minimal essentials for teaching English prosody

minimal essentials for teaching English prosody

英語発音指導の目標が,ネイティブのようにではなく,明瞭性の高い発音であると主張されて久しいのですが,その目標に近づくような指導が行われているのでしょうか。また,もし英語発音指導がなされているとしても,英語のプロソディの側面にはどの程度光が当たっているのでしょうか。
これまでに,発表者は,あまり指導がなされていないプロソディを「3つの原則」というミニマムエッセンシャルズの形に落とし込んだ指導と学習を提案してきました。
この「3つの原則」を取り入れることで,教員自身が英語プロソディについて(これまで以上に)知ることができ,どのように教材・素材を分析するかを検討することができます。また,教材をどのように提示するかを考えることもできると思っています。
このワークショップでは,英語プロソディ指導のミニマムエッセンシャルズである3つの原則について概説するとともに,どのようにそれを用いて教材・素材を分析するかを紹介し,それぞれの現場でどう活かすことができるかを一緒に考えていきたいと思います。時間が許せば原則に対応する形で活動事例などを紹介し,それらについても検討してみたいと思います。(ウェブサイト掲載の概要より)

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Kazuhito Yamato

June 15, 2019
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  1. 4.

    1. ͸͡Ίʹ 7 • ͱ͍͏͜ͱͰվΊ·ͯ࢝͠Ί·͢ɻ • ຊ೔͸ɼҎԼͷ͜ͱΛ͓࿩͍ͨ͠͠ͱࢥ͍· ͢ɻ - ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯɾݱঢ়

    - ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟ ϧζʢͱͯ͠ͷ࿮૊ΈͷఏҊʣ - ࿮૊Έͷ׆༻ͷ࢓ํʢಛʹڭࡐݚڀͱͯ͠ʣ - ίϝϯτɾҙݟަ׵ɼͳͲ
  2. 7.

    ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ় • Ͱ΋ɼௐࠪʹ͍ͭͯ͸ɼؾʹͳΔ఺͕… • ͦͷʮԻಡʯ͸ɼڭՊॻຊจͳͲͷԻ੠త෼ੳʹج͍͍ͮͯΔ ͩΖ͏͔ʁCDΛϞσϧԻ੠ͱͯ͠ɼListen & Repeat ͷΈʹ ͳͬͯ͸͍ͳ͍ͩΖ͏͔ʁ

    • ͦͷʮൃԻࢦಋʯ͸ɼԻ੠ֶతഎܠʹج͍͍ͮͯΔͩΖ͏͔ʁ • ࣲా ΄͔(2008)ɼՏ಺ࢁ ΄͔(2011)ɿڭһཆ੒ɼݚमͷػձ͕ ෆे෼ɼൃԻࢦಋʹର͢Δࣗ৴ͷͳ͞ • ೖߐʢ2017ʣɿ ʮίϛϡχέʔγϣϯྗΛ͚ͭͤ͞Δ͜ͱΛ໨ඪʹ͠ͳ͕Βɼ ࣮ࡍͷձ࿩Ͱ࢖ΘΕͳ͍Α͏ͳΠϯτωʔγϣϯɾϦζϜɾε τϨεΛܦݧ͍ͤͯͯ͞͸μϝͰ͢ʢp.11ʣʯ 10 1. ͸͡Ίʹ
  3. 8.

    ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ় • ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়͸ʁʢࢀߟɿ Ԥถฤʣ • Murphy (2014) • Foote, Hotby,

    & Derwing (2011): ΧφμͰͷௐࠪ • ܦݧɾݚमɾϦιʔεɾαϙʔτෆ଍ʢChapman, 2007; Dalton & Seidlhofer, 1994ʣ One recurring theme was that many teachers are hesitant when it comes to teaching pronunciation due to inexperience, lack of specialized training, lack of resources and/or lack of institutional support. (Murphy, 2014, p.204-5) • तۀͷதʹɾଞٕೳͱ߹Θͤͯ౷߹తʹऔΓೖΕΑ͏ͱ͢Δಈ͖ ʢNation & Newton , 2009; Celce-Murcia et al., 2010; Nicola & Darcy, 2015; Jones, 2016) 11 1. ͸͡Ίʹ
  4. 11.

    2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ • ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕΛ͞Βͬͱ֬ೝ • 80s·Ͱ: segmentalத৺ • 90s·Ͱ:

    bottom-up→top-down • 00sҎ߱: seg/supra balanced • World EnglishesɹɹJenkins (2000)ɿ Lingua Franca Core • prosodyཁૉͰ͸ nucleus placement, chunking ͕core • ࠷ۙͷgoal: intelligibility, comprehensibilityʢ࣍ͷεϥ ΠυͷදΛࢀরʣ 16
  5. 12.

    ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ ൃԻࢦಋͷΞϓϩʔνʢGrant, et al., 2014ʣ 17 Traditional Approaches Current Approaches

    learner goals Perfect, naive-like pronunciation Comfortable intelligibility Speech features All segmentals (consonant and vowel sounds) Selected segmental and suprasegmentals (stress, rhythm, and intonation) based on need and context Practice formats Decontextualized drills controlled aural-oral drills as well as semi-communicative practice formats Language background of teachers Native-speaking teachers Native-speaking and proficient non-native speaking teachers Speaking models Native-speaker models Variety of models and standards depending on the listener, context, and purpose Curriculum choices Stand-alone courses isolated from the rest of the curriculum Stand-alone courses or integrated into other content or skill areas, often listening an speaking 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
  6. 13.

    ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ • ࠷ۙͷgoalʹ͍ͭͯ௥ՃͰ֬ೝ • intelligibility, comprehensibility, accentedness ʢcf. େ࿨, 2012;

    Isaacs & Trofimovich (eds.), 2017ʣ • i: ฉ͖ख͕࿩ऀͷϝοηʔδΛཧղ͢Δఔ౓ • c: ฉ͖ख͕࿩ऀͷϝοηʔδΛཧղ͢ΔͨΊʹ෷͏࿑ྗͷఔ౓ • a: ࠃɾ஍ҬɾഎܠΛ൓ө͢Δ΋ͷ • aͱi͸ ͋Δఔ౓ಠཱ͍ͯ͠ΔʢDerwing & Munro, 1997ʣ • iͱc͸teachableʢDerwing, Munro & Wiebe, 1998ʣ • nativeness principle vs intelligibility principle (Levis, 2005; 2018) 18 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
  7. 15.

    ԿΛ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂͖͔ • ڭһͷ஌ࣝج൫ʢBrinton, 2014; Celce-Murcia et al., 2010ʣ • Brinton

    (2014) • conceptual knowledge: teacher’s basic philosophy • descriptive knowledge: basic facts of pronunciation • procedural knowledge: basic skills to teach pronunciation • Celce-Murcia et al. (2010) ʢࢿྉ p2ʣ • knowledge of the pronunciation features • awareness of potential • ڭһ͸ԿΛ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂͖͔ʢMurphy, 2018ʣ • Table 18.1ʢcf. contemporary research findingsʣɹʢࢿྉp.2ʣ • Table 18.2ʢcf. pronunciation teacher development resources and classroom activity recipe collectionsʣɹʢࢿྉ p.3ʣ 21 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
  8. 16.

    ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ • Table 18.1 • Derwing & Munro(2015) : pronunciation

    fundamentals • suprasegmental ॏࢹͷࢦಋͩͱɼintelligibility΍comprehensibility ʹ޲্͕ʢDerwing, Munro and Wiebe, 1998ʣ • Grant (2014) , Brinton (2014): pronunciation myths • શͯͷԻ੠߲໨͕ॏཁͱ͍͏༁Ͱ͸ͳ͘ɼprimary focus, prominence, stress-timed rhythm, thought group, pausingͳͲͷ suprasegmental features͸ॏཁ • Lee et al.(2015) ; meta analysis 86ຊͷPI࿦จΛϨϰϡʔ • Derwing et al. (1998) ɼGordon and Darcy(2012), Yates(2003) , Hahn (2004) ͳͲ͸supra > seg • Levis (2005)΍Saito(2012)ͳͲ͸segmentalͷํ͕؆୯ 22 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
  9. 17.

    ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ • Table 18.1 • Thomson & Derwing (2015) :

    narrative review • 75ຊͷL2 pronun࿦จΛϨϰϡʔɼ਺Ͱ͸segͷํ͕suprasegΑΓଟ͍ • Dickerson (2010) • Իӆ࿦Λڭ͍͑ͯΔதͰɼdiscourse meaningʹ΋ͱ͍ͮͯڭतॱংΛݕ ౼͢ΔॏཁੑΛઆ͘ • େ͖ͳଆ໘͔Βཧղ͢Δํ͕Α͍ɻ·ͨɼϓϩισΟͷཁૉ͸֤ཁૉͱ૬ ޓʹؔ࿈͍ͯ͠ΔʢGilbert, 2008ʣɻ • Gilbert(2008): pronunciation pyramid • Goodwin(2014) : In Celce-Muricia et al.(2014) • While the sound system of English traditionally has been introduced "in building-block fashion" beginning with smaller units of analysis (e.g., consonants, consonants cluster, vowels) and building incrementally toward larger ones (e.g., word stress, prominence, thought groups, intonation), "this is not how our learners experience language" (Goodwin, 2014, p.138). 23 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
  10. 18.

    ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ • Table 18.1 • Murphy(2013; 2017): • intro: which

    facets of pronunciation are the most important to teach? • Lee et al.(2015)ͷϝλ෼ੳΑΓɼL2ൃԻࢦಋ͸શൠͱͯ͠ޮՌ͕͋ Δ͜ͱ͕෼͔ͬͨɻ • ESL؀ڥͰͷ༏ઌॱҐͱͯ͠ɼදͷ௨Γͱͳ͍ͬͯΔ͜ͱ͸֤छݚ ڀ͔Β΋໌Β͔ͱͳ͍ͬͯΔʢField(2005)ͷޠڧ੎ɼHahn(2004)ͷ จڧ੎ɼPickering(2001),Wennerstrom(2001)ͷԻௐɼDerwing & Munro(1997)ͷ࿩଎ɼͳͲʣɻ • Derwing, Munro & Wiebe(1997), Derwing and Rossiter(2003)͸ɼ supra͕comprehensibility΍fluencyʹߩݙ͢Δͱ͠ɼsegmentals͸ ൃԻͷޡΓ΁ͷؾ͖ͮͷ޲্ʹߩݙ͢Δͱ͍͏݁ՌΛಘ͍ͯΔɻ 24 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
  11. 19.

    ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ • ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞཁੑ • Segmental and/or Suprasegmental • Celce-Murcia et

    al. (2010), Derwing & Rossiter (2003) • Dalton & Seidlehofer (1994) • Wells (2006): native speakers' intuitive reaction • Celce-Murcia et al. (2010) summarises Derwing and Rossiter(2003) while segmental instruction may still be important for accent reduction in the long run, it is essential to give priority to prosody in pronunciation since it results in better comprehensibility in the short run. (Celce-Muricial et al., 2010, p.) 25 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
  12. 20.

    ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ • ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞཁੑ • ʰӳޠࢦಋ๏ϋϯυϒοΫ3ʻࢦಋٕज़ฤʼʱ͔Β… ݸʑͷൃԻࢦಋʹ͸ڐ༰౓Λߴ͘ɼͱઆ͍͕ͨɼϦζϜ΍Իௐ ʹ͍ͭͯ͸ɼ͘͝ॳֶ೥͔Βɼѱ͍บ͕͔ͭͳ͍Α͏ʹɼపఈ తʹࢦಋ͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δɻ (੨໦ɾ஑Ӝɾۚాʢฤʣ(1983) p.106)

    • ͍ͭ࠷ۙ΋… ΠϯτωʔγϣϯɾϦζϜɾετϨεͷࢦಋͰ͸ɼͱʹ͔͘࠷ ॳ͕ॏཁͰ͢ɻಋೖͰ͓͔͠ͳΠϯτωʔγϣϯɾϦζϜɾε τϨεΛฉ͔ͤͯ͠·͏ͱɼͦͷޙͷमਖ਼ʹ๲େͳ͕͔࣌ؒ ͔ͬͯ͠·͍·͢ɻ (ೖߐ (2017) p.106) 26 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
  13. 22.

    ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀͷ໰୊఺ɾࢦಋ্ͷ՝୊ • ޠڧ੎ɾ۠੾Γɾจڧ੎ɾΠϯτωʔγϣϯɾ֩഑ஔͳͲʹ໰୊͕ ʢೆᑍ, 2010; ࡈ౻ɾ্ా, 2011) • দࡔ(1986): ʮ೔ຊਓֶशऀ͕஫ҙ͢΂͖4఺ʯ

    1. ڧܗɼऑܗΛ࢖͍෼͚ɼจڧ੎Λࣗવͳ΋ͷʹ͢Δ ͜ͱɻ 2.จڧ੎ͱ཈༲ͱ͙ͪ͸͙ʹͳΒͳ͍Α͏ʹ͢Δ͜ͱɻ 3.Իௐ֩ͷҐஔΛؒҧ͑ͳ͍Α͏ʹ͢Δ͜ͱɻ 4.Լ߱ௐͰ͸ɼࣗ෼ͷ੠Ҭͷ΋ͬͱ΋Լ·Ͱ͖ͪΜͱ੠ ΛԼΖ͢͜ͱɻʢp.176ʣ • ͜͏ͨ͠՝୊ΛͲ͏ࠀ෰͢Δ͔ʁ 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ 29
  14. 23.

    ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়ɾϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞཁੑ • ࢦಋ্ͷ՝୊ • ݱঢ়Ͱڍ͛ͨ໰୊࠶ͼ • ॏཁੑ͸ೝࣝʢࣲా ΄͔, 2008ʣɼͰ΋…ࣗ৴͕ͳ͍ɾڭࡐͳ ͲͰ΋ѻ͍ͮΒ͍ʢChapman,

    2007; Dalton & Seidlhofer, 1994) • ࢦಋ๏΍ڭࡐʹ͸ɼϓϩισΟͷ֤ཁૉʢࢠԻɾ฼Իɾڧ੎ɾϦ ζϜɾΠϯτωʔγϣϯʣ͕ಠཱ߲໨Ͱ͋ΔΑ͏ʹɼੵΈ্͛ࣜ ʹฒ΂ΒΕ͍ͯΔɹˠɹinterrelated systemͱͯ͠ଊ͑Α͏ʢcf. Gilbert, 2008; 2012; 2014; Goodwin, 2014; Rogerson-Revell, 2011ʣ • ʢ࠶ܝʣतۀͷதʹ౷߹తʹऔΓೖΕΑ͏ͱ͢Δಈ͖ʢCelce- Murcia et al., 2010; Nation, 2013; Nicola & Darcy, 2015; Jones, 2016) 30 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
  15. 24.

    ͰɼൃදऀͷఏҊͱͯ͠͸… • ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ Λ… • ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯΛ ࿮૊Έͱ͢Δ͜ͱΛఏҊ͍ͯ͠·͢ • ͜ͷఏҊ͸… •

    ϓϩισΟཁૉΛ૬ޓؔ࿈ͨ͠ܗͰɼ • ݱࡏ๊͑Δ՝୊఺ʹऔΓ૊Ή͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖ͯɼ • Ͱ͖Δ͚ͩݱঢ়ͷतۀʹ͓͍ͯ΋औΓೖΕΔ͜ͱ ͕Ͱ͖Δ΋ͷ 31 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
  16. 29.

    ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ʮԻઅʯɾʮԻઅߏ଄ʯͷ͓࿩ • Իઅ • ʮϦζϜͷ1ഥ΍ͻͱͭͷڧ੎Λड͚Δ͜ͱͷͰ͖ΔɼԻͷ ࠷খͷ·ͱ·Γʢদࡔ,

    1986, p. 165ʣʯ • ʮ฼ԻΛத৺ͱͯ͠લޙʹࢠԻΛ൐͏୯Ґʢ຀໺, 2005, p. 27ʣʯ • Իઅߏ଄ • V, CV, CVC, VC ͷ૊Έ߹Θͤ • CCCVCCCCɹstrengthsɹɹɹɹɹstrike ετϥΠΫ 37 3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ
  17. 30.

    ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ʮ͔ͿͤԻૉͷษڧ͸ɼԻઅͷݚڀ͔Β࢝ΊΔ͜ͱͱ͢ ΔɻͳͥͳΒɼԻઅ͕ड͚ࡼͱͳͬͯɼจ΍ޠ۟ʹڧ੎͕ ஔ͔Εɼͦͷڧ੎͕ϦζϜΛ࡞Γͩ͠ɼ·ͨ཈༲ͷಈ͖ʹ ͖͔͚ͬΛ༩͑Δ͔ΒͰ͋Δʢদࡔ, 1986, p.165ʣʯ

    • ֶशऀͷ๊͑Δ໰୊͸ʁ • CVߏ଄͕جຊͷ೔ຊޠʹɼCCͷࢠԻ࿈݁Λൃ͢Δ͜ͱ ͷࠔ೉͞ɻVΛૠೖͯ͠͠·͏ɻ • ૠೖ͞ΕͨV͕༨෼ͳഥͱͳΓɼௌऀͷೝࣝΛ๦͛Δɻ • ׆ಈྫɿϋϛϯάɼΘ͟ͱมʹݴ͏ɼͳͲ 38 3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ
  18. 32.

    ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ʮޠڧ੎ʢޠΞΫηϯτʣʯ͔Βʮ۟ΞΫηϯ τʯɼʮϦζϜʯΛܦͯʮจΞΫηϯτʯͷ͓࿩ • ݪଇᶃΛ֦େͯ͠ɼଟԻઅޠʹͳΔͱͲ͏ͳΔ ͔ɼ·ͨޠ͕࿈ͳΔͱͲ͏ͳΔ͔ʁ •

    the characteristics of stressed and unstressed syllables in single words are mirrored in rhythm, teaching word stress primes students for work with suprasegmentals (Lane, 2010, p. 17). 40 3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ
  19. 33.

    41 • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ଟԻઅޠͰ͋Ε͹ɼͦΕͧΕͷԻઅ͕ɼୈҰΞ ΫηϯτɼୈೋΞΫηϯτɼऑΞΫηϯτͷ͍ ͣΕ͔Λ୲͏͜ͱʹͳΔɻ • ୈҰΞΫηϯτʹ͓͍ͯɼϐονͷಈ͖͕େ͖ ͘ɼ௕͘ɼڧ͘ͳΔɻʢe.g.

    com-mu-ni-CA-tionʣ • ޠ͕ෳ਺ฒͿͱɼޠͱޠͷؒͰڧऑͷ૊Έ߹Θ ͕ͤͰ͖Δɻˠ ʮ۟ΞΫηϯτʯ ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ 3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ
  20. 34.

    ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ͔۟Βจʹͳͬͨ৔߹ɼจதͷ͋Δޠʢͷ தͷԻઅʣ͸ڧ͍ΞΫηϯτΛड͚ɼ͋Δ ޠ͸ड͚ͳ͍ɻˠ ʮจΞΫηϯτʯ en gi

    NEER in the END He can HEAR • ओʹΞΫηϯτΛड͚Δޠˠ಺༰ޠ • ड͚ͳ͍ޠˠػೳޠ 42 3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ
  21. 35.

    43 • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • จதʹڧऑͷ૊Έ߹Θ͕ͤͰ͖ΔˠʮϦζϜʯ • one, two, three, four,

    five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve • examinee → in case of rain → I tried to study very hard. ʢ஛ྛɾਗ਼ਫɾᜊ౻, 2013, p.136-137ʣ ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ 3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ
  22. 36.

    ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ֶशऀͷ๊͑Δ໰୊͸ʁ • ʮޠΞΫηϯτʯʹ͓͍ͯɼʮڧ͘ൃԻ͢ΔΑ͏ʹʯͱͷࢦಋʹ͍ͭͯɼ ϐονͷมԽ΍ΞΫηϯτΛड͚ΔԻઅͷ࣋ଓ࣌ؒ௕ʹ͍ͭͯ͸े෼ʹ ஫ҙΛ෷͏͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖͍ͯͳ͍ɻʢखౡ, 2017:

    ऑԻͷࢦಋͷॏཁੑʣ • ΞΫηϯτʹ౳࣌ੑͷ͋Δӳޠʹ͓͍ͯɼϞʔϥʹ౳࣌ੑͷ͋Δ೔ຊޠ ͷӨڹΛ࣋ͪࠐΜͰ͠·͏ɻ • ׆ಈྫɿڧऑΛ͚ͭΔɼ಺༰ޠͷΈϦεχϯάɾσΟΫςʔγϣϯͳͲ 44 (Grant, 2010, p.85) 3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ
  23. 38.

    46 • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ • ͜ͷݪଇ͸ɼʮthought groupʯɾ ʮԻௐ֩ʢͱͦͷ഑ஔʣʯɾʮτʔϯʯ ͷ͓࿩ •

    ޠɾ۟ɾจΞΫηϯτΛड͚ɼϦζϜ Λܗ੒ͨ͠ൃ࿩ʹߋʹ৘ใ͕ՃΘΔɻ ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ 3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ
  24. 39.

    47 • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷ ҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ • จΞΫηϯτ΍ϦζϜʹ͓͍ͯɼڧΞΫ ηϯτΛड͚ΔޠɾԻઅ͕͋Δ͜ͱ͸໌ Β͔ʹͳ͍ͬͯΔɻ • Ұ࿈ͷൃ࿩͸ɼ୹͍จ΍અͳͲΛͻͱ͔

    ͨ·Γͱ۠੾Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δɻ͜ͷ۠੾ Γͷ͜ͱΛɼʮthought groupʯͱ͍͏ɻ ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ 3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ
  25. 41.

    ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤ Δʯ • ֶशऀͷ๊͑Δ໰୊͸ʁ • ໨ཱͪͷ഑ஔʢ֩഑ஔʣΛޡΓ͕ͪͰ͋Δʢࡈ౻ɾ্ ా, 2011ʣɻଟ͘ͷ৔߹ɼthought

    groupͷ๯಄ʹஔ͖ ͕ͪɻ͜ΕʹΑΔ৘ใͷয఺ͷޡղ͕ੜ͡ΔՄೳੑ͕ ͋Δɻ • ϐονͷಈ͖ʹ͍ͭͯɼ۟຤ͷٸܹͳมಈͰҙਤΛ఻ୡ ͠Α͏ͱ͢Δ܏޲ʹɻ • ׆ಈྫɿ 49 3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ
  26. 42.

    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ • ͜͜Ͱʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁΛ·ͱΊΔͱ… • ӳޠͷԻ੠తಛ௃Λ౿·͑ͯɿʮӳޠͷʰҰ఺߽՚ओٛʱత ͳൃԻʯʢொా, 2017ʣɼʮӳޠ͸ϝϦϋʙϦʯʢᯩ, 2019ʣ •

    ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯʹ͍ͭͯɼޠɾ۟ɾจͱൣғ͕޿ൣʹͳͬͨ ͱͯ͠΋ɼΞΫηϯτͷ഑ஔͳͲɼ಺෦ߏ଄͸ຊ࣭తʹ͸ม ΘΒͳ͍఺͕ॏཁɻ • Ի੠ཁૉΛinterrelated systemͱͯ͠ଊ͑Α͏ʢcf. Gilbert, 2008; 2012; 2014; Goodwin, 2014; Rogerson-Revell, 2011ʣ • तۀͷதʹ౷߹తʹऔΓೖΕΑ͏ʢCelce-Murcia et al., 2010; Nation, 2013; Nicola & Darcy, 2015; Jones, 2016) 50
  27. 47.

    4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠ • ຊWSͷϝΠϯ͸࣮͸͜͜ • ࿮૊Έͷ׆༻͸ɼڭՊॻͷར༻͕೦಄ʹ͋Γ·͢ɻ • ڭՊॻΛຊจΛ׆༻͠Α͏ •

    ୯ޠͷಋೖʹ׆༻͠Α͏ • ྫจɾຊจͷൣಡɼԻಡͳͲͰ׆༻͠Α͏ • ׆ಈ΍λεΫʹམͱ͠ࠐΉ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δͱߋʹ͍͍ ͳ… • ͦͷલʹɼڭࡐݚڀͰ׆༻͠Α͏ʂʂ 58
  28. 48.

    4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠ • ͱ͍͏͜ͱͰɼ΍ͬͯΈ·͠ΐ͏ɻ • ৽ग़୯ޠͷಋೖ • ߴࢁʢ2019ʣɿϦζϜύλʔϯ •

    खౡʢ2017ʣɿऑΞΫηϯτʢऑ͘ɾ୹͘ɾ͍͍͔͛Μʹʣ • ຊจԻಡɾ࿕ಡ • ٱอʢ2019ʣɿӳจ࿕ಡ8Օ৚ • ౉ลʢ1994ʣɿڭࡐͷӆ཯෼ੳखॱͷϞσϧ 59
  29. 49.

    4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠ • ྫ1ʢProminence II ΑΓʣ 60 • pile

    • item • specific • require • intuition • insist • dialog • ࣙॻαΠτʢOxford, Longman, Cobuild, Cambridge, Mirriam-WebstreͳͲʣ෼௲ͷ؍఺͔ ΒLongman͕Α͍͔ͱɻ • How many syllables ͰɼԻઅ਺Λ֬ೝ͢Δ͜ͱ΋Մೳ
  30. 50.

    4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠ • ྫ1ʢProminence II ΑΓʣ Let’s start with

    your clothes, the easiest category. Pile everything on the floor. Go through each item, holding it in your hands and asking, “Does it spark joy?” 61
  31. 51.

    4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠ • ྫ1ʢProminence II ΑΓʣ If it does,

    put it away according to its specific category, such as socks, shirts, etc. If not, thank it for what it has done for you and let it go. “This process requires a lot of time and effort, but just trust your intuition, and you'll make the right decision,” Kondo insists. 62
  32. 52.

    4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠ • ྫ1ʢProminence II ΑΓʣ The best time

    to start is early morning. The fresh morning air keeps your mind sharp and clear. Tidying up is a dialog with yourself. If you are really interested in the KonMari Method, you will be tidying up tomorrow morning! 63
  33. 53.

    4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠ • ྫ2ʢਆށେֶෟଐத౳ڭҭֶߍ ޙظ՝ఔ1೥ੜ༻ڭࡐΑΓʣ 64 • humanity •

    drop • precious • sufficient • liter • flush • thirsty • indirectly • energy • produce • ࣙॻαΠτʢOxford, Longman, Cobuild, Cambridge, Mirriam-WebstreͳͲʣ෼௲ͷ؍఺͔ ΒLongman͕Α͍͔ͱɻ • How many syllables ͰɼԻઅ਺Λ֬ೝ͢Δ͜ͱ΋Մೳ
  34. 54.

    4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠ • ྫ1ʢਆށେֶෟଐத౳ڭҭֶߍ ޙظ՝ఔ1೥ੜ༻ ڭࡐΑΓʣ Humanity needs water,

    and every drop is precious. We all know that. However, we may not really know how we need water and in what way it is precious. And most regrettably, people who have water do not realize how lucky we are to have sufficient clean water to live. 65
  35. 55.

    4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠ • ྫ1ʢਆށେֶෟଐத౳ڭҭֶߍ ޙظ՝ఔ1೥ੜ༻ڭࡐΑΓʣ Did you know that

    in the UK every person uses about 150 liters of water every day and most of the water we use is to flush the toilet? Let’s take a minute to think about the water we use. The human body is 60% water and we need to drink lots of water to be healthy. When we are thirsty we just go to the kitchen and fill a glass with clean water. We also need water for cooking. Imagine trying to cook pasta or rice without water! We have toilets in our houses and when we want to brush our teeth or have a shower, we use the bathroom. We use water indirectly too. Farmers, who produce the food we eat, use water to make the plants grow. When we turn on a light or switch on a TV or a computer we use energy and we need water to produce this energy. 66
  36. 56.

    4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠ • ྫ3ʢMarks & Bowen (2012) ΑΓʣ 67

    • philosopher • famous • travel • scholar • accompany • hesitate • moral • ethical • ࣙॻαΠτʢOxford, Longman, Cobuild, Cambridge, Mirriam-WebstreͳͲʣ෼௲ͷ؍఺͔ ΒLongman͕Α͍͔ͱɻ • How many syllables ͰɼԻઅ਺Λ֬ೝ͢Δ͜ͱ΋Մೳ
  37. 57.

    4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠ • ྫ3ʢMarks & Bowen (2012) ΑΓʣ Once

    upon a time, a famous philosopher was travelling through Nasruddin’s village, and asked Nasruddin where there was a good place to eat. Nasruddin suggested a place and the scholar, hungry for conversation, invited Nasruddin to join him. Very gratefully, Nasruddin accompanied the philosopher to a nearby restaurant, where they asked the waiter what the special of the day was. 68
  38. 58.

    4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠ • ͍͔͕Ͱ͔ͨ͠ʁ • ڭՊॻຊจͳͲ͸ɼʮTM͕͋Δ͔Β͍͍ΜͰͳ͍ͷʁʯͱࢥ͏ํ΋ ͍Δ͔΋͠Ε·ͤΜɻ • TM͕ҙ֎ͱ౰ͯʹͳΒͳ͍έʔε͕͋Γ·͢ʢLETӳޠൃԻڭҭݚڀ

    ෦ձ ୈ77ճݚڀձͰͷTM෼ੳ͔ΒʣɻΠϯτωʔγϣϯۂઢͷදه ͳͲ͸͋Δ͕ɼԻઅ΍ΞΫηϯτɼ֩഑ஔͳͲʹ͍ͭͯ͸ҙ֎ͱهࡌ ͕ͳ͍৔߹͕ଟ͍ɻ • ࣗΒͷ෼ੳͱTM΍෇ଐԻ੠ͱͷҧ͍ɼALTͱͷҧ͍ΛվΊͯ֬ೝ͠ɼ Կ͕ɼͲ͏ҧ͍ͬͯͯɼͦΕʹΑΔޮՌ͸ͳͥى͜Δͷ͔ɼΛߟ͑Δ ͜ͱ΋େ੾͔ͱࢥ͍·͢ɻ • ͦΕΒΛ౿·͑ͯɼఴ෇ͷ׆ಈྫΛ͓ख࣋ͪͷڭՊॻڭࡐͱ߹Θͤͯ མͱ͠ࠐΜͰ͍͚ͨͩΔͱ͋Γ͕͍ͨͰ͢ɻ 69
  39. 60.

    5. ࣭ٙɾίϝϯτɾҙݟަ׵ • ࢀՃऀͷօ͞ΜɼʮӳޠͷϓϩισΟࢦಋʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪ ଇʯʹ͍ͭͯɼ·ͨɼͦͷ׆༻ํ๏ʹ͍ͭͯɼͲͷΑ͏ʹײ͡ ·ͨ͠Ͱ͠ΐ͏͔ʁ • سጨͷͳ͍͝ҙݟΛ͓ฉ͔͍͚ͤͨͩΕ͹޾͍Ͱ͢ɻ • ΋͠ɼࢼͯ͠ΈΑ͏ͱࢥͬͨํ͸ɼ͝୲౰ͷՊ໨ɾڭՊॻͰ

    ͸ɼͲͷΑ͏ͳܗͰऔΓೖΕΔ͜ͱ͕Մೳ͔Λߟ͑ͯΈͯͩ͘ ͍͞ɻ • ͦͯ͠ɼ࣮ફͷࡍʹ͸ɼੋඇͦͷײ૝΍खԠ͑ɼֶशऀͷ൓Ԡ ͳͲͷϑΟʔυόοΫΛ͓د͍͚ͤͨͩΕ͹͏Ε͍͠Ͱ͢ɻ • େ࿨஌࢙ʢ΍·ͱ͔ͣͻͱʣɹyamato@port.kobe-u.ac.jp 72