and the two instances of snake eater, occurring as they do in German settlement areas, may be variations of the Pennsylvania-Germanism snake heeder. FIGURE 1 A* *(devil's)dorning needle 0 mosquito hawk Z snoke feeder V spindle A snake doctor U snake eoter "DRAGONFLY" Perspectives for a Linguistic Atlas of Kansas Cook, 1978
map is shown in Fig. 2) and covers the whole area where this dialect is spoken: all of Andorra and two dialect areas within Spain, specif- ically the western half of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia (with the exception of the Val d’Aran, where Occitan is spoken) and the eastern counties of the Autonomous Community of Aragon. Fieldwork was carried out in forty villages (two in Andorra, eight in Aragon, and thirty in Catalonia) located in twenty counties. We added localities of each county, i.e. their capitals, while the other half were conducted in small villages from the same counties. Thus, our sample includes twenty urban localities (the populations of which vary from the 1,177 inhabitants of Benavarri to the 137,387 of Lleida, with a mean of 17,787 inhab- itants) and twenty rural localities varying from 171 inhabitants in Tolba to 4,396 in Ordino (with a mean of 641 inhabitants). Note that Ordino is re- garded here as a rural area in spite of having more Fig. 2 Context map of the Catalan-speaking area, including some important cities: (1) Perpinya ` (France); (2) Andorra la Vella (Andorra); (3) Girona, (4) Barcelona, (5) Tarragona, (6) Lleida (Autonomous Community of Catalonia, Spain); (7) Fraga (Autonomous Community of Aragon, Spain); (8) Castello ´ de la Plana, (9) Vale `ncia, (10) Alacant (Autonomous Community of the Valencian Country, Spain); (11) Eivissa, (12) Palma, (13) Mao ´ (Autonomous Community of the Balearic Islands, Spain); and (14) l’Alguer (Sardinia, Italy). The area where north-western Catalan is spoken (Fig. 3) has a darker shade of grey Literary and Linguistic Computing, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2013 121 at KU Leuven University Library on April 14, 2013 http://llc.oxfordjournals.org/ aded from Distribution maps of the 1st person plural accusative clitic ‘ens’ (context: _#V, ‘ens esperen’, ‘they are waiting for us’) according to the pronunciations of the oldest speakers. The dark shade indicates sites only having the dialectal variant ‘mos’. Fig. 8 (a and b) Distribution maps of the 1st person plural accusative cli waiting for us’) according to the pronunciations of the oldest speakers right). The dark shade indicates sites only having the dialectal variant ‘m E. Valls et al.
rs obtained with contextualized SCs (left map) and context-free SCs (right different clusters, which also correspond to different steps in the gener- Tuscan phonetic variation and diachronic change http://llc.oxfordjournals.o Downloaded from Different shades of darkness indicate different clusters, which also correspond to different steps in the generalization of Tuscan gorgia.
2012 Contour plots for the regression surface of predicting lexical differences from standard Italian as a function of longitude, latitude, concept frequency, and speaker age group obtained with a generalized additive model. The (black) contour lines represent aggregate isoglosses, darker shades of gray (lower values) indicate a smaller lexical ‘distance’ from standard Italian, while lighter shades of gray (higher values) represent locations with a larger lexical ‘distance’ from standard Italian. The black star marks the approximate location of Florence.
2013 Fig. 4 Intensity map of the variant Kraut of the variable ‘potato haulm’ from the SBS Fig. 5 Graded area-class map of the variable ‘potato haulm’ (combination of the intensity fields of all its vari- ants). A colour version of this paper is available online Lexical meaning and spatial distribution at KU Leuven University L http://llc.oxfordjournals.org/ Downloaded from
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