Teaching English prosody: its theory and practice

Teaching English prosody: its theory and practice

ことばの科学会オープンフォーラム2019(第11回年次大会)「コミュニケーションのための音声指導」でのシンポジウム資料。

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Kazuhito Yamato

October 13, 2019
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  1. γϯϙδ΢Ϝ ᶅʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷཧ࿦ͱ࣮ફʯ େ࿨஌࢙ʢਆށେֶʣ yamato@port.kobe-u.ac.jp ͜ͱ͹ͷՊֶձ ΦʔϓϯϑΥʔϥϜ2019 ʢୈ11ճ೥࣍େձʣ 2019೥10݄13೔ʢ೔ʣ 15:40ʙ16:20 1

  2. ΑΖ͓͘͠ئ͍͍ͨ͠·͢ 2 •େ࿨ ஌࢙ʢ΍·ͱ ͔ͣͻͱʣ •ॴଐɿਆށେֶɾେֶڭҭਪਐػߏɾࠃࡍίϛϡχέʔγϣ ϯηϯλʔ •ݚڀ෼໺ɿӳޠڭҭʢԻ੠ࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋɾϓϩισΟࢦಋʣ •͜ͱ͹ͷՊֶձͰͷൃද͸ॳΊͯͰେมۓு͓ͯ͠Γ· ͢…ɻ

    •ຊൃද͸ɼՊݚඅʢ17K047778ʣͷॿ੒Λड͚ͨ΋ͷͰ͢ɻ
  3. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒ 4 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ ͷ֓؍ 2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ 2.2.ൃԻֶशͷཧ࿦తݟ஍ 3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ Ίʹ 3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3

    ͭͷݪଇʯ 3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ 4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017) ͷ࣮ફใࠂ 4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜ ͱ 5.·ͱΊ
  4. 1. ͸͡Ίʹ 5 • γϯϙδ΢ϜͷᶅͰ͋ΔຊൃදͰ͸… 1.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ܏޲Λ֓؍͠·͢ 2.ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζͷҰྫ ͱͯ͠ɼൃදऀ͕ఏҊ͍ͯ͠ΔʮӳޠϓϩισΟࢦ ಋʢֶशʣͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁΛͦͷཧ࿦తഎܠͱ ͱ΋ʹ͓࿩͠͠·͢

    3.ͦͷݪଇΛଳ׆ಈͱͯ͠औΓೖΕ࣮ͨફྫΛ঺հ ͠ɼͲͷΑ͏ͳޮՌ͕͋ͬͨͷ͔Λใࠂ͠·͢ 4.ͦΕΒΛ௨ͯ͠ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷՄೳੑΛݕ౼͠· ͢ • Ͳ͏ͧΑΖ͓͘͠ئ͍͍ͨ͠·͢ɻ
  5. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒ 7 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ ͷ֓؍ 2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ 2.2.ൃԻֶशͷཧ࿦తݟ஍ 3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ Ίʹ 3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3

    ͭͷݪଇʯ 3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ 4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017) ͷ࣮ફใࠂ 4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜ ͱ 5.·ͱΊ
  6. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍ 2.1 ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕʢBaker, 2018; Levis & Sonsaat, 2018ʣ •

    pre-1850s: intuitive-imitative practices • ܁Γฦ͠ɾϛχϚϧϖΞɾ໛฿ɾԻಡ • 1850s-1880s: intuitive-imitative • Ξϓϩʔν͸มΘΒͣɾ฼Ի൪߸ମܥͷಋೖ • 1880s-1980s: analytic-linguistic approach • μΠϨΫτϝιουɾφνϡϥϧΞϓϩʔνɾIPAͷ։ൃɼಋೖɾ ΦʔσΟΦϦϯΨϧΞϓϩʔν • 1980s- (early CLT era) • ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯೳྗɾfluencyɹˠ ൃԻܰࢹͷ෩ை • 80sޙ൒͋ͨΓ͔Βɹintelligibilityɾsupra>seg 8
  7. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍ 2.1 ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕʢBaker, 2018; Levis & Sonsaat, 2018ʣ •

    ͜Ε·Ͱͱݱࡏͷ·ͱΊ (Grant, et al., 2014) 9 Traditional Approaches Current Approaches learner goals Perfect, naive-like pronunciation Comfortable intelligibility Speech features All segmentals (consonant and vowel sounds) Selected segmental and suprasegmentals (stress, rhythm, and intonation) based on need and context Practice formats Decontextualized drills controlled aural-oral drills as well as semi-communicative practice formats Language background of teachers Native-speaking teachers Native-speaking and proficient non- native speaking teachers Speaking models Native-speaker models Variety of models and standards depending on the listener, context, and purpose Curriculum choices Stand-alone courses isolated from the rest of the curriculum Stand-alone courses or integrated into other content or skill areas, often listening and speaking
  8. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒ 10 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ ͷ֓؍ 2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ 2.2.ൃԻֶशͷཧ࿦తݟ஍ 3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ Ίʹ 3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3

    ͭͷݪଇʯ 3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ 4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017) ͷ࣮ફใࠂ 4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜ ͱ 5.·ͱΊ
  9. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍ 2.2 ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷཧ࿦తݟ஍ • tipping pointΛܴ͍͑ͯΔʢʁʣൃԻࢦಋݚڀ • Derwing &

    Munro (2015): summary of instruction research (pp. 95-96) • Thomson & Munro (2014): narrative review of 75 PI studies • Lee, Jang & Plonsky (2014): meta-analysis of 86 PI studies • ͜ΕΒ͔Β෼͔ͬͨ͜ͱ ➡ needs more classroom-based research ➡ needs more interaction research(learner backgrounds) 11
  10. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍ 2.2 ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷཧ࿦తݟ஍ Foote & Trofimovich (2018) “Second language

    pronunciation learning: An overview of theoretical perspectives” • Linguistic perspective: phonetics & phonology, PAM/SLM • Psychological perspective: skill acquisition theory • Interactionist perspective: interaction hypothesis, intelligibility principleͱͷ਌࿨ੑ • Sociocultural perspective: ZPD, motivation • Identity perspective: imagined community • Sociocognitive perspective: language is a tool used for social interaction, alignment 12
  11. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍ 2.2 ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷཧ࿦తݟ஍ ڭһ͸ԿΛ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂͖͔ʢMurphy (2018) ͷද18.1͔Βʣ • Derwing &

    Munro(2015) : pronunciation fundamentals • suprasegmental ॏࢹͷࢦಋͩͱɼintelligibility΍comprehensibilityʹ޲ ্͕ʢDerwing, Munro and Wiebe, 1998ʣ • Grant (2014) , Brinton (2014): pronunciation myths • શͯͷԻ੠߲໨͕ॏཁͱ͍͏༁Ͱ͸ͳ͘ɼprimary focus, prominence, stress-timed rhythm, thought group, pausingͳͲͷsuprasegmental features͸ॏཁ • Lee et al.(2015) ; meta analysis 86ຊͷPI࿦จΛϨϰϡʔ • Derwing et al. (1998) ɼGordon and Darcy(2012), Yates(2003) , Hahn (2004) ͳͲ͸supra > seg 13
  12. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍ 2.2 ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷཧ࿦తݟ஍ • ڭһ͸ԿΛ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂͖͔ʢMurphy (2018) ͷද18.1͔Βʣʢ͖ͭͮʣ • Thomson

    & Derwing (2015) : narrative review • 75ຊͷL2 pronun࿦จΛϨϰϡʔɼ਺Ͱ͸segͷํ͕suprasegΑΓଟ͍ • Dickerson (2010) • Իӆ࿦Λڭ͍͑ͯΔதͰɼdiscourse meaningʹ΋ͱ͍ͮͯڭतॱংΛݕ ౼͢ΔॏཁੑΛઆ͘ • େ͖ͳଆ໘͔Βཧղ͢Δํ͕Α͍ɻ·ͨɼϓϩισΟͷཁૉ͸֤ཁૉͱ૬ ޓʹؔ࿈͍ͯ͠ΔʢGilbert, 2008ʣɻ • Gilbert(2008): pronunciation pyramid • Goodwin(2014) : In Celce-Muricia et al.(2014) • While the sound system of English traditionally has been introduced "in building-block fashion" beginning with smaller units of analysis (e.g., 14
  13. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍ 2.2 ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷཧ࿦తݟ஍ • ڭһ͸ԿΛ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂͖͔ʢMurphy (2018) ͷද18.1͔Βʣʢ͖ͭͮʣ • Murphy(2013;

    2017): • intro: which facets of pronunciation are the most important to teach? • Lee et al.(2015)ͷϝλ෼ੳΑΓɼL2ൃԻࢦಋ͸શൠͱͯ͠ޮՌ͕͋Δ͜ ͱ͕෼͔ͬͨɻ • ESL؀ڥͰͷ༏ઌॱҐͱͯ͠ɼදͷ௨Γͱͳ͍ͬͯΔ͜ͱ͸֤छݚڀ͔ Β΋໌Β͔ͱͳ͍ͬͯΔʢField(2005)ͷޠڧ੎ɼHahn(2004)ͷจڧ੎ɼ Pickering(2001),Wennerstrom(2001)ͷԻௐɼDerwing & Munro(1997)ͷ ࿩଎ɼͳͲʣɻ • Derwing, Munro & Wiebe(1997), Derwing and Rossiter(2003)͸ɼsupra ͕comprehensibility΍fluencyʹߩݙ͢Δͱ͠ɼsegmentals͸ൃԻͷޡ Γ΁ͷؾ͖ͮͷ޲্ʹߩݙ͢Δͱ͍͏݁ՌΛಘ͍ͯΔɻ 15
  14. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍ 2.2 ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷཧ࿦తݟ஍ • ೔ຊʹ͓͚ΔൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ় • ʮԻಡʯɾʮൃԻࢦಋʯͱ͍͏͘͘ΓͰͷ࣮ફͷਃࠂ͸ଟ͍ʢϕωο ηڭҭ૯߹ݚڀॴ, 2016ʣ

    • ڭһ͸ൃԻࢦಋʹࣗ৴͕ͳ͘ɼे෼ͳτϨʔχϯάΛड͚͍ͯͳ͍ ʢࣲా΄͔, 2008ʣ • ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀͷϓϩισΟ໘Ͱͷ໰୊఺(ೆᑍ, 2010; ੪౻ɾ্ా, 2011; Saito, 2017; দࡔ, 1986)ɿ • จڧ੎ • Πϯτωʔγϣϯ • ֩഑ஔ 16
  15. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍ 2.2 ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷཧ࿦తݟ஍ •ͦ͜ͰɼൃදऀΒͷऔΓ૊ΉϓϩδΣΫτͱ͠ ͯ… • ϓϩισΟͷࢦಋΛɼԻ੠ֶత஌ݟɾهड़Λे ෼ʹ൓ө্ͤͨ͞Ͱɼڭһɾֶੜ͕༰қʹ࢖͏ ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ࿮૊ΈΛϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧ

    ζͱͯ͠ఏҊ͠ɼ࣮ફͷखॿ͚ͱ͍ͨ͠ɻ • ࣮ࡍʹऔΓೖΕͯɼͦͷޮՌΛݕূ͍ͨ͠ɻ 17
  16. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒ 19 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ ͷ֓؍ 2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ 2.2.ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍ 3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ Ίʹ 3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3

    ͭͷݪଇʯ 3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ 4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017) ͷ࣮ફใࠂ 4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜ ͱ 5.·ͱΊ
  17. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ • ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞཁੑ͸͋Δ͕ɼݶΒΕͨ࣌ؒ΍ΧϦΩϡϥϜͷ தͰɼͲͷΑ͏ʹऔΓೖΕΔ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δͷ͔ɻ • ͋Δ͍͸͜Ε·Ͱʹ܇࿅΍ࢦಋͷํ๏࿦ཱ͕֬͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍ঢ়ଶͰ ԿΛͲ͜·Ͱ͢Δͷ͔ɻ • ͦ͜ͰɼൃදऀΒͷऔΓ૊ΉϓϩδΣΫτͱͯ͠…

    • ϓϩισΟͷࢦಋʹ͍ͭͯɼʮԻ੠ֶత஌ݟɾهड़͕े෼ʹ൓ ө͞Εͨɼڭһɾֶੜ͕༰қʹ࢖͏͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ࿮૊ΈʯΛϛ χϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζͱͯ͠ఏҊ͠ɼ࣮ફͷखॿ͚ͱ͍ͨ͠ɻ • ࣮ࡍʹऔΓೖΕͯɼͦͷޮՌΛݕূ͍ͨ͠ɻ • →ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͱʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯ Λ࢖ͬͨڭࡐݚڀɾ׆ಈΛఏҊʢүాɾେ࿨, 2019; େ࿨, 2016ʣ 20
  18. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ 3.1ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯ 1.฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δ 2.ഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑΛ 3.ڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱ ͨͤΔɻ •ڭһଆ͸ʮڭࡐݚڀɾࢦಋͷνΣοΫϙΠϯτʯͱͯ͠ •ֶशऀଆ͸ʮࣗ෼ͰಡΉɾݴ͏ࡍͷߦಈࢦ਑ʯͱͯ͠ 21

  19. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ • ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑΛʯ • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺

    ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ 22
  20. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ʮԻઅʯɾʮԻઅߏ଄ʯͷ͓࿩ • Իઅ • ʮϦζϜͷ1ഥ΍ͻͱͭͷڧ੎Λड͚Δ͜ͱͷͰ͖ΔɼԻͷ

    ࠷খͷ·ͱ·Γʢদࡔ, 1986, p. 165ʣʯ • ʮ฼ԻΛத৺ͱͯ͠લޙʹࢠԻΛ൐͏୯Ґʢ຀໺, 2005, p. 27ʣʯ • Իઅߏ଄ • V, CV, CVC, VC ͷ૊Έ߹Θͤ • CCCVCCCCɹstrengthsɹɹɹɹɹstrike ετϥΠΫ 23
  21. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ʮ͔ͿͤԻૉͷษڧ͸ɼԻઅͷݚڀ͔Β࢝ΊΔ͜ͱͱ͢ ΔɻͳͥͳΒɼԻઅ͕ड͚ࡼͱͳͬͯɼจ΍ޠ۟ʹڧ੎͕ ஔ͔Εɼͦͷڧ੎͕ϦζϜΛ࡞Γͩ͠ɼ·ͨ཈༲ͷಈ͖ʹ ͖͔͚ͬΛ༩͑Δ͔ΒͰ͋Δʢদࡔ, 1986,

    p.165ʣʯ • ֶशऀͷ๊͑Δ໰୊͸ʁ • CVߏ଄͕جຊͷ೔ຊޠʹɼCCͷࢠԻ࿈݁Λൃ͢Δ͜ͱ ͷࠔ೉͞ɻVΛૠೖͯ͠͠·͏ɻ • ૠೖ͞ΕͨV͕༨෼ͳഥͱͳΓɼௌऀͷೝࣝΛ๦͛Δɻ • ׆ಈྫɿϋϛϯάɼΘ͟ͱมʹݴ͏ɼͳͲ 24
  22. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ • ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑΛʯ • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺

    ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ 25
  23. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ʮޠڧ੎ʢޠΞΫηϯτʣʯ͔Βʮ۟ΞΫηϯ τʯɼʮϦζϜʯΛܦͯʮจΞΫηϯτʯͷ͓࿩ • ݪଇᶃΛ֦େͯ͠ɼଟԻઅޠʹͳΔͱͲ͏ͳΔ ͔ɼ·ͨޠ͕࿈ͳΔͱͲ͏ͳΔ͔ʁ

    • the characteristics of stressed and unstressed syllables in single words are mirrored in rhythm, teaching word stress primes students for work with suprasegmentals (Lane, 2010, p. 17). 26
  24. 27 • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ଟԻઅޠͰ͋Ε͹ɼͦΕͧΕͷԻઅ͕ɼୈҰΞ ΫηϯτɼୈೋΞΫηϯτɼऑΞΫηϯτͷ͍ ͣΕ͔Λ୲͏͜ͱʹͳΔɻ • ୈҰΞΫηϯτʹ͓͍ͯɼϐονͷಈ͖͕େ͖ ͘ɼ௕͘ɼڧ͘ͳΔɻʢe.g.

    com-mu-ni-CA-tionʣ • ޠ͕ෳ਺ฒͿͱɼޠͱޠͷؒͰڧऑͷ૊Έ߹Θ ͕ͤͰ͖Δɻˠ ʮ۟ΞΫηϯτʯ 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
  25. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ͔۟Βจʹͳͬͨ৔߹ɼจதͷ͋Δޠʢͷ தͷԻઅʣ͸ڧ͍ΞΫηϯτΛड͚ɼ͋Δ ޠ͸ड͚ͳ͍ɻˠ ʮจΞΫηϯτʯ en

    gi NEER in the END He can HEAR • ओʹΞΫηϯτΛड͚Δޠˠ಺༰ޠ • ड͚ͳ͍ޠˠػೳޠ 28
  26. 29 • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • จதʹڧऑͷ૊Έ߹Θ͕ͤͰ͖ΔˠʮϦζϜʯ • one, two, three, four,

    five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve • examinee → in case of rain → I tried to study very hard. ʢ஛ྛɾਗ਼ਫɾᜊ౻, 2013, p.136-137ʣ 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
  27. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ֶशऀͷ๊͑Δ໰୊͸ʁ • ʮޠΞΫηϯτʯʹ͓͍ͯɼʮڧ͘ൃԻ͢ΔΑ͏ʹʯͱͷࢦಋʹ͍ͭͯɼ ϐονͷมԽ΍ΞΫηϯτΛड͚ΔԻઅͷ࣋ଓ࣌ؒ௕ʹ͍ͭͯ͸े෼ʹ ஫ҙΛ෷͏͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖͍ͯͳ͍ɻʢखౡ,

    2017: ऑԻͷࢦಋͷॏཁੑʣ • ΞΫηϯτʹ౳࣌ੑͷ͋Δӳޠʹ͓͍ͯɼϞʔϥʹ౳࣌ੑͷ͋Δ೔ຊޠ ͷӨڹΛ࣋ͪࠐΜͰ͠·͏ɻ • ׆ಈྫɿڧऑΛ͚ͭΔɼ಺༰ޠͷΈϦεχϯάɾσΟΫςʔγϣϯͳͲ 30 (Grant, 2010, p.85)
  28. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ • ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑΛʯ • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺

    ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ 31
  29. 32 • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ • ͜ͷݪଇ͸ɼʮthought groupʯɾ ʮԻௐ֩ʢͱͦͷ഑ஔʣʯɾʮτʔϯʯ ͷ͓࿩ •

    ޠɾ۟ɾจΞΫηϯτΛड͚ɼϦζϜ Λܗ੒ͨ͠ൃ࿩ʹߋʹ৘ใ͕ՃΘΔɻ 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
  30. 33 • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷ ҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ • จΞΫηϯτ΍ϦζϜʹ͓͍ͯɼڧΞΫ ηϯτΛड͚ΔޠɾԻઅ͕͋Δ͜ͱ͸໌ Β͔ʹͳ͍ͬͯΔɻ • Ұ࿈ͷൃ࿩͸ɼ୹͍จ΍અͳͲΛͻͱ͔

    ͨ·Γͱ۠੾Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δɻ͜ͷ۠੾ Γͷ͜ͱΛɼʮthought groupʯͱ͍͏ɻ 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
  31. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ • thought groupʹؚ·ΕΔୈҰΞΫηϯτΛؚΉޠ܈ͷதͰ΋ɼ ࠷ޙʹݱΕΔ΋ͷ͕࠷΋໨ཱͭ܏޲ʹ͋Δʢ֩഑ஔͷݪଇʣɻ • ໨ཱͨͤΔํ๏͸ɼͦͷԻઅʹ͓͍ͯϐονΛେ͖͘มಈͤ͞

    Δ͜ͱʢԻௐ֩ʣɻ • ϐονͷมಈʹ͸ɼ্ঢͱԼ߱ɼͦͷ૊Έ߹Θͤͱฏୱ͕͋ Δɻ 34 (Grant, 2010, p.103)
  32. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ • ֶशऀͷ๊͑Δ໰୊͸ʁ • ໨ཱͪͷ഑ஔʢ֩഑ஔʣΛޡΓ͕ͪͰ͋Δʢࡈ ౻ɾ্ా,

    2011ʣɻଟ͘ͷ৔߹ɼthought group ͷ๯಄ʹஔ͖͕ͪɻ͜ΕʹΑΔ৘ใͷয఺ͷޡ ղ͕ੜ͡ΔՄೳੑ͕͋Δɻ • ϐονͷಈ͖ʹ͍ͭͯɼ۟຤ͷٸܹͳมಈͰҙ ਤΛ఻ୡ͠Α͏ͱ͢Δ܏޲ʹɻ 35
  33. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒ 36 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ ͷ֓؍ 2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ 2.2.ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍ 3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ Ίʹ 3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3

    ͭͷݪଇʯ 3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ 4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017) ͷ࣮ફใࠂ 4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜ ͱ 5.·ͱΊ
  34. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ 3.2 ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ ϓϩισΟΛهड़͢Δ্Ͱͷཧ࿦తഎܠ • American tradition: ϐονϨϕϧΛஈ֊ͱͯ͠هड़ ͢Δ΋ͷʢe.g.

    Pike, 1945ʣˠ Autosegmental metrical phonology • British tradition: ֩Λத৺ͱͨ͠ڧ੎Λج൫ͱ͢Δ΋ ͷʢe.g. Palmer, 1922; O’Connor & Arnold, 1973ʣ • ϕʔε͸ʮԻௐ୯Ґʢtone unitʣʹ͸onsetͱ nuclear syllable͕͋Δʯ΋ͷ 37
  35. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ 3.2 ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ Linguistic perspective • Ի੠ཁૉΛinterrelated systemͱͯ͠ଊ͑Δʢcf. Gilbert,

    2008; 2012; 2014; Goodwin, 2014; Rogerson-Revell, 2011ʣ • ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯʹ͍ͭͯɼޠɾ۟ɾจͱൣғ͕޿ൣʹͳͬ ͨͱͯ͠΋ɼΞΫηϯτͷ഑ஔͳͲɼ಺෦ߏ଄͸ຊ࣭తʹ ͸มΘΒͳ͍఺͕ॏཁɻ • ӳޠͷԻ੠తಛ௃Λ౿·͑ͯɿʮӳޠͷʰҰ఺߽՚ओٛʱ తͳൃԻʯʢொా, 2017ʣɼʮӳޠ͸ϝϦϋʙϦʯʢᯩ, 2019ʣ 38
  36. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ 3.2 ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ Linguistic perspective • ࢦಋ߲໨ͷऔࣺબ୒ • ڧ੎ͷѻ͍

    • ֩഑ஔʹয఺Խ͢Δ • ػೳͱͯ͠͸ΞΫηϯτػೳɾஊ࿩ͷػೳʢಛʹ৘ใߏ଄ ػೳʣʹߜΔ • ԻௐͷछྨΛଟ͘͠ͳ͍ʢ্ঢɾԼ߱ௐʹʣ • લ֩෦ͷԻௐʹ͸৮Εͳ͍ʢkeyͳͲͷ֓೦͸ஔ͍͓ͯ͘ʣ • Thought groupͷجຊ୯Ґ͸จͰελʔτ 39
  37. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ 3.2 ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ Psychological perspective • ࢦಋํ๏΍࣮ફͷΞϓϩʔν • Skill

    acquisition theoryʹґڌ͍ͯ͠Δͱߟ͑ͯΑ͍ • Communicative framework (Celce-Murcia et al., 2010) • Description and analysis • Listening discrimination • Controlled practice • Guided practice • Communicative practice • तۀͷதʹ౷߹తʹऔΓೖΕΔʢCelce-Murcia et al., 2010; Nation, 2013; Nicola & Darcy, 2015; Jones, 2016) 40
  38. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒ 42 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ ͷ֓؍ 2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ 2.2.ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍ 3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ Ίʹ 3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3

    ͭͷݪଇʯ 3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ 4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017) ͷ࣮ફใࠂ 4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜ ͱ 5.·ͱΊ
  39. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ •ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯͱ͍͏࿮૊ΈΛ࡞ͬͨ͸͍͍͕ɼͦΕ͸ ࣮ࡍʹ࢖͑Δ΋ͷͳͷ͔ɼ࣮ફʹ଱͑͏Δ΋ͷͳͷ͔ʁ •ͦ͜ͰɼҎԼͷ໨తΛ΋ͬͯϓϩισΟࢦಋʹऔΓ૊Ή ͜ͱͱͨ͠ɻ 1.தֶߍͷ؀ڥͰʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯΛ׆༻ͨ͠ϓϩισΟ ͷࢦಋΛ࣮ફ͠ɼͦͷޮՌΛݕূ͢Δɻ 2.ֶशऀͷϓϩισΟ΁ͷҙࣝͱऔΓ૊Έͱͷؔ܎Λ ࣌ؒͷܦաͱͱ΋ʹݟ͍ͯ͘ɻ

    43
  40. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ •ௐࠪࢀՃऀʢࢦಋͷର৅ʣ •ਆށେֶෟଐத౳ڭҭֶߍͷੜెʢ౰࣌1೥ੜɼݱࡏ4೥ੜʣ •3Ϋϥε120ਓʢ40ਓ×3ʣ

    •69ਓ෼ͷ࿥Ի͕༗ޮͳ΋ͷͱͯ͠ʢ3ʙ4೥࣍͸44ਓ෼͕༗ ޮʣ •ࢦಋऀ •ෟଐத౳ͷڭһ •ൃදऀ͸ɼॿݴऀɾ؍࡯ऀɾڭࡐ։ൃऀͱͯ͠ࢀը 44
  41. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ •ࢦಋظؒɾ࣌ؒ •ि2ճͷतۀͷதͰɼ10෼͔Β15෼ఔ౓Ͱଳֶशͱͯ͠ •2016೥10݄൒͹͔Β2017೥3݄·Ͱʢ2017೥4݄͔Β2018೥8݄ʣ

    •ࢦಋํ๏ •ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯʢલड़ͷ௨ΓʣΛݩ ʹɼڭࡐɾ׆ಈΛݕ౼͢Δɻ •ૉࡐ͸ɼतۀͰ࢖༻͍ͯ͠ΔݕఆڭՊॻ΍౤͛ࠐΈڭࡐ ʢGraded readerͳͲʣɻ 45
  42. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ •࡞੒ͨ͠ڭࡐͷྫ 46 ෳ਺Իઅͷ୯ޠʹ͓͚Δڧऑɾ௕

    ୹ɾߴ௿ͷҧ͍Λ֬ೝɼൃԻ͢Δλ εΫ ฉ͑ͨ͜୯ޠͱಉ͡ϋϛϯά਺ ʢԻઅ਺ʣͷ΋ͷΛબͿλεΫ
  43. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ •σʔλऩू •Ի੠σʔλ •2016೥9݄ʢՆق՝୊ͱͯ͠҉এʣ

    •2017೥4݄ʢԻಡ՝୊ͱͯ͠ʣ •ࡐྉ: Marcel the White StarɹʢGraded Readerʣ •ϓϩισΟ΁ͷҙࣝʹؔ͢ΔΞϯέʔτ: 5݅๏ͷϦΧʔτεέʔϧ •ཧղੑʢcomprehensibilityʣͷධՁ •࿥Իʢ๯಄͔Β30ඵʹฤूʣΛϥϯμϜʹఏࣔ͠ɼධՁ͢Δ՝୊ •ධՁऀ: ӳޠ฼ޠ࿩ऀ6ਓ (ߴ౳ֶߍɼதֶɼେֶڭһ) •9 ݅๏ͷϦΧʔτεέʔϧ (Isacc, Trofimovich & Foote, 2017) 47
  44. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ ࢦಋ࣮ફͷ؆ུਤ 48 2016.09

    ࿥Ի1 2017.04 ࿥Ի2 ϓϩισΟͷଳࢦಋ 2016.10 ϓϩισΟҙࣝΞϯέʔτ 2017.03 ϓϩισΟҙࣝΞϯέʔτ 2018.07 ࿥Ի3
  45. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ ෼ੳ •2ճߦͬͨϓϩισΟʹର͢Δҙࣝʹؔ͢ΔΞϯέʔτʢ5݅๏ͷϦΧʔτεέʔ ϧʣΛ΋ͱʹɼੜెΛάϧʔϐϯά

    •ճ౴Λूܭ͠ɼείΞԽɼ3Ҏ্ɼ3ҎԼɼࣄલɾࣄޙͰͷ૊Έ߹ΘͤʹΑΓά ϧʔϓԽ 49
  46. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ •ֶशऀͷҙࣝʹԠͨ͡άϧʔϓ෼͚ •HIGH: preͱpostͷ྆ํͰείΞ͕3Ҏ্ɼظؒதߴ͍ҙࣝΛҡ࣋

    •DOWN: preͰ͸ߴ͘ɼpostͰԼ͕ͬͨɹࠓճ͸֘౰ͳ͠ •UP: preͰ͸௿͍ҙ͕ࣝpostͰ͸্ঢͨ͠άϧʔϓ •LOW: preͱpostͷ྆ํʹ͓͍ͯείΞ͕௿͔ͬͨάϧʔϓ 50 post 3 or over under 3 pre 3 or over HIGH(n=47) DOWN(n=0) under 3 UP(n=13) LOW(n=9)
  47. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ •෼ੳͷํ๏ •ཧղੑͷධՁʢcomprehensibility ratingʣ

    •9ஈ֊ͷϦΧʔτεέʔϧ (Isaccs, Trofimovich, & Foote, 2017) •ධՁऀ: ӳޠ฼ޠ࿩ऀ6ਓʢதֶɾߴߍɾେֶʹۈ຿͢Δऀʣ •ධՁऀؒ৴པੑ α=.88 •֤܈ʹର͢ΔཧղੑʢcomprehensibilityʣͷείΞΛࣄલɾࣄޙɼҙࣝͷ άϧʔϓͰͷೋཁҼͷ෼ࢄ෼ੳʹͯݕ౼ •Իڹ෼ੳʹ͍ͭͯ͸ɼ֤܈ͷੜెͷԻ੠ΛɼPraatΛ༻͍ͯՄࢹԽͯ͠෼ੳ 51
  48. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 52 Descriptive Statistics Groups n Pre Post Mean

    SD Meas SD HIGH 47 5.85 0.89 6.52 0.71 UP 13 5.33 1.05 6.35 0.64 LOW 9 5.19 1.26 5.89 0.84 ALL 69 5.67 1.00 6.41 0.74 ANOVA(mixed design ANOVA) GROUP between-subjects F(2, 66)=3.65, p=.03, partial η2=.099 Pre-Post within-subjects F(1, 66)=33.23, p<.001, partial η2=.335 interaction F(2, 66)=0.75, p=.47, partial η2=. 022 Tukey's HSD Within Between pre HIGH < post HIGH pre UP < post HIGH pre UP < post UP pre LOW < post HIGH pre LOW < post UP
  49. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 53

  50. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ •݁Ռ͔Β •ࣄલɾࣄޙͰධఆʹ޲্͕ݟΒΕͨ͜ͱ (F(1,

    66)=33.23, p<.001, partial η2) ʹΑΓɼʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯΛ༻͍ͨϓϩισΟࢦಋʹ͸Ұ ఆͷޮՌ͕͋ΔͱࢥΘΕΔɻ •ࣄޙͷείΞʹ͓͍ͯSD͕খ͘͞ͳ͍ͬͯΔ͜ͱ΋શମతͳ޲্ Λࣔ͢ূࠨͱͳ͍ͬͯΔɻ •UPάϧʔϓʹ͍ͭͯ͸ɼଞͷάϧʔϓΑΓ΋޲্͕ΑΓӶ͍͜ͱ͕ ෼͔Δʢ౷ܭతʹ͸༗ҙͰ͸ͳ͍Ͱ͕͢…ʣɻҙࣝͷมԽ͕ϓϩι σΟ࢖༻ʹมԽΛ΋ͨΒ͢ՄೳੑΛ͍ࣔࠦͯ͠ΔͷͰ͸ͳ͍͔ɻ 54
  51. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ •UPάϧʔϓʹয఺Λ͋ͯͯԻڹ෼ੳ •Իڹత෼ੳɾԻ੠஌֮෼ੳΛߦͬͨͱ͜ Ζɼ1ʣԻઅߏ଄ɼ2ʣޠڧ੎ɼʹ͓͍ͯ޲

    ্͕ݟΒΕͨ [script] Marcel is happy, too. Back on his boat, he reads the newspaper stories. 55
  52. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ •UP group example “… happy, too” 56 •Pre

    (Sep, 2016) •geminates (2 syllables, but 3 moras) •equal intensity on both syllables •Post (Apr, 2017) •2 syllables •better stress pattern (S w)
  53. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ •UP group example ”… the newspaper stories” 57

    •Pre (Sep, 2016) •vowel insertions •Post (Apr, 2017) •less vowel insertions •better word stress
  54. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ •UP group •1) syllable

    structure •happy: used geminate consonants in pre, two syllables in post •newspaper stories: used lengthened vowels in pre, •both: less vowel insertion •2) word stress •happy: placing equal strength to strong and weak •newspaper stories: [3 2] syllables 58
  55. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒ 59 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ ͷ֓؍ 2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ 2.2.ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍ 3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ Ίʹ 3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3

    ͭͷݪଇʯ 3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ 4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017) ͷ࣮ફใࠂ 4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜ ͱ 5.·ͱΊ
  56. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.2 ͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜ͱ •ϓϩισΟΛڭࣨ؀ڥͰ໌ࣔతʹࢦಋ͢Δ͜ͱͷޮՌ → yes •pre-, post- ͷcomprehensibility

    score͔Βɼࢦಋ ޮՌ͸͋Δ •10෼͔Β15෼ͷଳ׆ಈʹΑͬͯ΋ҰఆͷޮՌΛࣔ ͢ •͍ΘΏΔϊϯωΠςΟϒڭһͷࢦಋ΋໰୊ͳ͍ 60
  57. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.2 ͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜ͱ •ֶशऀͷϓϩισΟཁૉ΁ͷҙ͕ࣝϓϩισΟ࢖༻ʹରͯ͠΋ ͭӨڹ → possibly yes. •UPάϧʔϓ͸ଞͷάϧʔϓʹൺ΂Θ͔ͣͳ͕ΒΑΓΑ͍޲

    ্Λ͍ࣔͯͨ͠ •ҙࣝ໘ͷมԽ͕ɼϓϩισΟ࢖༻ʹҰఆͷӨڹΛ༩͍͑ͯ ͨՄೳੑ͕ߟ͑ΒΕΔ •ҙࣝΛͲ͏มԽͤ͞Δ͔ͱ͍͏ͱ͜Ζͷ໰୊ʹ΋ʢԻ੠΁ ͷೝࣝɼࢦಋɾֶश΁ͷೝࣝͷมԽʣ 61
  58. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒ 63 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ ͷ֓؍ 2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ 2.2.ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍ 3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ Ίʹ 3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3

    ͭͷݪଇʯ 3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ 4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ 4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017) ͷ࣮ફใࠂ 4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜ ͱ 5.·ͱΊ
  59. 64 5. ·ͱΊ •ൃԻࢦಋʢࢲͷ୲౰ͷ৔߹ϓϩισΟࢦಋʣʹ͓͍ͯ͸ɼԻ੠ֶͷ஌ݟΛ ͖ͪΜͱ೺Ѳ͠ɼͦΕΒΛֶशऀʹద੾ʹ఻͑Δ͜ͱ͕ॏཁͰ͸ͳ͍͔ ʢLinguistic perspectiveʣɻ •Ի੠ֶͷ஌ݟΛɼਖ਼֬͞Λอ࣋ͭͭ͠ɼڭҭݱ৔ɾڭһཆ੒ͷ৔ʹ͓͍ͯ ༰қʹར༻Ͱ͖ΔΑ͏؆ૉͳهड़΍࿮૊Έͱͯ͠ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3ͭ ͷݪଇʯʹམͱ͠ࠐΉɻ

    •λεΫ΍׆ಈͷ಺༰΍खॱʹ͍ͭͯ͸εΩϧߏஙཧ࿦Λ౿·͍͑ͯΔͱ ݴͬͯΑ͍ʢPsychological perspectiveʣɻ •ͦΕΛ࢖࣮ͬͨફΛߦͬͨͱ͜ΖɼҰఆͷޮՌΛಘͨɻ͜ͷ͜ͱ͔Βɼ͜ ͷΑ͏ͳ࿮૊ΈΛ༻͍ͯࢦಋΛߦ͏͜ͱʹ͍ͭͯ͸ɼՄೳͰ͸ͳ͍͔ɼͱ ߟ͑Δɻʢֶशऀͷҙࣝͷଆ໘౳ɼ՝୊͸࢒Δʣ •͓ฉ͖ʹͳͬͨํʑͰɼڵຯͷ͋Δํɼ࣮ફͰ͓ࢼ͍͚ͨͩ͠·ͤΜ͔ʁ