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The Applied Linguistics Conference (ALANZ/ALAA/ALTAANZ)

Kazuhito Yamato
November 27, 2017

The Applied Linguistics Conference (ALANZ/ALAA/ALTAANZ)

The Applied Linguistics Conference (ALANZ/ALAA/ALTAANZ) @ AUT

Kazuhito Yamato

November 27, 2017
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  1. Introducing prosody instruction into
    Japanese secondary school
    classroom:
    A classroom-based research
    Kazuhito Yamato (Kobe University)
    Takamichi Isoda (Ritsumeikan University)
    1
    The Applied Linguistics Conference
    (ALANZ/ALAA/ALTAANZ)
    @AUT 27/11/2017
    WG803ɹ11:00ʙ11:30

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  2. Acknowledgment
    2
    •This study is supported by
    JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 17K047778.
    •This slide (pdf) is available at:
    https://speakerdeck.com/otamayuzak/altaanz

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  3. Outline of the study
    3
    1.Introduction
    1.1.Background
    1.2.Previous
    studies
    2.The present study
    2.1.Research
    questions
    2.2.Practical
    Intervention
    2.3.Data
    collection
    2.4.Analysis
    3.Results and
    discussion
    4.Implications

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  4. Outline of the study
    4
    1.Introduction
    1.1.Background
    1.2.Previous
    studies
    2.The present study
    2.1.Research
    questions
    2.2.Practical
    Intervention
    2.3.Data
    collection
    2.4.Analysis
    3.Results and
    discussion
    4.Implications

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  5. 1. Introduction
    1.1 Background
    • Approaches to pronunciation instruction (Grant, et al., 2014)
    5
    Traditional Approaches Current Approaches
    learner
    goals
    Perfect, naive-like
    pronunciation
    Comfortable intelligibility
    Speech
    features
    All segmentals (consonant and
    vowel sounds)
    Selected segmental and
    suprasegmentals (stress, rhythm, and
    intonation) based on need and context
    Practice
    formats
    Decontextualized drills
    controlled aural-oral drills as well as
    semi-communicative practice formats
    Language
    background
    of teachers
    Native-speaking teachers
    Native-speaking and proficient non-
    native speaking teachers
    Speaking
    models
    Native-speaker models
    Variety of models and standards
    depending on the listener, context, and
    purpose
    Curriculum
    choices
    Stand-alone courses isolated
    from the rest of the curriculum
    Stand-alone courses or integrated into
    other content or skill areas, often
    listening and speaking

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  6. 1. Introduction
    1.2 Previous studies
    • Research on Pronunciation Instruction
    • Derwing & Munro (2015): summary of instruction
    research (pp. 95-96)
    • Thomson & Derwing (2014): narrative review of 75
    PI studies
    • Lee, Jang & Plonsky (2014): meta-analysis of 86 PI
    studies
    • needs more classroom-based research
    • interaction research(learner backgrounds)
    6

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  7. 1. Introduction
    1.2 Previous studies
    • Teaching methods & practical ideas/tasks
    for teaching pronunciation/prosody
    • Prosody pyramid (Gilbert, 2014)
    • Pronunciation myth (Grant, 2014)
    • textbooks, materials (Grant, 2016; Marks
    & Bowen, 2014; Jones, 2016)
    • needs more empirical data
    7

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  8. 1. Introduction
    1.2 Previous studies
    • In Japanese context…
    • surveys reveal that reading aloud and
    pronunciation teaching are the major
    teaching practices
    • Ts: less confident and not enough training
    (Shibata et al., 2008;)
    • teaching items: segmental >
    suprasegmentals
    8

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  9. 1. Introduction
    1.2 Previous studies
    • Japanese EFL learners have problems on
    prosodic features:
    • sentence stress
    • intonation
    • nucleus placement
    (Nanjo, 2010; Saito & Ueda, 2011; Saito, 2017;
    Matsusaka, 1986)
    9

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  10. 1. Introduction
    1.2 Previous studies
    • issues to be addressed
    • classroom-based research on pronunciation
    instruction
    • prosody instruction to Japanese EFL learners
    • pre-, post-intervention design incorporating
    learner background
    • … lead to the present study
    10

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  11. 1. Introduction
    •Purpose of this research project:
    1.to report on the effectiveness of a
    classroom-based explicit prosody
    instruction in a Japanese secondary
    school setting
    2.to illustrate how learners’ awareness
    toward prosodic features changes
    over the course of time
    11

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  12. Outline of the study
    12
    1.Introduction
    1.1.Background
    1.2.Previous
    studies
    2.The present study
    2.1.Research
    questions
    2.2.Practical
    Intervention
    2.3.Data
    collection
    2.4.Analysis
    3.Results and
    discussion
    4.Implications

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  13. Outline of the study
    13
    1.Introduction
    1.1.Background
    1.2.Previous
    studies
    2.The present study
    2.1.Research
    questions
    2.2.Practical
    Intervention
    2.3.Data
    collection
    2.4.Analysis
    3.Results and
    discussion
    4.Implications

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  14. 2. The present study
    2.1 Research questions
    2.2 Practical Intervention
    2.3 Data collection
    2.4 Analysis
    14

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  15. 2. The present study
    2.1 Research questions
    •efficacy of a classroom-based
    explicit prosody instruction in a
    Japanese secondary school setting
    •the effect of awareness toward
    prosodic features on learners’
    performance over time
    15

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  16. 2. The present study
    2.2 Practical intervention
    •participants
    •1st year students at Kobe University Secondary
    School (aged 13 to 14)
    •3 classes 120 students (40 students/class)
    •recordings of 69 students as valid data
    •instructor
    •a teacher at the school
    •authors as advisors, observers and material
    developers
    16

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  17. 2. The present study
    2.2 Practical intervention
    •Procedures
    •10-15 mins allotted in each English class/ twice a week
    •mid Oct, 2016 - early March, 2017
    •teaching methodology (what & how)
    •simplify the complex phenomena of prosody into 3 principles
    •“3 principles of prosody instruction” (Isoda, Yamato)
    1. strike a beat when there is a vowel [syllable structure]
    2. when there are more than one beat, differentiate strong and
    weak beats [word stress/sentence stress/rhythm]
    3. when there are more than one strong beat, make one of them
    more salient than the others [nucleus placement/intonation]
    17

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  18. 2. The present study
    2.2 Practical intervention
    •Procedures
    •10-15 mins allotted in each English class/ twice a week
    •mid Oct, 2016 - early March, 2017
    •teaching methodology (what & how)
    •simplify the complex phenomena of prosody into 3 principles
    •“3 principles of prosody instruction” (Isoda, Yamato)
    1. strike a beat when there is a vowel [syllable structure]
    2. when there are more than one beat, differentiate strong and
    weak beats [word stress/sentence stress/rhythm]
    3. when there are more than one strong beat, make one of them
    more salient than the others [nucleus placement/intonation]
    18

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  19. 2. The present study
    2.2 Practical intervention
    •material/task development
    •tasks designed by authors based
    on the 3 principles
    •handouts developed by authors
    and the instructor
    19

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  20. 2. The present study
    2.2 Practical intervention
    •examples of the worksheets devised
    20
    make contrast in multi-syllable
    words and compare with
    Japanese equivalents
    listen and choose the word
    which has the same no. of
    humming

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  21. 2. The present study
    2.3 Data collection
    •Recordings:
    •recitation task: Sep 2016
    •read-aloud task: April 2017
    •material: Marcel the White Star
    •questionnaire on awareness: 5 point Likert scale
    •comprehensibility ratings
    •rating task on the recordings
    •participants: 6 NS speakers (high school, secondary school,
    university teaching staff)
    •9 point Likert scale (Isacc, Trofimovich & Foote, 2017)
    21

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  22. 2. The present study
    2.2 to 2.3 Data collection (Summary)
    22
    recording 1
    2016.09
    recording 2
    2017.04
    teaching intervention
    questionnaire 1
    2016.10
    questionnaire 2
    2017.03

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  23. 2. The present study
    2.4 Analysis
    •grouping students in accordance with responses
    to questionnaire on awareness towards prosody
    instruction (pre- and post-practical
    interventions; 5 point likert scale)
    23

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  24. 2. The present study
    2.4 Analysis
    •groups
    •HIGH: pre and post 3 or over high awareness throughout
    •DOWN: NA
    •UP: low in pre but awareness went up later
    •LOW: kept low awareness throughout
    24
    post
    3 or over under 3
    pre
    3 or over HIGH(n=47) DOWN(n=0)
    under 3 UP(n=13) LOW(n=9)

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  25. 2. The present study
    2.4 Analysis
    •comparing comprehensibility
    scores of pre- and post-practical
    interventions (ANOVA)
    •acoustic/auditory analysis on
    selected items (Praat)
    25

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  26. Outline of the study
    26
    1.Introduction
    1.1.Background
    1.2.Previous
    studies
    2.The present study
    2.1.Research
    questions
    2.2.Practical
    Intervention
    2.3.Data
    collection
    2.4.Analysis
    3.Results and
    discussion
    4.Implications

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  27. Outline of the study
    27
    1.Introduction
    1.1.Background
    1.2.Previous
    studies
    2.The present study
    2.1.Research
    questions
    2.2.Practical
    Intervention
    2.3.Data
    collection
    2.4.Analysis
    3.Results and
    discussion
    4.Implications

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  28. 4. Results an discussion
    •Comprehensibility rating
    •9 point Likert scale (Isaccs,
    Trofimovich, & Foote, 2017)
    •Listeners: 6 native speakers of
    English, teaching at junior, senior
    high schools and university in Japan
    •interrater reliability α=.88
    28

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  29. 4. Results and discussion
    29

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  30. 4. Results and discussion
    30
    Descriptive Statistics
    Groups n Pre Post
    Mean SD Meas SD
    HIGH 47 5.85 0.89 6.52 0.71
    UP 13 5.33 1.05 6.35 0.64
    LOW 9 5.19 1.26 5.89 0.84
    ALL 69 5.67 1.00 6.41 0.74
    ANOVA(mixed design ANOVA)
    GROUP between-subjects F(2, 66)=3.65, p=.03, partial η2=.099
    Pre-Post within-subjects F(1, 66)=33.23, p<.001, partial η2=.335
    interaction F(2, 66)=0.75, p=.47, partial η2=. 022
    Tukey's HSD
    Within Between
    pre HIGH < post HIGH pre UP < post HIGH
    pre UP < post UP pre LOW < post HIGH
    pre LOW < post UP

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  31. 4. Results and discussion
    •what results tell us
    •Significant in within-subjects factor (pre-post)
    shows overall effectiveness of prosody
    instruction (F(1, 66)=33.23, p<.001, partial η2).
    •Smaller SD scores in post means overall
    improvement in every group.
    •UP group shows a little steeper improvements
    (though not significant in interaction), which
    is possibly the result of improvements in
    awareness toward prosody instruction.
    31

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  32. 4. Results and discussion
    •Focus on “UP group”
    •acoustic/auditory analysis showed
    improvements on 1) syllable
    structure, 2) word stress
    [script] Marcel is happy, too. Back
    on his boat, he reads the
    newspaper stories.
    32

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  33. 4. Results and discussion
    •UP group example “… happy, too”
    33
    •Pre (Sep, 2016)
    •geminates (2
    syllables, but 3 moras)
    •equal intensity on
    both syllables
    •Post (Apr, 2017)
    •2 syllables
    •better stress pattern
    (S w)

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  34. 4. Results and discussion
    •UP group example ”… the newspaper stories”
    34
    •Pre (Sep, 2016)
    •vowel insertions
    •Post (Apr, 2017)
    •less vowel
    insertions
    •better word
    stress

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  35. 4. Results and discussion
    •UP group
    •1) syllable structure
    •happy: used geminate consonants in pre, two
    syllables in post
    •newspaper stories: used lengthened vowels in pre,
    •both: less vowel insertion
    •2) word stress
    •happy: placing equal strength to strong and weak
    •newspaper stories: [3 2] syllables
    35

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  36. Outline of the study
    36
    1.Introduction
    1.1.Background
    1.2.Previous
    studies
    2.The present study
    2.1.Research
    questions
    2.2.Practical
    Intervention
    2.3.Data
    collection
    2.4.Analysis
    3.Results and
    discussion
    4.Implications

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  37. Outline of the study
    37
    1.Introduction
    1.1.Background
    1.2.Previous
    studies
    2.The present study
    2.1.Research
    questions
    2.2.Practical
    Intervention
    2.3.Data
    collection
    2.4.Analysis
    3.Results and
    discussion
    4.Implications

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  38. 5. Implications
    •findings
    1.efficacy of a classroom-based explicit prosody
    instruction in a Japanese secondary school setting
    →yes
    •pre-, post-intervention illustrates the
    effectiveness of explicit prosody instruction
    •10 to 15 minutes of teaching can make a
    difference
    •non-native instructor teaches prosody to non-
    native learners
    38

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  39. 5. Implications
    •findings
    2.the effect of instruction on learners’
    awareness toward prosodic features
    changes over the course of time
    → possibly yes.
    •UP group shows a slightly better
    improvements than other groups
    •improvements in awareness have some
    effect on performance
    39

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  40. 40
    Summary
    Yamato, K., & Isoda, T. (2017). Introducing prosody instruction into
    Japanese secondary school classroom: A classroom-based research.
    •“3 principles of prosody instruction” is
    introduced to Japanese secondary school
    students
    •approx. 6 months pre-, post- design
    intervention showed overall
    improvements on comprehensibility
    rating score
    •learners’ awareness changes overtime and
    it could influence on their performance
    (UP group has a key for further
    investigations)

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  41. 41
    Reference
    • Bradford, B. (1998). Intonation in context: Intonation practice for upper-
    intermediate and advanced learners of English. Cambridge University Press.
    • Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. J. (2015). Pronunciation fundamentals: Evidence-based
    prospectives for L2 teaching and research. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    • Lee, J., Jang, J., & Plonsky, L. (2015). The effectiveness of second pronunciation
    instruction: A meta-analysis. Applied Linguistics, 36/3, 345-366.
    • Gilbert, J. B. (2008). Teaching pronunciation: Using the prosody pyramid. NY:
    Cambridge University Press.
    • Grant, L. (2017) Well said: Pronunciation for clear communication. (4th ed.). Boston,
    MA: Engage Learning.
    • Grant, L. (Ed.). (2014). Pronunciation myths: Applying second language research to
    classroom teaching. Ann Arbor, MH: University of Michigan Press.
    • Marks , J. & Bowen, T. (2012). The book of pronunciation: Proposals for a practical
    pedagogy. Surrey: DELTA Publishing.

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  42. 42
    Reference
    • Nicola, L., & Darcy, I. (2015). Integrating pronunciation into the language
    classroom. In Reed, M., & Levis, J. M. (eds.). The handbook of English
    pronunciation. (pp.471-487). West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
    • Thomson, I., & Derwing,T. M. (2014). The effectiveness of L2 pronunciation
    instruction: A narrative review. Applied Linguistics, 36(3), 326-344.
    • দࡔώϩγ (1986) ʰӳޠԻ੠ֶೖ໳ʱ ౦ژ: ݚڀࣾ
    • ೆᑍ݈ॿ (2010) ʮԻ੠ֶɾԻӆ࿦ͱൃԻࢦಋʯ େֶӳޠڭҭֶձʢ؂ʣ
    Ԭా৳෉ɾೆग़߁ੈɾക࡙ರࢠʢฤʣ (2010) ʰӳޠڭҭֶେܥ ୈ8ר
    ӳޠݚڀͱӳޠڭҭ ʵ͜ͱ͹ͷݚڀΛڭҭʹ׆͔͢ʱ౦ژ: େमؗॻ
    ళ pp. 3-21.
    • ࡈ౻Ұ໻ (2017, June) ʮʰฉ͖औΓ΍͍͢ൃԻʱशಘΛ໨ࢦͯ͠ɿ༏ઌత
    ʹֶश͢΂͖߲໨ͱޮՌతͳڭत๏ʯ LETؔ੢2017೥౓य़قݚڀେ
    ձɾ2017೥౓ؔ੢ӳޠڭҭֶձୈ22ճݚڀେձʢڞ࠵ʣಛผγϯϙδ
    ΢Ϝ, ۙـେֶ

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  43. 43
    Reference
    • ࡈ౻߂ࢠɾ্ాޭ (2011) ʮӳޠֶशऀʹΑΔΠϯτωʔγϣϯ֩ͷޡ഑
    ஔʯ ʰԻ੠ݚڀʱ 15, 87-95.
    • ࣲా༤հɾԣࢁࢤอɾଟྑᯩ໵ (2008) ʮԻ੠ࢦಋʹؔ͢Δڭһͷ࣮ଶௐ
    ࠪʯ ʰلཁʱ(࢛ࠃӳޠڭҭֶձ) 28, 49-55.

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  44. 44
    Appendix (Likert scale for comprehensibility)

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  45. 45
    Appendix (awreness questionnaire pre-)

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  46. 46
    Appendix (awreness questionnaire post-)

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