Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

Teaching English prosody: its theory and practice

Teaching English prosody: its theory and practice

ことばの科学会オープンフォーラム2019(第11回年次大会)「コミュニケーションのための音声指導」でのシンポジウム資料。

Kazuhito Yamato

October 13, 2019
Tweet

More Decks by Kazuhito Yamato

Other Decks in Education

Transcript

  1. γϯϙδ΢Ϝ
    ᶅʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷཧ࿦ͱ࣮ફʯ
    େ࿨஌࢙ʢਆށେֶʣ
    [email protected]
    ͜ͱ͹ͷՊֶձ ΦʔϓϯϑΥʔϥϜ2019
    ʢୈ11ճ೥࣍େձʣ
    2019೥10݄13೔ʢ೔ʣ
    15:40ʙ16:20
    1

    View full-size slide

  2. ΑΖ͓͘͠ئ͍͍ͨ͠·͢
    2
    •େ࿨ ஌࢙ʢ΍·ͱ ͔ͣͻͱʣ
    •ॴଐɿਆށେֶɾେֶڭҭਪਐػߏɾࠃࡍίϛϡχέʔγϣ
    ϯηϯλʔ
    •ݚڀ෼໺ɿӳޠڭҭʢԻ੠ࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋɾϓϩισΟࢦಋʣ
    •͜ͱ͹ͷՊֶձͰͷൃද͸ॳΊͯͰେมۓு͓ͯ͠Γ·
    ͢…ɻ
    •ຊൃද͸ɼՊݚඅʢ17K047778ʣͷॿ੒Λड͚ͨ΋ͷͰ͢ɻ

    View full-size slide

  3. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒
    4
    1.͸͡Ίʹ
    2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ
    ͷ֓؍
    2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ
    2.2.ൃԻֶशͷཧ࿦తݟ஍
    3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ
    Ίʹ
    3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3
    ͭͷݪଇʯ
    3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ
    4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017)
    ͷ࣮ફใࠂ
    4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜
    ͱ
    5.·ͱΊ

    View full-size slide

  4. 1. ͸͡Ίʹ
    5
    • γϯϙδ΢ϜͷᶅͰ͋ΔຊൃදͰ͸…
    1.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ܏޲Λ֓؍͠·͢
    2.ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζͷҰྫ
    ͱͯ͠ɼൃදऀ͕ఏҊ͍ͯ͠ΔʮӳޠϓϩισΟࢦ
    ಋʢֶशʣͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁΛͦͷཧ࿦తഎܠͱ
    ͱ΋ʹ͓࿩͠͠·͢
    3.ͦͷݪଇΛଳ׆ಈͱͯ͠औΓೖΕ࣮ͨફྫΛ঺հ
    ͠ɼͲͷΑ͏ͳޮՌ͕͋ͬͨͷ͔Λใࠂ͠·͢
    4.ͦΕΒΛ௨ͯ͠ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷՄೳੑΛݕ౼͠·
    ͢
    • Ͳ͏ͧΑΖ͓͘͠ئ͍͍ͨ͠·͢ɻ

    View full-size slide

  5. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒
    7
    1.͸͡Ίʹ
    2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ
    ͷ֓؍
    2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ
    2.2.ൃԻֶशͷཧ࿦తݟ஍
    3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ
    Ίʹ
    3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3
    ͭͷݪଇʯ
    3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ
    4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017)
    ͷ࣮ફใࠂ
    4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜
    ͱ
    5.·ͱΊ

    View full-size slide

  6. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍
    2.1 ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕʢBaker, 2018; Levis & Sonsaat, 2018ʣ
    • pre-1850s: intuitive-imitative practices
    • ܁Γฦ͠ɾϛχϚϧϖΞɾ໛฿ɾԻಡ
    • 1850s-1880s: intuitive-imitative
    • Ξϓϩʔν͸มΘΒͣɾ฼Ի൪߸ମܥͷಋೖ
    • 1880s-1980s: analytic-linguistic approach
    • μΠϨΫτϝιουɾφνϡϥϧΞϓϩʔνɾIPAͷ։ൃɼಋೖɾ
    ΦʔσΟΦϦϯΨϧΞϓϩʔν
    • 1980s- (early CLT era)
    • ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯೳྗɾfluencyɹˠ ൃԻܰࢹͷ෩ை
    • 80sޙ൒͋ͨΓ͔Βɹintelligibilityɾsupra>seg
    8

    View full-size slide

  7. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍
    2.1 ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕʢBaker, 2018; Levis & Sonsaat, 2018ʣ
    • ͜Ε·Ͱͱݱࡏͷ·ͱΊ (Grant, et al., 2014)
    9
    Traditional Approaches Current Approaches
    learner
    goals
    Perfect, naive-like
    pronunciation
    Comfortable intelligibility
    Speech
    features
    All segmentals (consonant and
    vowel sounds)
    Selected segmental and
    suprasegmentals (stress, rhythm, and
    intonation) based on need and context
    Practice
    formats
    Decontextualized drills
    controlled aural-oral drills as well as
    semi-communicative practice formats
    Language
    background
    of teachers
    Native-speaking teachers
    Native-speaking and proficient non-
    native speaking teachers
    Speaking
    models
    Native-speaker models
    Variety of models and standards
    depending on the listener, context, and
    purpose
    Curriculum
    choices
    Stand-alone courses isolated
    from the rest of the curriculum
    Stand-alone courses or integrated into
    other content or skill areas, often
    listening and speaking

    View full-size slide

  8. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒
    10
    1.͸͡Ίʹ
    2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ
    ͷ֓؍
    2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ
    2.2.ൃԻֶशͷཧ࿦తݟ஍
    3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ
    Ίʹ
    3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3
    ͭͷݪଇʯ
    3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ
    4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017)
    ͷ࣮ફใࠂ
    4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜
    ͱ
    5.·ͱΊ

    View full-size slide

  9. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍
    2.2 ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷཧ࿦తݟ஍
    • tipping pointΛܴ͍͑ͯΔʢʁʣൃԻࢦಋݚڀ
    • Derwing & Munro (2015): summary of instruction research
    (pp. 95-96)
    • Thomson & Munro (2014): narrative review of 75 PI studies
    • Lee, Jang & Plonsky (2014): meta-analysis of 86 PI
    studies
    • ͜ΕΒ͔Β෼͔ͬͨ͜ͱ
    ➡ needs more classroom-based research
    ➡ needs more interaction research(learner backgrounds)
    11

    View full-size slide

  10. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍
    2.2 ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷཧ࿦తݟ஍
    Foote & Trofimovich (2018) “Second language pronunciation
    learning: An overview of theoretical perspectives”
    • Linguistic perspective: phonetics & phonology, PAM/SLM
    • Psychological perspective: skill acquisition theory
    • Interactionist perspective: interaction hypothesis,
    intelligibility principleͱͷ਌࿨ੑ
    • Sociocultural perspective: ZPD, motivation
    • Identity perspective: imagined community
    • Sociocognitive perspective: language is a tool used for
    social interaction, alignment
    12

    View full-size slide

  11. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍
    2.2 ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷཧ࿦తݟ஍
    ڭһ͸ԿΛ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂͖͔ʢMurphy (2018) ͷද18.1͔Βʣ
    • Derwing & Munro(2015) : pronunciation fundamentals
    • suprasegmental ॏࢹͷࢦಋͩͱɼintelligibility΍comprehensibilityʹ޲
    ্͕ʢDerwing, Munro and Wiebe, 1998ʣ
    • Grant (2014) , Brinton (2014): pronunciation myths
    • શͯͷԻ੠߲໨͕ॏཁͱ͍͏༁Ͱ͸ͳ͘ɼprimary focus, prominence,
    stress-timed rhythm, thought group, pausingͳͲͷsuprasegmental
    features͸ॏཁ
    • Lee et al.(2015) ; meta analysis 86ຊͷPI࿦จΛϨϰϡʔ
    • Derwing et al. (1998) ɼGordon and Darcy(2012), Yates(2003) , Hahn
    (2004) ͳͲ͸supra > seg
    13

    View full-size slide

  12. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍
    2.2 ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷཧ࿦తݟ஍
    • ڭһ͸ԿΛ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂͖͔ʢMurphy (2018) ͷද18.1͔Βʣʢ͖ͭͮʣ
    • Thomson & Derwing (2015) : narrative review
    • 75ຊͷL2 pronun࿦จΛϨϰϡʔɼ਺Ͱ͸segͷํ͕suprasegΑΓଟ͍
    • Dickerson (2010)
    • Իӆ࿦Λڭ͍͑ͯΔதͰɼdiscourse meaningʹ΋ͱ͍ͮͯڭतॱংΛݕ
    ౼͢ΔॏཁੑΛઆ͘
    • େ͖ͳଆ໘͔Βཧղ͢Δํ͕Α͍ɻ·ͨɼϓϩισΟͷཁૉ͸֤ཁૉͱ૬
    ޓʹؔ࿈͍ͯ͠ΔʢGilbert, 2008ʣɻ
    • Gilbert(2008): pronunciation pyramid
    • Goodwin(2014) : In Celce-Muricia et al.(2014)
    • While the sound system of English traditionally has been introduced "in
    building-block fashion" beginning with smaller units of analysis (e.g.,
    14

    View full-size slide

  13. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍
    2.2 ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷཧ࿦తݟ஍
    • ڭһ͸ԿΛ஌͓ͬͯ͘΂͖͔ʢMurphy (2018) ͷද18.1͔Βʣʢ͖ͭͮʣ
    • Murphy(2013; 2017):
    • intro: which facets of pronunciation are the most important to teach?
    • Lee et al.(2015)ͷϝλ෼ੳΑΓɼL2ൃԻࢦಋ͸શൠͱͯ͠ޮՌ͕͋Δ͜
    ͱ͕෼͔ͬͨɻ
    • ESL؀ڥͰͷ༏ઌॱҐͱͯ͠ɼදͷ௨Γͱͳ͍ͬͯΔ͜ͱ͸֤छݚڀ͔
    Β΋໌Β͔ͱͳ͍ͬͯΔʢField(2005)ͷޠڧ੎ɼHahn(2004)ͷจڧ੎ɼ
    Pickering(2001),Wennerstrom(2001)ͷԻௐɼDerwing & Munro(1997)ͷ
    ࿩଎ɼͳͲʣɻ
    • Derwing, Munro & Wiebe(1997), Derwing and Rossiter(2003)͸ɼsupra
    ͕comprehensibility΍fluencyʹߩݙ͢Δͱ͠ɼsegmentals͸ൃԻͷޡ
    Γ΁ͷؾ͖ͮͷ޲্ʹߩݙ͢Δͱ͍͏݁ՌΛಘ͍ͯΔɻ 15

    View full-size slide

  14. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍
    2.2 ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷཧ࿦తݟ஍
    • ೔ຊʹ͓͚ΔൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়
    • ʮԻಡʯɾʮൃԻࢦಋʯͱ͍͏͘͘ΓͰͷ࣮ફͷਃࠂ͸ଟ͍ʢϕωο
    ηڭҭ૯߹ݚڀॴ, 2016ʣ
    • ڭһ͸ൃԻࢦಋʹࣗ৴͕ͳ͘ɼे෼ͳτϨʔχϯάΛड͚͍ͯͳ͍
    ʢࣲా΄͔, 2008ʣ
    • ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀͷϓϩισΟ໘Ͱͷ໰୊఺(ೆᑍ, 2010; ੪౻ɾ্ా,
    2011; Saito, 2017; দࡔ, 1986)ɿ
    • จڧ੎
    • Πϯτωʔγϣϯ
    • ֩഑ஔ
    16

    View full-size slide

  15. 2. ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍
    2.2 ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷཧ࿦తݟ஍
    •ͦ͜ͰɼൃදऀΒͷऔΓ૊ΉϓϩδΣΫτͱ͠
    ͯ…
    • ϓϩισΟͷࢦಋΛɼԻ੠ֶత஌ݟɾهड़Λे
    ෼ʹ൓ө্ͤͨ͞Ͱɼڭһɾֶੜ͕༰қʹ࢖͏
    ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ࿮૊ΈΛϛχϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧ
    ζͱͯ͠ఏҊ͠ɼ࣮ફͷखॿ͚ͱ͍ͨ͠ɻ
    • ࣮ࡍʹऔΓೖΕͯɼͦͷޮՌΛݕূ͍ͨ͠ɻ
    17

    View full-size slide

  16. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒
    19
    1.͸͡Ίʹ
    2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ
    ͷ֓؍
    2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ
    2.2.ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍
    3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ
    Ίʹ
    3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3
    ͭͷݪଇʯ
    3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ
    4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017)
    ͷ࣮ફใࠂ
    4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜
    ͱ
    5.·ͱΊ

    View full-size slide

  17. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    • ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞཁੑ͸͋Δ͕ɼݶΒΕͨ࣌ؒ΍ΧϦΩϡϥϜͷ
    தͰɼͲͷΑ͏ʹऔΓೖΕΔ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δͷ͔ɻ
    • ͋Δ͍͸͜Ε·Ͱʹ܇࿅΍ࢦಋͷํ๏࿦ཱ͕֬͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍ঢ়ଶͰ
    ԿΛͲ͜·Ͱ͢Δͷ͔ɻ
    • ͦ͜ͰɼൃදऀΒͷऔΓ૊ΉϓϩδΣΫτͱͯ͠…
    • ϓϩισΟͷࢦಋʹ͍ͭͯɼʮԻ੠ֶత஌ݟɾهड़͕े෼ʹ൓
    ө͞Εͨɼڭһɾֶੜ͕༰қʹ࢖͏͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ࿮૊ΈʯΛϛ
    χϚϜΤοηϯγϟϧζͱͯ͠ఏҊ͠ɼ࣮ફͷखॿ͚ͱ͍ͨ͠ɻ
    • ࣮ࡍʹऔΓೖΕͯɼͦͷޮՌΛݕূ͍ͨ͠ɻ
    • →ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͱʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯ
    Λ࢖ͬͨڭࡐݚڀɾ׆ಈΛఏҊʢүాɾେ࿨, 2019; େ࿨, 2016ʣ
    20

    View full-size slide

  18. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    3.1ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯ
    1.฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δ
    2.ഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑΛ
    3.ڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱ
    ͨͤΔɻ
    •ڭһଆ͸ʮڭࡐݚڀɾࢦಋͷνΣοΫϙΠϯτʯͱͯ͠
    •ֶशऀଆ͸ʮࣗ෼ͰಡΉɾݴ͏ࡍͷߦಈࢦ਑ʯͱͯ͠
    21

    View full-size slide

  19. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    • ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ
    • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑΛʯ
    • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺
    ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ
    22

    View full-size slide

  20. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ
    • ʮԻઅʯɾʮԻઅߏ଄ʯͷ͓࿩
    • Իઅ
    • ʮϦζϜͷ1ഥ΍ͻͱͭͷڧ੎Λड͚Δ͜ͱͷͰ͖ΔɼԻͷ
    ࠷খͷ·ͱ·Γʢদࡔ, 1986, p. 165ʣʯ
    • ʮ฼ԻΛத৺ͱͯ͠લޙʹࢠԻΛ൐͏୯Ґʢ຀໺, 2005, p.
    27ʣʯ
    • Իઅߏ଄
    • V, CV, CVC, VC ͷ૊Έ߹Θͤ
    • CCCVCCCCɹstrengthsɹɹɹɹɹstrike ετϥΠΫ
    23

    View full-size slide

  21. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ
    • ʮ͔ͿͤԻૉͷษڧ͸ɼԻઅͷݚڀ͔Β࢝ΊΔ͜ͱͱ͢
    ΔɻͳͥͳΒɼԻઅ͕ड͚ࡼͱͳͬͯɼจ΍ޠ۟ʹڧ੎͕
    ஔ͔Εɼͦͷڧ੎͕ϦζϜΛ࡞Γͩ͠ɼ·ͨ཈༲ͷಈ͖ʹ
    ͖͔͚ͬΛ༩͑Δ͔ΒͰ͋Δʢদࡔ, 1986, p.165ʣʯ
    • ֶशऀͷ๊͑Δ໰୊͸ʁ
    • CVߏ଄͕جຊͷ೔ຊޠʹɼCCͷࢠԻ࿈݁Λൃ͢Δ͜ͱ
    ͷࠔ೉͞ɻVΛૠೖͯ͠͠·͏ɻ
    • ૠೖ͞ΕͨV͕༨෼ͳഥͱͳΓɼௌऀͷೝࣝΛ๦͛Δɻ
    • ׆ಈྫɿϋϛϯάɼΘ͟ͱมʹݴ͏ɼͳͲ
    24

    View full-size slide

  22. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    • ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ
    • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑΛʯ
    • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺
    ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ
    25

    View full-size slide

  23. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ
    • ʮޠڧ੎ʢޠΞΫηϯτʣʯ͔Βʮ۟ΞΫηϯ
    τʯɼʮϦζϜʯΛܦͯʮจΞΫηϯτʯͷ͓࿩
    • ݪଇᶃΛ֦େͯ͠ɼଟԻઅޠʹͳΔͱͲ͏ͳΔ
    ͔ɼ·ͨޠ͕࿈ͳΔͱͲ͏ͳΔ͔ʁ
    • the characteristics of stressed and unstressed
    syllables in single words are mirrored in
    rhythm, teaching word stress primes students
    for work with suprasegmentals (Lane, 2010, p.
    17).
    26

    View full-size slide

  24. 27
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ
    • ଟԻઅޠͰ͋Ε͹ɼͦΕͧΕͷԻઅ͕ɼୈҰΞ
    ΫηϯτɼୈೋΞΫηϯτɼऑΞΫηϯτͷ͍
    ͣΕ͔Λ୲͏͜ͱʹͳΔɻ
    • ୈҰΞΫηϯτʹ͓͍ͯɼϐονͷಈ͖͕େ͖
    ͘ɼ௕͘ɼڧ͘ͳΔɻʢe.g. com-mu-ni-CA-tionʣ
    • ޠ͕ෳ਺ฒͿͱɼޠͱޠͷؒͰڧऑͷ૊Έ߹Θ
    ͕ͤͰ͖Δɻˠ ʮ۟ΞΫηϯτʯ
    3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ

    View full-size slide

  25. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ
    • ͔۟Βจʹͳͬͨ৔߹ɼจதͷ͋Δޠʢͷ
    தͷԻઅʣ͸ڧ͍ΞΫηϯτΛड͚ɼ͋Δ
    ޠ͸ड͚ͳ͍ɻˠ ʮจΞΫηϯτʯ
    en gi NEER in the END He can HEAR
    • ओʹΞΫηϯτΛड͚Δޠˠ಺༰ޠ
    • ड͚ͳ͍ޠˠػೳޠ
    28

    View full-size slide

  26. 29
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ
    • จதʹڧऑͷ૊Έ߹Θ͕ͤͰ͖ΔˠʮϦζϜʯ
    • one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten,
    eleven, twelve
    • examinee → in case of rain → I tried to study very
    hard.
    ʢ஛ྛɾਗ਼ਫɾᜊ౻, 2013, p.136-137ʣ
    3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ

    View full-size slide

  27. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ
    • ֶशऀͷ๊͑Δ໰୊͸ʁ
    • ʮޠΞΫηϯτʯʹ͓͍ͯɼʮڧ͘ൃԻ͢ΔΑ͏ʹʯͱͷࢦಋʹ͍ͭͯɼ
    ϐονͷมԽ΍ΞΫηϯτΛड͚ΔԻઅͷ࣋ଓ࣌ؒ௕ʹ͍ͭͯ͸े෼ʹ
    ஫ҙΛ෷͏͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖͍ͯͳ͍ɻʢखౡ, 2017: ऑԻͷࢦಋͷॏཁੑʣ
    • ΞΫηϯτʹ౳࣌ੑͷ͋Δӳޠʹ͓͍ͯɼϞʔϥʹ౳࣌ੑͷ͋Δ೔ຊޠ
    ͷӨڹΛ࣋ͪࠐΜͰ͠·͏ɻ
    • ׆ಈྫɿڧऑΛ͚ͭΔɼ಺༰ޠͷΈϦεχϯάɾσΟΫςʔγϣϯͳͲ
    30
    (Grant, 2010, p.85)

    View full-size slide

  28. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    • ϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇ
    • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ
    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑΛʯ
    • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺
    ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ
    31

    View full-size slide

  29. 32
    • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺
    ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ
    • ͜ͷݪଇ͸ɼʮthought groupʯɾ
    ʮԻௐ֩ʢͱͦͷ഑ஔʣʯɾʮτʔϯʯ
    ͷ͓࿩
    • ޠɾ۟ɾจΞΫηϯτΛड͚ɼϦζϜ
    Λܗ੒ͨ͠ൃ࿩ʹߋʹ৘ใ͕ՃΘΔɻ
    3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ

    View full-size slide

  30. 33
    • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷ
    ҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ
    • จΞΫηϯτ΍ϦζϜʹ͓͍ͯɼڧΞΫ
    ηϯτΛड͚ΔޠɾԻઅ͕͋Δ͜ͱ͸໌
    Β͔ʹͳ͍ͬͯΔɻ
    • Ұ࿈ͷൃ࿩͸ɼ୹͍จ΍અͳͲΛͻͱ͔
    ͨ·Γͱ۠੾Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δɻ͜ͷ۠੾
    Γͷ͜ͱΛɼʮthought groupʯͱ͍͏ɻ
    3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ

    View full-size slide

  31. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ
    • thought groupʹؚ·ΕΔୈҰΞΫηϯτΛؚΉޠ܈ͷதͰ΋ɼ
    ࠷ޙʹݱΕΔ΋ͷ͕࠷΋໨ཱͭ܏޲ʹ͋Δʢ֩഑ஔͷݪଇʣɻ
    • ໨ཱͨͤΔํ๏͸ɼͦͷԻઅʹ͓͍ͯϐονΛେ͖͘มಈͤ͞
    Δ͜ͱʢԻௐ֩ʣɻ
    • ϐονͷมಈʹ͸ɼ্ঢͱԼ߱ɼͦͷ૊Έ߹Θͤͱฏୱ͕͋
    Δɻ
    34
    (Grant, 2010, p.103)

    View full-size slide

  32. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ
    ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ
    • ֶशऀͷ๊͑Δ໰୊͸ʁ
    • ໨ཱͪͷ഑ஔʢ֩഑ஔʣΛޡΓ͕ͪͰ͋Δʢࡈ
    ౻ɾ্ా, 2011ʣɻଟ͘ͷ৔߹ɼthought group
    ͷ๯಄ʹஔ͖͕ͪɻ͜ΕʹΑΔ৘ใͷয఺ͷޡ
    ղ͕ੜ͡ΔՄೳੑ͕͋Δɻ
    • ϐονͷಈ͖ʹ͍ͭͯɼ۟຤ͷٸܹͳมಈͰҙ
    ਤΛ఻ୡ͠Α͏ͱ͢Δ܏޲ʹɻ
    35

    View full-size slide

  33. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒
    36
    1.͸͡Ίʹ
    2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ
    ͷ֓؍
    2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ
    2.2.ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍
    3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ
    Ίʹ
    3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3
    ͭͷݪଇʯ
    3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ
    4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017)
    ͷ࣮ફใࠂ
    4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜
    ͱ
    5.·ͱΊ

    View full-size slide

  34. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    3.2 ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ
    ϓϩισΟΛهड़͢Δ্Ͱͷཧ࿦తഎܠ
    • American tradition: ϐονϨϕϧΛஈ֊ͱͯ͠هड़
    ͢Δ΋ͷʢe.g. Pike, 1945ʣˠ Autosegmental
    metrical phonology
    • British tradition: ֩Λத৺ͱͨ͠ڧ੎Λج൫ͱ͢Δ΋
    ͷʢe.g. Palmer, 1922; O’Connor & Arnold, 1973ʣ
    • ϕʔε͸ʮԻௐ୯Ґʢtone unitʣʹ͸onsetͱ
    nuclear syllable͕͋Δʯ΋ͷ
    37

    View full-size slide

  35. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    3.2 ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ
    Linguistic perspective
    • Ի੠ཁૉΛinterrelated systemͱͯ͠ଊ͑Δʢcf. Gilbert,
    2008; 2012; 2014; Goodwin, 2014; Rogerson-Revell, 2011ʣ
    • ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯʹ͍ͭͯɼޠɾ۟ɾจͱൣғ͕޿ൣʹͳͬ
    ͨͱͯ͠΋ɼΞΫηϯτͷ഑ஔͳͲɼ಺෦ߏ଄͸ຊ࣭తʹ
    ͸มΘΒͳ͍఺͕ॏཁɻ
    • ӳޠͷԻ੠తಛ௃Λ౿·͑ͯɿʮӳޠͷʰҰ఺߽՚ओٛʱ
    తͳൃԻʯʢொా, 2017ʣɼʮӳޠ͸ϝϦϋʙϦʯʢᯩ,
    2019ʣ
    38

    View full-size slide

  36. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    3.2 ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ
    Linguistic perspective
    • ࢦಋ߲໨ͷऔࣺબ୒
    • ڧ੎ͷѻ͍
    • ֩഑ஔʹয఺Խ͢Δ
    • ػೳͱͯ͠͸ΞΫηϯτػೳɾஊ࿩ͷػೳʢಛʹ৘ใߏ଄
    ػೳʣʹߜΔ
    • ԻௐͷछྨΛଟ͘͠ͳ͍ʢ্ঢɾԼ߱ௐʹʣ
    • લ֩෦ͷԻௐʹ͸৮Εͳ͍ʢkeyͳͲͷ֓೦͸ஔ͍͓ͯ͘ʣ
    • Thought groupͷجຊ୯Ґ͸จͰελʔτ
    39

    View full-size slide

  37. 3. ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨΊʹ
    3.2 ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ
    Psychological perspective
    • ࢦಋํ๏΍࣮ફͷΞϓϩʔν
    • Skill acquisition theoryʹґڌ͍ͯ͠Δͱߟ͑ͯΑ͍
    • Communicative framework (Celce-Murcia et al., 2010)
    • Description and analysis
    • Listening discrimination
    • Controlled practice
    • Guided practice
    • Communicative practice
    • तۀͷதʹ౷߹తʹऔΓೖΕΔʢCelce-Murcia et al., 2010; Nation, 2013;
    Nicola & Darcy, 2015; Jones, 2016)
    40

    View full-size slide

  38. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒
    42
    1.͸͡Ίʹ
    2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ
    ͷ֓؍
    2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ
    2.2.ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍
    3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ
    Ίʹ
    3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3
    ͭͷݪଇʯ
    3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ
    4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017)
    ͷ࣮ફใࠂ
    4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜
    ͱ
    5.·ͱΊ

    View full-size slide

  39. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    •ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯͱ͍͏࿮૊ΈΛ࡞ͬͨ͸͍͍͕ɼͦΕ͸
    ࣮ࡍʹ࢖͑Δ΋ͷͳͷ͔ɼ࣮ફʹ଱͑͏Δ΋ͷͳͷ͔ʁ
    •ͦ͜ͰɼҎԼͷ໨తΛ΋ͬͯϓϩισΟࢦಋʹऔΓ૊Ή
    ͜ͱͱͨ͠ɻ
    1.தֶߍͷ؀ڥͰʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯΛ׆༻ͨ͠ϓϩισΟ
    ͷࢦಋΛ࣮ફ͠ɼͦͷޮՌΛݕূ͢Δɻ
    2.ֶशऀͷϓϩισΟ΁ͷҙࣝͱऔΓ૊Έͱͷؔ܎Λ
    ࣌ؒͷܦաͱͱ΋ʹݟ͍ͯ͘ɻ
    43

    View full-size slide

  40. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ
    •ௐࠪࢀՃऀʢࢦಋͷର৅ʣ
    •ਆށେֶෟଐத౳ڭҭֶߍͷੜెʢ౰࣌1೥ੜɼݱࡏ4೥ੜʣ
    •3Ϋϥε120ਓʢ40ਓ×3ʣ
    •69ਓ෼ͷ࿥Ի͕༗ޮͳ΋ͷͱͯ͠ʢ3ʙ4೥࣍͸44ਓ෼͕༗
    ޮʣ
    •ࢦಋऀ
    •ෟଐத౳ͷڭһ
    •ൃදऀ͸ɼॿݴऀɾ؍࡯ऀɾڭࡐ։ൃऀͱͯ͠ࢀը
    44

    View full-size slide

  41. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ
    •ࢦಋظؒɾ࣌ؒ
    •ि2ճͷतۀͷதͰɼ10෼͔Β15෼ఔ౓Ͱଳֶशͱͯ͠
    •2016೥10݄൒͹͔Β2017೥3݄·Ͱʢ2017೥4݄͔Β2018೥8݄ʣ
    •ࢦಋํ๏
    •ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯʢલड़ͷ௨ΓʣΛݩ
    ʹɼڭࡐɾ׆ಈΛݕ౼͢Δɻ
    •ૉࡐ͸ɼतۀͰ࢖༻͍ͯ͠ΔݕఆڭՊॻ΍౤͛ࠐΈڭࡐ
    ʢGraded readerͳͲʣɻ
    45

    View full-size slide

  42. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ
    •࡞੒ͨ͠ڭࡐͷྫ
    46
    ෳ਺Իઅͷ୯ޠʹ͓͚Δڧऑɾ௕
    ୹ɾߴ௿ͷҧ͍Λ֬ೝɼൃԻ͢Δλ
    εΫ
    ฉ͑ͨ͜୯ޠͱಉ͡ϋϛϯά਺
    ʢԻઅ਺ʣͷ΋ͷΛબͿλεΫ

    View full-size slide

  43. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ
    •σʔλऩू
    •Ի੠σʔλ
    •2016೥9݄ʢՆق՝୊ͱͯ͠҉এʣ
    •2017೥4݄ʢԻಡ՝୊ͱͯ͠ʣ
    •ࡐྉ: Marcel the White StarɹʢGraded Readerʣ
    •ϓϩισΟ΁ͷҙࣝʹؔ͢ΔΞϯέʔτ: 5݅๏ͷϦΧʔτεέʔϧ
    •ཧղੑʢcomprehensibilityʣͷධՁ
    •࿥Իʢ๯಄͔Β30ඵʹฤूʣΛϥϯμϜʹఏࣔ͠ɼධՁ͢Δ՝୊
    •ධՁऀ: ӳޠ฼ޠ࿩ऀ6ਓ (ߴ౳ֶߍɼதֶɼେֶڭһ)
    •9 ݅๏ͷϦΧʔτεέʔϧ (Isacc, Trofimovich & Foote, 2017) 47

    View full-size slide

  44. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ
    ࢦಋ࣮ફͷ؆ུਤ
    48
    2016.09
    ࿥Ի1
    2017.04
    ࿥Ի2
    ϓϩισΟͷଳࢦಋ
    2016.10
    ϓϩισΟҙࣝΞϯέʔτ
    2017.03
    ϓϩισΟҙࣝΞϯέʔτ
    2018.07
    ࿥Ի3

    View full-size slide

  45. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ
    ෼ੳ
    •2ճߦͬͨϓϩισΟʹର͢Δҙࣝʹؔ͢ΔΞϯέʔτʢ5݅๏ͷϦΧʔτεέʔ
    ϧʣΛ΋ͱʹɼੜెΛάϧʔϐϯά
    •ճ౴Λूܭ͠ɼείΞԽɼ3Ҏ্ɼ3ҎԼɼࣄલɾࣄޙͰͷ૊Έ߹ΘͤʹΑΓά
    ϧʔϓԽ
    49

    View full-size slide

  46. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ
    •ֶशऀͷҙࣝʹԠͨ͡άϧʔϓ෼͚
    •HIGH: preͱpostͷ྆ํͰείΞ͕3Ҏ্ɼظؒதߴ͍ҙࣝΛҡ࣋
    •DOWN: preͰ͸ߴ͘ɼpostͰԼ͕ͬͨɹࠓճ͸֘౰ͳ͠
    •UP: preͰ͸௿͍ҙ͕ࣝpostͰ͸্ঢͨ͠άϧʔϓ
    •LOW: preͱpostͷ྆ํʹ͓͍ͯείΞ͕௿͔ͬͨάϧʔϓ
    50
    post
    3 or over under 3
    pre
    3 or over HIGH(n=47) DOWN(n=0)
    under 3 UP(n=13) LOW(n=9)

    View full-size slide

  47. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ
    •෼ੳͷํ๏
    •ཧղੑͷධՁʢcomprehensibility ratingʣ
    •9ஈ֊ͷϦΧʔτεέʔϧ (Isaccs, Trofimovich, & Foote, 2017)
    •ධՁऀ: ӳޠ฼ޠ࿩ऀ6ਓʢதֶɾߴߍɾେֶʹۈ຿͢Δऀʣ
    •ධՁऀؒ৴པੑ α=.88
    •֤܈ʹର͢ΔཧղੑʢcomprehensibilityʣͷείΞΛࣄલɾࣄޙɼҙࣝͷ
    άϧʔϓͰͷೋཁҼͷ෼ࢄ෼ੳʹͯݕ౼
    •Իڹ෼ੳʹ͍ͭͯ͸ɼ֤܈ͷੜెͷԻ੠ΛɼPraatΛ༻͍ͯՄࢹԽͯ͠෼ੳ
    51

    View full-size slide

  48. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    52
    Descriptive Statistics
    Groups n Pre Post
    Mean SD Meas SD
    HIGH 47 5.85 0.89 6.52 0.71
    UP 13 5.33 1.05 6.35 0.64
    LOW 9 5.19 1.26 5.89 0.84
    ALL 69 5.67 1.00 6.41 0.74
    ANOVA(mixed design ANOVA)
    GROUP between-subjects F(2, 66)=3.65, p=.03, partial η2=.099
    Pre-Post within-subjects F(1, 66)=33.23, p<.001, partial η2=.335
    interaction F(2, 66)=0.75, p=.47, partial η2=. 022
    Tukey's HSD
    Within Between
    pre HIGH < post HIGH pre UP < post HIGH
    pre UP < post UP pre LOW < post HIGH
    pre LOW < post UP

    View full-size slide

  49. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    53

    View full-size slide

  50. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ
    •݁Ռ͔Β
    •ࣄલɾࣄޙͰධఆʹ޲্͕ݟΒΕͨ͜ͱ (F(1, 66)=33.23, p<.001,
    partial η2) ʹΑΓɼʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯΛ༻͍ͨϓϩισΟࢦಋʹ͸Ұ
    ఆͷޮՌ͕͋ΔͱࢥΘΕΔɻ
    •ࣄޙͷείΞʹ͓͍ͯSD͕খ͘͞ͳ͍ͬͯΔ͜ͱ΋શମతͳ޲্
    Λࣔ͢ূࠨͱͳ͍ͬͯΔɻ
    •UPάϧʔϓʹ͍ͭͯ͸ɼଞͷάϧʔϓΑΓ΋޲্͕ΑΓӶ͍͜ͱ͕
    ෼͔Δʢ౷ܭతʹ͸༗ҙͰ͸ͳ͍Ͱ͕͢…ʣɻҙࣝͷมԽ͕ϓϩι
    σΟ࢖༻ʹมԽΛ΋ͨΒ͢ՄೳੑΛ͍ࣔࠦͯ͠ΔͷͰ͸ͳ͍͔ɻ
    54

    View full-size slide

  51. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1 Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ
    •UPάϧʔϓʹয఺Λ͋ͯͯԻڹ෼ੳ
    •Իڹత෼ੳɾԻ੠஌֮෼ੳΛߦͬͨͱ͜
    Ζɼ1ʣԻઅߏ଄ɼ2ʣޠڧ੎ɼʹ͓͍ͯ޲
    ্͕ݟΒΕͨ
    [script] Marcel is happy, too. Back on his
    boat, he reads the newspaper stories.
    55

    View full-size slide

  52. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    •UP group example “… happy, too”
    56
    •Pre (Sep, 2016)
    •geminates (2
    syllables, but 3 moras)
    •equal intensity on
    both syllables
    •Post (Apr, 2017)
    •2 syllables
    •better stress pattern
    (S w)

    View full-size slide

  53. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    •UP group example ”… the newspaper stories”
    57
    •Pre (Sep, 2016)
    •vowel insertions
    •Post (Apr, 2017)
    •less vowel
    insertions
    •better word
    stress

    View full-size slide

  54. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    Yamato & Isoda (2017)ͷࢦಋ࣮ફ
    •UP group
    •1) syllable structure
    •happy: used geminate consonants in pre, two syllables
    in post
    •newspaper stories: used lengthened vowels in pre,
    •both: less vowel insertion
    •2) word stress
    •happy: placing equal strength to strong and weak
    •newspaper stories: [3 2] syllables
    58

    View full-size slide

  55. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒
    59
    1.͸͡Ίʹ
    2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ
    ͷ֓؍
    2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ
    2.2.ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍
    3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ
    Ίʹ
    3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3
    ͭͷݪଇʯ
    3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ
    4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017)
    ͷ࣮ફใࠂ
    4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜
    ͱ
    5.·ͱΊ

    View full-size slide

  56. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.2 ͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜ͱ
    •ϓϩισΟΛڭࣨ؀ڥͰ໌ࣔతʹࢦಋ͢Δ͜ͱͷޮՌ
    → yes
    •pre-, post- ͷcomprehensibility score͔Βɼࢦಋ
    ޮՌ͸͋Δ
    •10෼͔Β15෼ͷଳ׆ಈʹΑͬͯ΋ҰఆͷޮՌΛࣔ
    ͢
    •͍ΘΏΔϊϯωΠςΟϒڭһͷࢦಋ΋໰୊ͳ͍
    60

    View full-size slide

  57. 4. ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.2 ͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜ͱ
    •ֶशऀͷϓϩισΟཁૉ΁ͷҙ͕ࣝϓϩισΟ࢖༻ʹରͯ͠΋
    ͭӨڹ
    → possibly yes.
    •UPάϧʔϓ͸ଞͷάϧʔϓʹൺ΂Θ͔ͣͳ͕ΒΑΓΑ͍޲
    ্Λ͍ࣔͯͨ͠
    •ҙࣝ໘ͷมԽ͕ɼϓϩισΟ࢖༻ʹҰఆͷӨڹΛ༩͍͑ͯ
    ͨՄೳੑ͕ߟ͑ΒΕΔ
    •ҙࣝΛͲ͏มԽͤ͞Δ͔ͱ͍͏ͱ͜Ζͷ໰୊ʹ΋ʢԻ੠΁
    ͷೝࣝɼࢦಋɾֶश΁ͷೝࣝͷมԽʣ
    61

    View full-size slide

  58. ຊ೔ͷൃදͷߏ੒
    63
    1.͸͡Ίʹ
    2.ൃԻࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋݚڀ
    ͷ֓؍
    2.1.ΞϓϩʔνͷྲྀΕ
    2.2.ൃԻࢦಋݚڀͷ֓؍
    3.ϓϩισΟࢦಋ࣮ફͷͨ
    Ίʹ
    3.1.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3
    ͭͷݪଇʯ
    3.2.ͦͷഎܠ͸ʁ
    4.ࢦಋޮՌͷ΄Ͳ͸ʁ
    4.1.Yamato & Isoda (2017)
    ͷ࣮ફใࠂ
    4.2.͜ͷ࣮ફ͔Β෼͔Δ͜
    ͱ
    5.·ͱΊ

    View full-size slide

  59. 64
    5. ·ͱΊ
    •ൃԻࢦಋʢࢲͷ୲౰ͷ৔߹ϓϩισΟࢦಋʣʹ͓͍ͯ͸ɼԻ੠ֶͷ஌ݟΛ
    ͖ͪΜͱ೺Ѳ͠ɼͦΕΒΛֶशऀʹద੾ʹ఻͑Δ͜ͱ͕ॏཁͰ͸ͳ͍͔
    ʢLinguistic perspectiveʣɻ
    •Ի੠ֶͷ஌ݟΛɼਖ਼֬͞Λอ࣋ͭͭ͠ɼڭҭݱ৔ɾڭһཆ੒ͷ৔ʹ͓͍ͯ
    ༰қʹར༻Ͱ͖ΔΑ͏؆ૉͳهड़΍࿮૊Έͱͯ͠ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ3ͭ
    ͷݪଇʯʹམͱ͠ࠐΉɻ
    •λεΫ΍׆ಈͷ಺༰΍खॱʹ͍ͭͯ͸εΩϧߏஙཧ࿦Λ౿·͍͑ͯΔͱ
    ݴͬͯΑ͍ʢPsychological perspectiveʣɻ
    •ͦΕΛ࢖࣮ͬͨફΛߦͬͨͱ͜ΖɼҰఆͷޮՌΛಘͨɻ͜ͷ͜ͱ͔Βɼ͜
    ͷΑ͏ͳ࿮૊ΈΛ༻͍ͯࢦಋΛߦ͏͜ͱʹ͍ͭͯ͸ɼՄೳͰ͸ͳ͍͔ɼͱ
    ߟ͑Δɻʢֶशऀͷҙࣝͷଆ໘౳ɼ՝୊͸࢒Δʣ
    •͓ฉ͖ʹͳͬͨํʑͰɼڵຯͷ͋Δํɼ࣮ફͰ͓ࢼ͍͚ͨͩ͠·ͤΜ͔ʁ

    View full-size slide