en-Provence Avignon Lyon Vienne Cluny Tarentaise Embrun Pisa Trivento Naples Sorrento Amalfi Aquileia Gerona Burgos Braga Santiago Barcelona Turin Genoa Milan Ravenna Florence Monte Sant’ Angelo Trani Bari Brindisi Otranto Conza Siena Rome Venice Ragusa Oporto Rhine Seine L oire Rhône Elbe Danube Vistula Po N O R T H S E A A T L A N T I C O C E A N BA LT I C S E A A D R I A T I C S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S A R I C I S CORSICA SARDINIA B R I T TA N Y SAXONY KINGDOM OF ORKNEY SCOTLAND E N G L A N D WESSEX D E N M A R K W E S T F R A N K I S H K I N G D O M EAST FRANKISH KINGDOM P O L A N D H U N G A RY BURGUNDY L E Ó N C A L I P H AT E O F C Ó R D O B A CROATIA WELSH STATES IRISH KINGDOMS C A S T I L E N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1 Western Christendom before AD 1000 places visited by Charlemagne, 768-814 palace complexes constructed/rebuilt major churches constructed by those closely associated with royal/imperial court centres of decorated book production archbishopric main Viking routes, 792-870 Ottonian lands, c.1000 borders c.1000 extent of Catholicism, c.1000 1 - Trier 2 - Kreuznath 3 - Hohensburg 4 - Lippspringe 5 - Detmold 6 - Mainz 7 - Seligenstadt
  12. London Ghent St Omer Valenciennes Ingelheim St Quentin Worms Orville

    Lorsch Quierzy Verberie Frankfurt Soissons Koeth Compiègne Corbeny Salz Fulda Ven Kissingen St Denis Würzburg Chelles Svalafeld Remiremont Karlsgraben Geneva Ratisbon Metz Lechfeld Diedenhofen Bodman Longlien (Longlier) Speyer Seilles Brumath Herstal Schlettstadt Duren Sinfeld Eresburg Herstelle Thuringen Brunsberg Rehme Wolmirst Canterbury St Riquier Rouen Reims St Amand 1 2 6 7 3 4 5 Echternach Aachen Salzburg Magdeburg Tours Germigny rdeaux uch Bourges St Gall Reichenau Paris Toulouse Narbonne Aix-en-Provence Avignon Lyon Vienne Cluny Tarentaise Embrun Pisa Aquileia Turin Genoa Milan Ravenna Florence Siena Venice Rhine Seine L oire Rhône Elbe Danube o A D R I A T I C N E E S A L P S A N Y SEX W E S T F R A N K I S H K I N G D O M EAST FRANKISH KINGDOM P O BURGUNDY CROATIA campaign of literary and artistic production, which continued into the tenth century. From the later tenth century the Roman empire ruled by a Saxon dynasty in Germany, commonly called the Ottonian dynasty, also drew scholars and artists from afar, including the Byzantine empire. For a small group, the world suddenly became much smaller, and men such as Gerbert of Aurillac took advantage of the new range of possibilities. Born and educated in southern France, he became a famous teacher at Reims in northern France, then became tutor the earliest manuscript for a d painter as the –83). Although we was made, it and y luxurious agne. n three centuries, ed under court rrent supply of y turning over ristian) ivories Rohrbach Leutmerken Tägerschen Pfäffikon Helfenschwil Willmandingen Bettighofen Dieterskirchen Oberndorf Buchheim Mengen Wolfenweiler Spaichingen Tuningen Klengen Wurmlingen Tuttlingen Löffingen Fischingen Binzen Lausheim Weizen Singen Diessenhofen Bülach Glatt Höngg Zurich Ringwil Kempraten Grabs Fischbach Constance Bermatingen Siggingen Urlau Luttolsberg Mindersdorf Bussnang Amriswil Sitterdorf Heldswil Zuzwil Lommis Aadorf Elgg Büren Zell Turbental Jonschwil Bütschwil Ulm Schörzingen Pfohren Ewattingen Goldach Steinach Durnten Wetzikon Langenargen Egringen Winterthur Wängi Rickinbach Henau Uzwil Herisau Uster Kirchen Stammheim Mönchaltorf Egg Eschenbach Schlins Leiblach Buchorn Bodman Romanshorn ST GALL ST GALL Gossau Leutkirch Wasserburg Uznach Rankweil Rhine Thur Rhine Rhine Lake Constance Lake Zurich Lake Wallen Allgäner Alpen Bregenzer Wald S w a b i a n J u r a Black Fo rest BREISGAU BERCHTOLDSBAAR SCHERRAGA U ARGENGAU AARGAU KLETTGAU ALBGAU LINZGAU NIBELGAU ZÜRICHGAU THURGAU HEGAU RAETIA CURIENSIS N 0 0 20 miles 30 kms end of the period the core of the later English and French nations had been defined. Monasteries, already important in preceding centuries, played if anything an enhanced role in the ninth and tenth. Many 2 The Abbey of St Gall sites with abbey properties places with 10 charters or more places with 5-10 charters places with 3 or 4 charters places with 2 charters campaign of literary and artistic production, which continued into the tenth century. From the later tenth century the Roman empire ruled by a Saxon dynasty in Germany, commonly called the Ottonian dynasty, also drew scholars and artists from afar, including the Byzantine empire. For a small group, the world suddenly became much smaller, and men such as Gerbert of Aurillac took advantage of the new range of possibilities. Born and educated in southern France, he became a famous teacher at Reims in northern France, then became tutor to the future Emperor Otto III, and was appointed by him Pope Sylvester II in 997. Artists similarly travelled. We know of a Carolingian painter in the employ of abbots travelling from central France to central Germany and returning, of Anglo-Saxon artists active at Fleury and probably in the Meuse region, and one famous master who worked for the Archbishop of Trier in the late tenth century probably visited Rome. Gerbert’s career exemplifies the relative insignificance of borders. Latin was the shared language of written culture and administration nearly everywhere in the West, and there was an emerging sense of a special Western Christendom, represented by the enlargement of Christendom westwards to encompass all of Scandinavia, including Iceland and Greenland, and eastwards to include Poland and Hungary. Borders were very much in flux in any event, prompted only in part by the raids and subsequent invasions of the Vikings. By the tradition, and for it was made the earliest preserved luxury illuminated manuscript for a ruler, known after its scribe and painter as the Godescalc Evangelistary (781–83). Although we do not know where that book was made, it and a group of other extraordinarily luxurious books were made for Charlemagne. After a hiatus of more than three centuries, carvings on ivory were produced under court patronage. As there was no current supply of new ivory, many were made by turning over Late Roman secular (never Christian) ivories and carving the back. Also for the court were made large-scale works in bronze, including the doors and railings for the palace chapel. How the difficult art of bronze casting was recovered remains something of a mystery, as is also the case with the wall mosaics at Aachen and at Theodulf’s chapel at Germigny, another technique revived after several centuries abeyance other than in the city of Rome. The Frankish royal courts became the first court centre of cultural and artistic patronage in the post-Roman period, and drew many creative figures from beyond the Frankish realm, including Alcuin from northern England, Theodulf from northern Spain, Paulinus of Aquileia and others from Italy, and later John the Scot Eriugena from Ireland. OTTONIAN EUROPE From the later ninth century the Frankish kingdoms were in decline, but Alfred the Great’s Wessex began a major royal-sponsored Lake Wallen end of the period the core of the later English and French nations had been defined. Monasteries, already important in preceding centuries, played if anything an enhanced role in the ninth and tenth. Many received royal support, or the support of major local aristocratic patrons, and in turn were expected to contribute to royal projects, providing not only books and teachers but also money and even soldiers. Some of the royal monasteries became major centres of artistic production, the monastery at Tours, for example, producing something like two complete bibles and a gospel book annually during the second quarter of the ninth century. The ties between state and church were especially intimate in Ottonian Germany, culminating in the eleventh century in intense conflicts. Some monasteries sought to insulate themselves from secular ties; the great monastery of Cluny (founded 919) was chartered as dependent only upon the pope, and also strengthened its independence by creating an order, an alliance of many monasteries scattered across Christendom with the Burgundian mother house at its head. The well-documented case of the abbey of St Gall, just south of Lake Constance in modern Switzerland, shows the extent of monastic involvement in land-holding patterns and also of literary and administrative culture. Monasteries were also important as the home of holy men, specialists in prayer, and of the holy men and women of the past, present through their relics, whose cult became increasingly important through the period. Relics were required in association with every altar, usually small portions of holy bodies in small but elaborately decorated reliquaries. 2 The Abbey of St Gall sites with abbey properties places with 10 charters or more places with 5-10 charters places with 3 or 4 charters places with 2 charters 000 4 court y of the theless, m had ocratic ork
  13. None
  14. Although  it  was  never  built,  the  plan  of  St.  Gall

     remains   the  model  for  ideal  monasteries.  
  15. None
  16. Model of the city of Rome. Monasteries  were  meant  to

     be  self-­‐sufficient   communi4es  much  like  many  ci4es.  
  17. 10˚ 40˚ 50˚ 60˚ Toulouse Périgueux Aniane Narbonne Lérins Gerona

    Poitiers Saintes St Maixent Vienne Chalon Arles Gellone Urgel Liebana Bordeaux Aix-en-Provence London Paris Fleury Milan Bobbio Monza Ratisbon Freising Mondsee Salzburg St Gall Chur Müstair Constance Verona Venice Aquileia Ravenna Lucca Nonantola Rome Monte Cassino Farfa Naples Lyon Barcelona 25 Utrecht York Cividale Lorsch Strasbourg Jarrow Whitby Bangor Nendrum Monasterboice Glendalough Clonard St Mullin’s Lindisfarne Monkwearmouth Jouarre Echternach Reims Dol Corbie Aachen Cologne Stavelot 1 2 3 9 10 8 22 14 11 12 4 Murbach 5 6 7 16 Flavigny 18 21 19 17 15 13 24 Metz Trier Lobbes Laon 20 Essen Nivelles Péronne St Vaast d’Arras 23 Basle Reichenau Dijon Luxeuil Disentis Augsburg St Wandrille Léhon Redon Le Mans Nantes Noirmoutier St Philibert-de-Grand-Lieu Landévennec Jumieges St Bertin Liège Osnabrück Münster Bremen Hamburg Verden Minden Gandersheim Hersfeld Fulda Mainz Würzburg Amorbach Melrose Ruthwell Ripon Iona Clonmacnoise Armagh Malmesbury St Denis Orléans Tours Benevento San Vincenzo Salerno Vivarium Pavia Canterbury Langres Bourges Rhône Tagus Ebro Danube Elbe Vistula A T L A N T I C O C E A N N O R T H S E A MEDITERRANEAN SEA A D R I A T I C S E A BA L T I C S E A A L P S PYRE N E E S B ALEARIC IS CORSICA SARDINIA SICILY 2 Monasteries, Writing Centres and Artistic Work Carolingian schools/scriptoria/literary centres important monasteries founded 4th-7th century monasteries founded 6th-9th century probable centres of manuscript illumination distribution of objects decorated in the Tassilo chalice style N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1. Prüm 2. Weissenburg 3. Faremoutiers 4. Troyes 5. Chiemsee 6. Tegernsee 7. Benediktbeuern 8. St Amand 9. Meaux 10. Amiens 11. Whithorn 12. Hexham 13. Sens 14. Chelles 15. Auxerre 16. Autun 17. St Germigny-des-Prés 18. Ferrières 19. Nevers 20. Maastricht 21. St Germain-des-Prés 22. Rouen 23. St Riquier 24. Hauvillers 25. Werden 2 MONASTERIES WERE FOUNDED by local with the support of local aristocraci also by missionaries, often coming f Isles. A few were large and wealthy, many small and poor ones required implements of valued materials and along with reliquaries and books. A engaged in production, but all prov for artistic works. similarly incorporated in liturgica luxury bookbindings. The Roman tradition survived and through Christianity, Rome b contemporaries not the city of Ca Augustus but of saints Peter and great churches built in late Antiq Constantine and his followers co use, but during this period only o building was converted for Christ Hadrian’s domed Pantheon was r S. Maria ad Martyres in 609. In a f new phenomenon, large painted panels representing Christ or his created and displayed in many ch sometimes carried in processions city, for example the so-called Ch kept in the Lateran chapel of the Sanctorum (‘the Holy of Holies’) at least the end of the eighth cen Greco-Roman civilization was culture in which books played a l their role was both altered and in through the emergence and trium Christianity and Islam (establishe the 8th century). Each of them ha book at its core and both develop of decorated book commonly refe ‘illuminated’. Even in late Antiquit Monas6cism:  1000-­‐1200   •  Extensive  Reforms   around  the   Benedic6ne  Order.   •  New  Orders  Formed   •  Thousands  of   buildings  built  and   remodeled.  
  18. 10˚ 0˚ Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St

    Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême Lisbon Alcobaca Tomar Coimbra Oporto Ávila Sigena Santiago de Compostela Evora Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir T agus Rhône Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern 1000-120 borders border o Holy Rom cathedra with scu cathedra with no castle palace centre o illumina mural pa bronze d stained mosaics centres early Go - Poncé - Tours - Orléans - Vendôme - Dourdan - Château-Landon - Bourges - Brinay - Loches - Tavant - Montmorrillon - Nohant-Vicq - Paray-le-Monial - Berzé-la-Ville - Rocamadour - Ravello - Parma - Pianella - Bominaco 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 2 10˚ 0˚ 4 Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême a rto Ávila Sigena ompostela ra Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir us Rhône Rhine N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern Europe, 1000-1200 borders c. 1180 border of the Holy Roman Empire cathedral/abbey with sculpture cathedral/abbey with no sculpture castle palace centre of manuscript illumination mural paintings bronze doors stained glass mosaics centres of metalwork early Gothic architecture andon illon cq Monial ille ur - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
  19. Cluny  Plan  

  20. None
  21. None
  22. None
  23. None
  24. 10˚ 0˚ Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St

    Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême Lisbon Alcobaca Tomar Coimbra Oporto Ávila Sigena Santiago de Compostela Evora Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir T agus Rhône Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern 1000-120 borders border o Holy Rom cathedra with scu cathedra with no castle palace centre o illumina mural pa bronze d stained mosaics centres early Go - Poncé - Tours - Orléans - Vendôme - Dourdan - Château-Landon - Bourges - Brinay - Loches - Tavant - Montmorrillon - Nohant-Vicq - Paray-le-Monial - Berzé-la-Ville - Rocamadour - Ravello - Parma - Pianella - Bominaco 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 2 10˚ 0˚ 4 Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême a rto Ávila Sigena ompostela ra Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir us Rhône Rhine N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern Europe, 1000-1200 borders c. 1180 border of the Holy Roman Empire cathedral/abbey with sculpture cathedral/abbey with no sculpture castle palace centre of manuscript illumination mural paintings bronze doors stained glass mosaics centres of metalwork early Gothic architecture andon illon cq Monial ille ur - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
  25. None
  26. None
  27. Diagram of Romanesque portal. Tympanum  

  28. Ma^hew   Mark   Luke   John   Twenty-­‐Four  Elders

     
  29. Trumeau  

  30. Trumeau, South Portal Lions and Old Testament Prophet (Jeremiah or

    Isaiah?) c.1115 Church of Saint-Pierre Moissac, France (Stokstad 15-23)
  31. None
  32. None
  33. None
  34.       Dives         Lazarus  the

     Leper     Soul     Soul  
  35. Death   of  a   Miser   Torment  of  

    Avarice   Torment   of  Lust   Scene  of   Torment  
  36. Historiated  Column  

  37. Cloister  Relief  

  38. “Monsters”  

  39. Historiated  Capital  with  Lions’  Heads,  Cloister,   Priory  Church,  Moissac,

     France,  c.  1115.   Lions’  Heads   Griffons  a^acking  lions  
  40. None
  41. 10˚ 0˚ Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St

    Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême Lisbon Alcobaca Tomar Coimbra Oporto Ávila Sigena Santiago de Compostela Evora Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir T agus Rhône Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern 1000-120 borders border o Holy Rom cathedra with scu cathedra with no castle palace centre o illumina mural pa bronze d stained mosaics centres early Go - Poncé - Tours - Orléans - Vendôme - Dourdan - Château-Landon - Bourges - Brinay - Loches - Tavant - Montmorrillon - Nohant-Vicq - Paray-le-Monial - Berzé-la-Ville - Rocamadour - Ravello - Parma - Pianella - Bominaco 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 2 10˚ 0˚ 4 Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême a rto Ávila Sigena ompostela ra Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir us Rhône Rhine N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern Europe, 1000-1200 borders c. 1180 border of the Holy Roman Empire cathedral/abbey with sculpture cathedral/abbey with no sculpture castle palace centre of manuscript illumination mural paintings bronze doors stained glass mosaics centres of metalwork early Gothic architecture andon illon cq Monial ille ur - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
  42. None
  43. None
  44. None
  45. “immoderate  height  of  [Cluniac]  churches…their   immoderate  length,  their  excessive

     width,   sumptuous  decora6on  and  finely  executed   pictures,  which  divert  the  a^en6on  of  those   who  are  praying.”     –  Bernard  of  Clairvaux,  Apologia.    
  46. Capital  Detail   Capital  Detail  

  47. “What  profit  is  there  in  those  ridiculous  monsters,  in  

    that  marvelous  and  deformed  comeliness,  that   comely  deformity?...So  many  and  so  marvelous  are   the  varie6es  of  divers  shapes  on  every  hand  that  we   are  more  tempted  to  read  in  the  marble  than  in  our   books,  and  spend  the  whole  day  in  wondering  at   these  things  than  in  medita6ng  upon  the  law  of  God.     For  God’s  sake,  if  men  are  not  ashamed  of  these   follies,  why  at  least  do  they  not  shrink  from  the   expense?”     –Bernard  of  Clairvaux  
  48. Example  of  Cistercian  Propor6ons  

  49. Example  of  Cistercian  Propor6ons  

  50. None
  51. None
  52. None
  53. None
  54. “a  fiery  light,  flashing  intensely,  came  from  the   open

     vault  of  heaven  and  poured  through  my   whole  brain.”    
  55. None
  56. “Aler  this  I  saw  a  vast  instrument,  round  and  

    shadowed,  in  the  shape  of  an  egg,  small  at  the   top,  large  in  the  middle,  and  narrowed  at  the   bo^om;  outside  it,  surrounding  its  circumference,   there  was  a  bright  fire  with,  as  it  were,  a  shadowy   zone  under  it.    And  in  that  fire  there  was  a  globe   of  sparkling  flame  so  great  that  the  whole   instrument  was  illuminated  by  it.”    
  57. “Outward,  my  eyes  are  open.    So  I  have  

    never  fallen  prey  to  ecstasy  in  the   visions,  but  I  see  them  wide  awake,  day   and  night.    And  I  am  constantly  fe^ered   by  sickness,  and  olen  in  the  grip  of  pain   so  intense  it  threatens  to  kill  me.”    
  58. Cri6cal  Thinking  Ques6ons   1.  What  does  the  term  “Romanesque”

     mean?  From   where  does  it  originate?   2.  What  is  the  ideological  func6on  of  high  vaul6ng?   3.  Why  does  monas6cism  become  more  popular  in  the   Romanesque  period?    What  are  some  of  the  major   quali6es  of  a  monastery?   4.  What  were  some  of  the  jus6fica6ons  for  the  use  of   profuse  relief  sculpture  in  Romanesque  churches?   5.  What  is  the  difference  between  Benedic6ne  and   Cistercian  ideology?    How  does  it  impact  their  art  and   architecture?