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minimal essentials for teaching English prosody

minimal essentials for teaching English prosody

英語発音指導の目標が,ネイティブのようにではなく,明瞭性の高い発音であると主張されて久しいのですが,その目標に近づくような指導が行われているのでしょうか。また,もし英語発音指導がなされているとしても,英語のプロソディの側面にはどの程度光が当たっているのでしょうか。
これまでに,発表者は,あまり指導がなされていないプロソディを「3つの原則」というミニマムエッセンシャルズの形に落とし込んだ指導と学習を提案してきました。
この「3つの原則」を取り入れることで,教員自身が英語プロソディについて(これまで以上に)知ることができ,どのように教材・素材を分析するかを検討することができます。また,教材をどのように提示するかを考えることもできると思っています。
このワークショップでは,英語プロソディ指導のミニマムエッセンシャルズである3つの原則について概説するとともに,どのようにそれを用いて教材・素材を分析するかを紹介し,それぞれの現場でどう活かすことができるかを一緒に考えていきたいと思います。時間が許せば原則に対応する形で活動事例などを紹介し,それらについても検討してみたいと思います。(ウェブサイト掲載の概要より)

Kazuhito Yamato

June 15, 2019
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  1. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ
    ϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζ
    ਆށେֶɹେֶڭҭਪਐػߏ
    ࠃࡍίϛϡχέʔγϣϯηϯλʔ
    େ࿨ ஌࢙ʢ΍·ͱ ͔ͣͻͱʣ
    [email protected]
    ؔ੢ӳޠڭҭֶձ2019೥౓ʢୈ24ճʣݚڀେձ
    اըϫʔΫγϣοϓᶄ
    2019೥6݄15೔ʢ౔ʣ
    ԙ: େࡕڭҭେֶఱԦࣉΩϟϯύε
    ୈ1ࣨɹ੢ؗ2֊ ߨٛࣨF
    1

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  2. 0. ͍͋ͭ͝͞
    4
    • ຊWSͰ͸ɼൃදऀ͕͜Ε·Ͱ֤ॴͰ͓࿩͖ͯ͠
    ͨʮӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯ
    ΛӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟ
    ϧζʯͱͯ͠ఏҊ͠ɼͦͷ֓ཁΛ͓࿩͠͠·͢ɻ
    • ͦͯ͠ɼ͜Ε·Ͱ͸׆ಈྫͷ঺հͳͲΛத৺ʹ͠
    ͍ͯ·͕ͨ͠ɼࠓճ͸ɼαϯϓϧςΩετΛ༻͍
    ͯɼڭࡐݚڀɾ׆ಈͷԼ஍ͮ͘ΓΛ͍͖ͯͨͩ͠
    ͍ͨͱࢥ͍·͢ɻ
    • Ͳ͏ͧΑΖ͓͘͠ئ͍͍ͨ͠·͢ɻ

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  3. ຊWSͷߏ੒
    1.͸͡Ίʹ
    2.ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
    3.ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤο
    ηϯγϟϧζʯ
    4.࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻͢Δʁ
    5.࣭ٙɾίϝϯτɾҙݟަ׵
    6

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  4. 1. ͸͡Ίʹ
    7
    • ͱ͍͏͜ͱͰվΊ·ͯ࢝͠Ί·͢ɻ
    • ຊ೔͸ɼҎԼͷ͜ͱΛ͓࿩͍ͨ͠͠ͱࢥ͍·
    ͢ɻ
    - ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯɾݱঢ়
    - ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟ
    ϧζʢͱͯ͠ͷ࿮૊ΈͷఏҊʣ
    - ࿮૊Έͷ׆༻ͷ࢓ํʢಛʹڭࡐݚڀͱͯ͠ʣ
    - ίϝϯτɾҙݟަ׵ɼͳͲ

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  5. ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়
    • ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়͸Ͳ͏Ͱ͔͢ʁʢ೔ຊฤʣ
    • ࢀձऀͷօ͞Μͷ࣮ଶ͸͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏
    ͔ʁʢϖΞɾάϧʔϓͰܰ͘γΣΞʣ
    8
    1. ͸͡Ίʹ

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  6. ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়
    • ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়͸Ͳ͏Ͱ͔͢ʁʢ೔ຊฤʣ
    • ϕωοηڭҭ૯߹ݚڀॴ(2016)ͷௐࠪɿ
    தߴͱ΋ʹʮԻಡʯɾʮൃԻࢦಋʯ͸ɼ
    ʮΑ͘ߦ͏ʯɾʮͱ͖Ͳ͖ߦ͏ʯ཰͕ඇ
    ৗʹߴ͍ɻ
    • ʮੜెಉ࢜ͷձ࿩ʯ΍ʮεϐʔνɾϓϨ
    θϯςʔγϣϯʯ͸௿͍ɻ
    9
    1. ͸͡Ίʹ

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  7. ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়
    • Ͱ΋ɼௐࠪʹ͍ͭͯ͸ɼؾʹͳΔ఺͕…
    • ͦͷʮԻಡʯ͸ɼڭՊॻຊจͳͲͷԻ੠త෼ੳʹج͍͍ͮͯΔ
    ͩΖ͏͔ʁCDΛϞσϧԻ੠ͱͯ͠ɼListen & Repeat ͷΈʹ
    ͳͬͯ͸͍ͳ͍ͩΖ͏͔ʁ
    • ͦͷʮൃԻࢦಋʯ͸ɼԻ੠ֶతഎܠʹج͍͍ͮͯΔͩΖ͏͔ʁ
    • ࣲా ΄͔(2008)ɼՏ಺ࢁ ΄͔(2011)ɿڭһཆ੒ɼݚमͷػձ͕
    ෆे෼ɼൃԻࢦಋʹର͢Δࣗ৴ͷͳ͞
    • ೖߐʢ2017ʣɿ
    ʮίϛϡχέʔγϣϯྗΛ͚ͭͤ͞Δ͜ͱΛ໨ඪʹ͠ͳ͕Βɼ
    ࣮ࡍͷձ࿩Ͱ࢖ΘΕͳ͍Α͏ͳΠϯτωʔγϣϯɾϦζϜɾε
    τϨεΛܦݧ͍ͤͯͯ͞͸μϝͰ͢ʢp.11ʣʯ
    10
    1. ͸͡Ίʹ

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  8. ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়
    • ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়͸ʁʢࢀߟɿ Ԥถฤʣ
    • Murphy (2014)
    • Foote, Hotby, & Derwing (2011): ΧφμͰͷௐࠪ
    • ܦݧɾݚमɾϦιʔεɾαϙʔτෆ଍ʢChapman, 2007;
    Dalton & Seidlhofer, 1994ʣ
    One recurring theme was that many teachers are hesitant when it
    comes to teaching pronunciation due to inexperience, lack of
    specialized training, lack of resources and/or lack of institutional
    support.
    (Murphy, 2014, p.204-5)
    • तۀͷதʹɾଞٕೳͱ߹Θͤͯ౷߹తʹऔΓೖΕΑ͏ͱ͢Δಈ͖
    ʢNation & Newton , 2009; Celce-Murcia et al., 2010; Nicola &
    Darcy, 2015; Jones, 2016)
    11
    1. ͸͡Ίʹ

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  9. ຊWSͷߏ੒
    1.͸͡Ίʹ
    2.ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
    3.ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤο
    ηϯγϟϧζʯ
    4.࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻͢Δʁ
    5.࣭ٙɾίϝϯτɾҙݟަ׵
    13

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  10. 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
    • ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ
    • ԿΛ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂͖͔
    • ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀͷ໰୊఺ɾࢦಋ্ͷ՝୊
    15

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  11. 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
    ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ
    • ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕΛ͞Βͬͱ֬ೝ
    • 80s·Ͱ: segmentalத৺
    • 90s·Ͱ: bottom-up→top-down
    • 00sҎ߱: seg/supra balanced
    • World EnglishesɹɹJenkins (2000)ɿ Lingua Franca Core
    • prosodyཁૉͰ͸ nucleus placement, chunking ͕core
    • ࠷ۙͷgoal: intelligibility, comprehensibilityʢ࣍ͷεϥ
    ΠυͷදΛࢀরʣ
    16

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  12. ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ
    ൃԻࢦಋͷΞϓϩʔνʢGrant, et al., 2014ʣ
    17
    Traditional Approaches Current Approaches
    learner goals Perfect, naive-like pronunciation Comfortable intelligibility
    Speech features
    All segmentals (consonant and
    vowel sounds)
    Selected segmental and suprasegmentals
    (stress, rhythm, and intonation) based on
    need and context
    Practice formats Decontextualized drills
    controlled aural-oral drills as well as
    semi-communicative practice formats
    Language
    background
    of teachers
    Native-speaking teachers
    Native-speaking and proficient non-native
    speaking teachers
    Speaking models Native-speaker models
    Variety of models and standards
    depending on the listener, context, and
    purpose
    Curriculum choices
    Stand-alone courses isolated
    from the rest of the curriculum
    Stand-alone courses or integrated into
    other content or skill areas, often
    listening an speaking
    2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ

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  13. ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ
    • ࠷ۙͷgoalʹ͍ͭͯ௥ՃͰ֬ೝ
    • intelligibility, comprehensibility, accentedness
    ʢcf. େ࿨, 2012; Isaacs & Trofimovich (eds.), 2017ʣ
    • i: ฉ͖ख͕࿩ऀͷϝοηʔδΛཧղ͢Δఔ౓
    • c: ฉ͖ख͕࿩ऀͷϝοηʔδΛཧղ͢ΔͨΊʹ෷͏࿑ྗͷఔ౓
    • a: ࠃɾ஍ҬɾഎܠΛ൓ө͢Δ΋ͷ
    • aͱi͸ ͋Δఔ౓ಠཱ͍ͯ͠ΔʢDerwing & Munro, 1997ʣ
    • iͱc͸teachableʢDerwing, Munro & Wiebe, 1998ʣ
    • nativeness principle vs intelligibility principle (Levis, 2005;
    2018)
    18
    2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ

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  14. 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
    • ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ
    • ԿΛ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂͖͔
    • ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀͷ໰୊఺ɾࢦಋ্ͷ՝୊
    20

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  15. ԿΛ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂͖͔
    • ڭһͷ஌ࣝج൫ʢBrinton, 2014; Celce-Murcia et al., 2010ʣ
    • Brinton (2014)
    • conceptual knowledge: teacher’s basic philosophy
    • descriptive knowledge: basic facts of pronunciation
    • procedural knowledge: basic skills to teach pronunciation
    • Celce-Murcia et al. (2010) ʢࢿྉ p2ʣ
    • knowledge of the pronunciation features
    • awareness of potential
    • ڭһ͸ԿΛ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂͖͔ʢMurphy, 2018ʣ
    • Table 18.1ʢcf. contemporary research findingsʣɹʢࢿྉp.2ʣ
    • Table 18.2ʢcf. pronunciation teacher development resources and
    classroom activity recipe collectionsʣɹʢࢿྉ p.3ʣ
    21
    2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ

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  16. ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ
    • Table 18.1
    • Derwing & Munro(2015) : pronunciation fundamentals
    • suprasegmental ॏࢹͷࢦಋͩͱɼintelligibility΍comprehensibility
    ʹ޲্͕ʢDerwing, Munro and Wiebe, 1998ʣ
    • Grant (2014) , Brinton (2014): pronunciation myths
    • શͯͷԻ੠߲໨͕ॏཁͱ͍͏༁Ͱ͸ͳ͘ɼprimary focus,
    prominence, stress-timed rhythm, thought group, pausingͳͲͷ
    suprasegmental features͸ॏཁ
    • Lee et al.(2015) ; meta analysis 86ຊͷPI࿦จΛϨϰϡʔ
    • Derwing et al. (1998) ɼGordon and Darcy(2012), Yates(2003) ,
    Hahn (2004) ͳͲ͸supra > seg
    • Levis (2005)΍Saito(2012)ͳͲ͸segmentalͷํ͕؆୯
    22
    2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ

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  17. ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ
    • Table 18.1
    • Thomson & Derwing (2015) : narrative review
    • 75ຊͷL2 pronun࿦จΛϨϰϡʔɼ਺Ͱ͸segͷํ͕suprasegΑΓଟ͍
    • Dickerson (2010)
    • Իӆ࿦Λڭ͍͑ͯΔதͰɼdiscourse meaningʹ΋ͱ͍ͮͯڭतॱংΛݕ
    ౼͢ΔॏཁੑΛઆ͘
    • େ͖ͳଆ໘͔Βཧղ͢Δํ͕Α͍ɻ·ͨɼϓϩισΟͷཁૉ͸֤ཁૉͱ૬
    ޓʹؔ࿈͍ͯ͠ΔʢGilbert, 2008ʣɻ
    • Gilbert(2008): pronunciation pyramid
    • Goodwin(2014) : In Celce-Muricia et al.(2014)
    • While the sound system of English traditionally has been introduced "in
    building-block fashion" beginning with smaller units of analysis (e.g.,
    consonants, consonants cluster, vowels) and building incrementally
    toward larger ones (e.g., word stress, prominence, thought groups,
    intonation), "this is not how our learners experience
    language" (Goodwin, 2014, p.138).
    23
    2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ

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  18. ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ
    • Table 18.1
    • Murphy(2013; 2017):
    • intro: which facets of pronunciation are the most important to
    teach?
    • Lee et al.(2015)ͷϝλ෼ੳΑΓɼL2ൃԻࢦಋ͸શൠͱͯ͠ޮՌ͕͋
    Δ͜ͱ͕෼͔ͬͨɻ
    • ESL؀ڥͰͷ༏ઌॱҐͱͯ͠ɼදͷ௨Γͱͳ͍ͬͯΔ͜ͱ͸֤छݚ
    ڀ͔Β΋໌Β͔ͱͳ͍ͬͯΔʢField(2005)ͷޠڧ੎ɼHahn(2004)ͷ
    จڧ੎ɼPickering(2001),Wennerstrom(2001)ͷԻௐɼDerwing &
    Munro(1997)ͷ࿩଎ɼͳͲʣɻ
    • Derwing, Munro & Wiebe(1997), Derwing and Rossiter(2003)͸ɼ
    supra͕comprehensibility΍fluencyʹߩݙ͢Δͱ͠ɼsegmentals͸
    ൃԻͷޡΓ΁ͷؾ͖ͮͷ޲্ʹߩݙ͢Δͱ͍͏݁ՌΛಘ͍ͯΔɻ
    24
    2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ

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  19. ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ
    • ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞཁੑ
    • Segmental and/or Suprasegmental
    • Celce-Murcia et al. (2010), Derwing & Rossiter (2003)
    • Dalton & Seidlehofer (1994)
    • Wells (2006): native speakers' intuitive reaction
    • Celce-Murcia et al. (2010) summarises Derwing and
    Rossiter(2003)
    while segmental instruction may still be important for
    accent reduction in the long run, it is essential to give
    priority to prosody in pronunciation since it results in better
    comprehensibility in the short run.
    (Celce-Muricial et al., 2010, p.)
    25
    2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ

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  20. ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ
    • ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞཁੑ
    • ʰӳޠࢦಋ๏ϋϯυϒοΫ3ʻࢦಋٕज़ฤʼʱ͔Β…
    ݸʑͷൃԻࢦಋʹ͸ڐ༰౓Λߴ͘ɼͱઆ͍͕ͨɼϦζϜ΍Իௐ
    ʹ͍ͭͯ͸ɼ͘͝ॳֶ೥͔Βɼѱ͍บ͕͔ͭͳ͍Α͏ʹɼపఈ
    తʹࢦಋ͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δɻ
    (੨໦ɾ஑Ӝɾۚాʢฤʣ(1983) p.106)
    • ͍ͭ࠷ۙ΋…
    ΠϯτωʔγϣϯɾϦζϜɾετϨεͷࢦಋͰ͸ɼͱʹ͔͘࠷
    ॳ͕ॏཁͰ͢ɻಋೖͰ͓͔͠ͳΠϯτωʔγϣϯɾϦζϜɾε
    τϨεΛฉ͔ͤͯ͠·͏ͱɼͦͷޙͷमਖ਼ʹ๲େͳ͕͔࣌ؒ
    ͔ͬͯ͠·͍·͢ɻ
    (ೖߐ (2017) p.106)
    26
    2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ

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  21. 2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
    • ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ
    • ԿΛ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂͖͔
    • ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀͷ໰୊఺ɾࢦಋ্ͷ՝୊
    28

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  22. ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀͷ໰୊఺ɾࢦಋ্ͷ՝୊
    • ޠڧ੎ɾ۠੾Γɾจڧ੎ɾΠϯτωʔγϣϯɾ֩഑ஔͳͲʹ໰୊͕
    ʢೆᑍ, 2010; ࡈ౻ɾ্ా, 2011)
    • দࡔ(1986): ʮ೔ຊਓֶशऀ͕஫ҙ͢΂͖4఺ʯ
    1. ڧܗɼऑܗΛ࢖͍෼͚ɼจڧ੎Λࣗવͳ΋ͷʹ͢Δ
    ͜ͱɻ
    2.จڧ੎ͱ཈༲ͱ͙ͪ͸͙ʹͳΒͳ͍Α͏ʹ͢Δ͜ͱɻ
    3.Իௐ֩ͷҐஔΛؒҧ͑ͳ͍Α͏ʹ͢Δ͜ͱɻ
    4.Լ߱ௐͰ͸ɼࣗ෼ͷ੠Ҭͷ΋ͬͱ΋Լ·Ͱ͖ͪΜͱ੠
    ΛԼΖ͢͜ͱɻʢp.176ʣ
    • ͜͏ͨ͠՝୊ΛͲ͏ࠀ෰͢Δ͔ʁ
    2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
    29

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  23. ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়ɾϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞཁੑ
    • ࢦಋ্ͷ՝୊
    • ݱঢ়Ͱڍ͛ͨ໰୊࠶ͼ
    • ॏཁੑ͸ೝࣝʢࣲా ΄͔, 2008ʣɼͰ΋…ࣗ৴͕ͳ͍ɾڭࡐͳ
    ͲͰ΋ѻ͍ͮΒ͍ʢChapman, 2007; Dalton & Seidlhofer, 1994)
    • ࢦಋ๏΍ڭࡐʹ͸ɼϓϩισΟͷ֤ཁૉʢࢠԻɾ฼Իɾڧ੎ɾϦ
    ζϜɾΠϯτωʔγϣϯʣ͕ಠཱ߲໨Ͱ͋ΔΑ͏ʹɼੵΈ্͛ࣜ
    ʹฒ΂ΒΕ͍ͯΔɹˠɹinterrelated systemͱͯ͠ଊ͑Α͏ʢcf.
    Gilbert, 2008; 2012; 2014; Goodwin, 2014; Rogerson-Revell, 2011ʣ
    • ʢ࠶ܝʣतۀͷதʹ౷߹తʹऔΓೖΕΑ͏ͱ͢Δಈ͖ʢCelce-
    Murcia et al., 2010; Nation, 2013; Nicola & Darcy, 2015; Jones,
    2016)
    30
    2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ

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  24. ͰɼൃදऀͷఏҊͱͯ͠͸…
    • ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ
    Λ…
    • ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯΛ
    ࿮૊Έͱ͢Δ͜ͱΛఏҊ͍ͯ͠·͢
    • ͜ͷఏҊ͸…
    • ϓϩισΟཁૉΛ૬ޓؔ࿈ͨ͠ܗͰɼ
    • ݱࡏ๊͑Δ՝୊఺ʹऔΓ૊Ή͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖ͯɼ
    • Ͱ͖Δ͚ͩݱঢ়ͷतۀʹ͓͍ͯ΋औΓೖΕΔ͜ͱ
    ͕Ͱ͖Δ΋ͷ
    31
    2. ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ

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  25. ຊWSͷߏ੒
    1.͸͡Ίʹ
    2.ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
    3.ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤο
    ηϯγϟϧζʯ
    4.࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻͢Δʁ
    5.࣭ٙɾίϝϯτɾҙݟަ׵
    33

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  26. 3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ
    • ༏ઌॱҐ͕ߴ͍ͱ͞ΕΔϓϩισΟͷྖҬʹ͍ͭ
    ͯɼࢦಋͷඞཁੑ͕͋Δɼͱ͢Δɻ
    • ͨͩɼݶΒΕͨ࣌ؒ΍ΧϦΩϡϥϜͷதͰɼͲͷ
    Α͏ʹऔΓೖΕΔ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δͷ͔ɻ
    • ͋Δ͍͸͜Ε·Ͱʹ܇࿅΍ࢦಋͷํ๏࿦ཱ͕֬͞
    Ε͍ͯͳ͍ঢ়ଶͰԿΛͲ͜·Ͱ͢Δͷ͔ɻ
    • →ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯ
    ͱʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯΛ࢖ͬͨ׆ಈɾ४උΛఏҊ͠·
    ͢ɻ
    34

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  27. 3ͭͷݪଇͰӳޠϓϩισΟΛମܥ͚ͮΔ
    • ఏҊ͢ΔʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭ
    ͷݪଇʯͱ͸…
    1.฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δ
    2.ഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑΛ
    3.ڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨ
    ͤΔɻ
    •ڭһଆ͸ʮڭࡐݚڀɾࢦಋͷνΣοΫϙΠϯτʯ
    •ֶशऀଆ͸ʮࣗ෼ͰಡΉɾݴ͏ࡍͷͷߦಈࢦ਑ʯ
    35
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

    View full-size slide

  28. 3ͭͷݪଇͰӳޠϓϩισΟΛମܥ͚ͮΔ
    • ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ
    • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑΛʯ
    • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺
    ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ
    36
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

    View full-size slide

  29. ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ
    • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ
    • ʮԻઅʯɾʮԻઅߏ଄ʯͷ͓࿩
    • Իઅ
    • ʮϦζϜͷ1ഥ΍ͻͱͭͷڧ੎Λड͚Δ͜ͱͷͰ͖ΔɼԻͷ
    ࠷খͷ·ͱ·Γʢদࡔ, 1986, p. 165ʣʯ
    • ʮ฼ԻΛத৺ͱͯ͠લޙʹࢠԻΛ൐͏୯Ґʢ຀໺, 2005, p.
    27ʣʯ
    • Իઅߏ଄
    • V, CV, CVC, VC ͷ૊Έ߹Θͤ
    • CCCVCCCCɹstrengthsɹɹɹɹɹstrike ετϥΠΫ
    37
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

    View full-size slide

  30. ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ
    • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ
    • ʮ͔ͿͤԻૉͷษڧ͸ɼԻઅͷݚڀ͔Β࢝ΊΔ͜ͱͱ͢
    ΔɻͳͥͳΒɼԻઅ͕ड͚ࡼͱͳͬͯɼจ΍ޠ۟ʹڧ੎͕
    ஔ͔Εɼͦͷڧ੎͕ϦζϜΛ࡞Γͩ͠ɼ·ͨ཈༲ͷಈ͖ʹ
    ͖͔͚ͬΛ༩͑Δ͔ΒͰ͋Δʢদࡔ, 1986, p.165ʣʯ
    • ֶशऀͷ๊͑Δ໰୊͸ʁ
    • CVߏ଄͕جຊͷ೔ຊޠʹɼCCͷࢠԻ࿈݁Λൃ͢Δ͜ͱ
    ͷࠔ೉͞ɻVΛૠೖͯ͠͠·͏ɻ
    • ૠೖ͞ΕͨV͕༨෼ͳഥͱͳΓɼௌऀͷೝࣝΛ๦͛Δɻ
    • ׆ಈྫɿϋϛϯάɼΘ͟ͱมʹݴ͏ɼͳͲ
    38
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

    View full-size slide

  31. 3ͭͷݪଇͰӳޠϓϩισΟΛମܥ͚ͮΔ
    • ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ
    • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑΛʯ
    • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺
    ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ
    39
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

    View full-size slide

  32. ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ
    • ʮޠڧ੎ʢޠΞΫηϯτʣʯ͔Βʮ۟ΞΫηϯ
    τʯɼʮϦζϜʯΛܦͯʮจΞΫηϯτʯͷ͓࿩
    • ݪଇᶃΛ֦େͯ͠ɼଟԻઅޠʹͳΔͱͲ͏ͳΔ
    ͔ɼ·ͨޠ͕࿈ͳΔͱͲ͏ͳΔ͔ʁ
    • the characteristics of stressed and unstressed
    syllables in single words are mirrored in
    rhythm, teaching word stress primes students
    for work with suprasegmentals (Lane, 2010, p.
    17).
    40
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

    View full-size slide

  33. 41
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ
    • ଟԻઅޠͰ͋Ε͹ɼͦΕͧΕͷԻઅ͕ɼୈҰΞ
    ΫηϯτɼୈೋΞΫηϯτɼऑΞΫηϯτͷ͍
    ͣΕ͔Λ୲͏͜ͱʹͳΔɻ
    • ୈҰΞΫηϯτʹ͓͍ͯɼϐονͷಈ͖͕େ͖
    ͘ɼ௕͘ɼڧ͘ͳΔɻʢe.g. com-mu-ni-CA-tionʣ
    • ޠ͕ෳ਺ฒͿͱɼޠͱޠͷؒͰڧऑͷ૊Έ߹Θ
    ͕ͤͰ͖Δɻˠ ʮ۟ΞΫηϯτʯ
    ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

    View full-size slide

  34. ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ
    • ͔۟Βจʹͳͬͨ৔߹ɼจதͷ͋Δޠʢͷ
    தͷԻઅʣ͸ڧ͍ΞΫηϯτΛड͚ɼ͋Δ
    ޠ͸ड͚ͳ͍ɻˠ ʮจΞΫηϯτʯ
    en gi NEER in the END He can HEAR
    • ओʹΞΫηϯτΛड͚Δޠˠ಺༰ޠ
    • ड͚ͳ͍ޠˠػೳޠ
    42
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

    View full-size slide

  35. 43
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ
    • จதʹڧऑͷ૊Έ߹Θ͕ͤͰ͖ΔˠʮϦζϜʯ
    • one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten,
    eleven, twelve
    • examinee → in case of rain → I tried to study very
    hard.
    ʢ஛ྛɾਗ਼ਫɾᜊ౻, 2013, p.136-137ʣ
    ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

    View full-size slide

  36. ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ
    • ֶशऀͷ๊͑Δ໰୊͸ʁ
    • ʮޠΞΫηϯτʯʹ͓͍ͯɼʮڧ͘ൃԻ͢ΔΑ͏ʹʯͱͷࢦಋʹ͍ͭͯɼ
    ϐονͷมԽ΍ΞΫηϯτΛड͚ΔԻઅͷ࣋ଓ࣌ؒ௕ʹ͍ͭͯ͸े෼ʹ
    ஫ҙΛ෷͏͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖͍ͯͳ͍ɻʢखౡ, 2017: ऑԻͷࢦಋͷॏཁੑʣ
    • ΞΫηϯτʹ౳࣌ੑͷ͋Δӳޠʹ͓͍ͯɼϞʔϥʹ౳࣌ੑͷ͋Δ೔ຊޠ
    ͷӨڹΛ࣋ͪࠐΜͰ͠·͏ɻ
    • ׆ಈྫɿڧऑΛ͚ͭΔɼ಺༰ޠͷΈϦεχϯάɾσΟΫςʔγϣϯͳͲ
    44
    (Grant, 2010, p.85)
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

    View full-size slide

  37. 3ͭͷݪଇͰӳޠϓϩισΟΛମܥ͚ͮΔ
    • ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ
    • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑΛʯ
    • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺
    ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ
    45
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

    View full-size slide

  38. 46
    • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺
    ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ
    • ͜ͷݪଇ͸ɼʮthought groupʯɾ
    ʮԻௐ֩ʢͱͦͷ഑ஔʣʯɾʮτʔϯʯ
    ͷ͓࿩
    • ޠɾ۟ɾจΞΫηϯτΛड͚ɼϦζϜ
    Λܗ੒ͨ͠ൃ࿩ʹߋʹ৘ใ͕ՃΘΔɻ
    ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

    View full-size slide

  39. 47
    • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷ
    ҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ
    • จΞΫηϯτ΍ϦζϜʹ͓͍ͯɼڧΞΫ
    ηϯτΛड͚ΔޠɾԻઅ͕͋Δ͜ͱ͸໌
    Β͔ʹͳ͍ͬͯΔɻ
    • Ұ࿈ͷൃ࿩͸ɼ୹͍จ΍અͳͲΛͻͱ͔
    ͨ·Γͱ۠੾Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δɻ͜ͷ۠੾
    Γͷ͜ͱΛɼʮthought groupʯͱ͍͏ɻ
    ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

    View full-size slide

  40. ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ
    • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ
    • thought groupʹؚ·ΕΔୈҰΞΫηϯτΛؚΉޠ܈ͷதͰ΋ɼ
    ࠷ޙʹݱΕΔ΋ͷ͕࠷΋໨ཱͭ܏޲ʹ͋Δʢ֩഑ஔͷݪଇʣɻ
    • ໨ཱͨͤΔํ๏͸ɼͦͷԻઅʹ͓͍ͯϐονΛେ͖͘มಈͤ͞
    Δ͜ͱʢԻௐ֩ʣɻ
    • ϐονͷมಈʹ͸ɼ্ঢͱԼ߱ɼͦͷ૊Έ߹Θͤͱฏୱ͕͋
    Δɻ
    48
    (Grant, 2010, p.103)
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

    View full-size slide

  41. ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ
    • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤ
    Δʯ
    • ֶशऀͷ๊͑Δ໰୊͸ʁ
    • ໨ཱͪͷ഑ஔʢ֩഑ஔʣΛޡΓ͕ͪͰ͋Δʢࡈ౻ɾ্
    ా, 2011ʣɻଟ͘ͷ৔߹ɼthought groupͷ๯಄ʹஔ͖
    ͕ͪɻ͜ΕʹΑΔ৘ใͷয఺ͷޡղ͕ੜ͡ΔՄೳੑ͕
    ͋Δɻ
    • ϐονͷಈ͖ʹ͍ͭͯɼ۟຤ͷٸܹͳมಈͰҙਤΛ఻ୡ
    ͠Α͏ͱ͢Δ܏޲ʹɻ
    • ׆ಈྫɿ
    49
    3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ

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  42. 3. ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζʯ
    • ͜͜Ͱʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁΛ·ͱΊΔͱ…
    • ӳޠͷԻ੠తಛ௃Λ౿·͑ͯɿʮӳޠͷʰҰ఺߽՚ओٛʱత
    ͳൃԻʯʢொా, 2017ʣɼʮӳޠ͸ϝϦϋʙϦʯʢᯩ, 2019ʣ
    • ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯʹ͍ͭͯɼޠɾ۟ɾจͱൣғ͕޿ൣʹͳͬͨ
    ͱͯ͠΋ɼΞΫηϯτͷ഑ஔͳͲɼ಺෦ߏ଄͸ຊ࣭తʹ͸ม
    ΘΒͳ͍఺͕ॏཁɻ
    • Ի੠ཁૉΛinterrelated systemͱͯ͠ଊ͑Α͏ʢcf. Gilbert,
    2008; 2012; 2014; Goodwin, 2014; Rogerson-Revell, 2011ʣ
    • तۀͷதʹ౷߹తʹऔΓೖΕΑ͏ʢCelce-Murcia et al.,
    2010; Nation, 2013; Nicola & Darcy, 2015; Jones, 2016)
    50

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  43. ຊWSͷߏ੒
    1.͸͡Ίʹ
    2.ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
    3.ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤο
    ηϯγϟϧζʯ
    4.࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻͢Δʁ
    5.࣭ٙɾίϝϯτɾҙݟަ׵
    52

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  44. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    • ׆ಈΛߟ͑ΔҰॿͱͯ͠
    • ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠
    54

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  45. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    ׆ಈΛߟ͑ΔҰॿͱͯ͠
    • ׆ಈҊɾλεΫҊ
    • 3ͭͷݪଇͷͦΕͧΕʹؔ࿈ͨ͠׆
    ಈҊɾλεΫҊΛఏҊʢ഑෍ࢿྉ ͦ
    ͷ2ͱͦͷ3ʣ

    55

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  46. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    • ׆ಈΛߟ͑ΔҰॿͱͯ͠
    • ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠
    57

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  47. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠
    • ຊWSͷϝΠϯ͸࣮͸͜͜
    • ࿮૊Έͷ׆༻͸ɼڭՊॻͷར༻͕೦಄ʹ͋Γ·͢ɻ
    • ڭՊॻΛຊจΛ׆༻͠Α͏
    • ୯ޠͷಋೖʹ׆༻͠Α͏
    • ྫจɾຊจͷൣಡɼԻಡͳͲͰ׆༻͠Α͏
    • ׆ಈ΍λεΫʹམͱ͠ࠐΉ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δͱߋʹ͍͍
    ͳ…
    • ͦͷલʹɼڭࡐݚڀͰ׆༻͠Α͏ʂʂ
    58

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  48. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠
    • ͱ͍͏͜ͱͰɼ΍ͬͯΈ·͠ΐ͏ɻ
    • ৽ग़୯ޠͷಋೖ
    • ߴࢁʢ2019ʣɿϦζϜύλʔϯ
    • खౡʢ2017ʣɿऑΞΫηϯτʢऑ͘ɾ୹͘ɾ͍͍͔͛Μʹʣ
    • ຊจԻಡɾ࿕ಡ
    • ٱอʢ2019ʣɿӳจ࿕ಡ8Օ৚
    • ౉ลʢ1994ʣɿڭࡐͷӆ཯෼ੳखॱͷϞσϧ
    59

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  49. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠
    • ྫ1ʢProminence II ΑΓʣ
    60
    • pile
    • item
    • specific
    • require
    • intuition
    • insist
    • dialog
    • ࣙॻαΠτʢOxford, Longman, Cobuild, Cambridge, Mirriam-WebstreͳͲʣ෼௲ͷ؍఺͔
    ΒLongman͕Α͍͔ͱɻ
    • How many syllables ͰɼԻઅ਺Λ֬ೝ͢Δ͜ͱ΋Մೳ

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  50. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠
    • ྫ1ʢProminence II ΑΓʣ
    Let’s start with your clothes, the
    easiest category. Pile everything on
    the floor. Go through each item,
    holding it in your hands and asking,
    “Does it spark joy?”
    61

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  51. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠
    • ྫ1ʢProminence II ΑΓʣ
    If it does, put it away according to its specific
    category, such as socks, shirts, etc. If not,
    thank it for what it has done for you and let
    it go. “This process requires a lot of time and
    effort, but just trust your intuition, and you'll
    make the right decision,” Kondo insists.
    62

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  52. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠
    • ྫ1ʢProminence II ΑΓʣ
    The best time to start is early morning. The
    fresh morning air keeps your mind sharp and
    clear. Tidying up is a dialog with yourself. If
    you are really interested in the KonMari
    Method, you will be tidying up tomorrow
    morning!
    63

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  53. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠
    • ྫ2ʢਆށେֶෟଐத౳ڭҭֶߍ ޙظ՝ఔ1೥ੜ༻ڭࡐΑΓʣ
    64
    • humanity
    • drop
    • precious
    • sufficient
    • liter
    • flush
    • thirsty
    • indirectly
    • energy
    • produce
    • ࣙॻαΠτʢOxford, Longman, Cobuild, Cambridge, Mirriam-WebstreͳͲʣ෼௲ͷ؍఺͔
    ΒLongman͕Α͍͔ͱɻ
    • How many syllables ͰɼԻઅ਺Λ֬ೝ͢Δ͜ͱ΋Մೳ

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  54. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠
    • ྫ1ʢਆށେֶෟଐத౳ڭҭֶߍ ޙظ՝ఔ1೥ੜ༻
    ڭࡐΑΓʣ
    Humanity needs water, and every drop is
    precious. We all know that. However, we may
    not really know how we need water and in what
    way it is precious. And most regrettably, people
    who have water do not realize how lucky we are
    to have sufficient clean water to live.
    65

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  55. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠
    • ྫ1ʢਆށେֶෟଐத౳ڭҭֶߍ ޙظ՝ఔ1೥ੜ༻ڭࡐΑΓʣ
    Did you know that in the UK every person uses about 150 liters of water
    every day and most of the water we use is to flush the toilet? Let’s take a
    minute to think about the water we use. The human body is 60% water and we
    need to drink lots of water to be healthy. When we are thirsty we just go to
    the kitchen and fill a glass with clean water. We also need water for cooking.
    Imagine trying to cook pasta or rice without water! We have toilets in our
    houses and when we want to brush our teeth or have a shower, we use the
    bathroom. We use water indirectly too. Farmers, who produce the food we eat,
    use water to make the plants grow. When we turn on a light or switch on a TV
    or a computer we use energy and we need water to produce this energy.
    66

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  56. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠
    • ྫ3ʢMarks & Bowen (2012) ΑΓʣ
    67
    • philosopher
    • famous
    • travel
    • scholar
    • accompany
    • hesitate
    • moral
    • ethical
    • ࣙॻαΠτʢOxford, Longman, Cobuild, Cambridge, Mirriam-WebstreͳͲʣ෼௲ͷ؍఺͔
    ΒLongman͕Α͍͔ͱɻ
    • How many syllables ͰɼԻઅ਺Λ֬ೝ͢Δ͜ͱ΋Մೳ

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  57. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠
    • ྫ3ʢMarks & Bowen (2012) ΑΓʣ
    Once upon a time, a famous philosopher was travelling
    through Nasruddin’s village, and asked Nasruddin where
    there was a good place to eat. Nasruddin suggested a place
    and the scholar, hungry for conversation, invited Nasruddin
    to join him. Very gratefully, Nasruddin accompanied the
    philosopher to a nearby restaurant, where they asked the
    waiter what the special of the day was.
    68

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  58. 4. ࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δʁ
    ڭࡐݚڀͷҰ؀ͱͯ͠
    • ͍͔͕Ͱ͔ͨ͠ʁ
    • ڭՊॻຊจͳͲ͸ɼʮTM͕͋Δ͔Β͍͍ΜͰͳ͍ͷʁʯͱࢥ͏ํ΋
    ͍Δ͔΋͠Ε·ͤΜɻ
    • TM͕ҙ֎ͱ౰ͯʹͳΒͳ͍έʔε͕͋Γ·͢ʢLETӳޠൃԻڭҭݚڀ
    ෦ձ ୈ77ճݚڀձͰͷTM෼ੳ͔ΒʣɻΠϯτωʔγϣϯۂઢͷදه
    ͳͲ͸͋Δ͕ɼԻઅ΍ΞΫηϯτɼ֩഑ஔͳͲʹ͍ͭͯ͸ҙ֎ͱهࡌ
    ͕ͳ͍৔߹͕ଟ͍ɻ
    • ࣗΒͷ෼ੳͱTM΍෇ଐԻ੠ͱͷҧ͍ɼALTͱͷҧ͍ΛվΊͯ֬ೝ͠ɼ
    Կ͕ɼͲ͏ҧ͍ͬͯͯɼͦΕʹΑΔޮՌ͸ͳͥى͜Δͷ͔ɼΛߟ͑Δ
    ͜ͱ΋େ੾͔ͱࢥ͍·͢ɻ
    • ͦΕΒΛ౿·͑ͯɼఴ෇ͷ׆ಈྫΛ͓ख࣋ͪͷڭՊॻڭࡐͱ߹Θͤͯ
    མͱ͠ࠐΜͰ͍͚ͨͩΔͱ͋Γ͕͍ͨͰ͢ɻ
    69

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  59. ຊWSͷߏ੒
    1.͸͡Ίʹ
    2.ൃԻࢦಋʹ͋ͨͬͯ
    3.ӳޠϓϩισΟࢦಋͷʮϛχϚϜΤο
    ηϯγϟϧζʯ
    4.࿮૊ΈΛͲͷΑ͏ʹ׆༻͢Δʁ
    5.࣭ٙɾίϝϯτɾҙݟަ׵
    71

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  60. 5. ࣭ٙɾίϝϯτɾҙݟަ׵
    • ࢀՃऀͷօ͞ΜɼʮӳޠͷϓϩισΟࢦಋʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪ
    ଇʯʹ͍ͭͯɼ·ͨɼͦͷ׆༻ํ๏ʹ͍ͭͯɼͲͷΑ͏ʹײ͡
    ·ͨ͠Ͱ͠ΐ͏͔ʁ
    • سጨͷͳ͍͝ҙݟΛ͓ฉ͔͍͚ͤͨͩΕ͹޾͍Ͱ͢ɻ
    • ΋͠ɼࢼͯ͠ΈΑ͏ͱࢥͬͨํ͸ɼ͝୲౰ͷՊ໨ɾڭՊॻͰ
    ͸ɼͲͷΑ͏ͳܗͰऔΓೖΕΔ͜ͱ͕Մೳ͔Λߟ͑ͯΈͯͩ͘
    ͍͞ɻ
    • ͦͯ͠ɼ࣮ફͷࡍʹ͸ɼੋඇͦͷײ૝΍खԠ͑ɼֶशऀͷ൓Ԡ
    ͳͲͷϑΟʔυόοΫΛ͓د͍͚ͤͨͩΕ͹͏Ε͍͠Ͱ͢ɻ
    • େ࿨஌࢙ʢ΍·ͱ͔ͣͻͱʣɹ[email protected]
    72

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