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Continuous Security with Practical Static Analysis

Continuous Security with Practical Static Analysis

Static code analysis tools, which attempt determine what code does without actually running the code, provide an excellent opportunity to perform lightweight security checks as part of the software development lifecycle. Unfortunately, building generic static analysis tools, especially for security, is a costly, time-consuming effort. As a result very few tools exist and commercial tools are very expensive – if they even support your programming language. The good news is building targeted static analysis tools for your own environment with rules specific to your needs is much easier! This talk will go through straight-forward options for static analysis, from grep to writing rules for existing tools through writing your very own static analysis tool. Since static analysis tools can be run at any point in the software development lifecycle, even simple tools enable powerful security assurance when added to continuous integration.

Justin Collins

January 07, 2016
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  1. @presidentbeef
    Continuous Security with
    Practical Static Analysis
    Justin Collins
    @presidentbeef
    ^ tweet me questions
    CodeMash 2016

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  2. @presidentbeef
    Definitions
    2

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  3. @presidentbeef
    Continuous Security
    Automated, always-on processes for
    detecting potential security vulnerabilities
    3

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  4. @presidentbeef
    Static Analysis
    Information determined about a program
    without actually running the code
    4

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  5. @presidentbeef
    Practical Static Analysis
    Things you can reasonably implement
    after this talk
    5

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  6. @presidentbeef
    Why Static Analysis?
    Fast
    Run anytime
    Easy to automate
    Points directly at suspect code
    6

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  7. @presidentbeef
    Background
    7

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  8. @presidentbeef
    Static analysis security tool
    for Ruby on Rails
    8

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  9. @presidentbeef
    Tool Cycle
    Run Tool Wait Interpret Results Fix Issues
    Repeat
    9

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  10. @presidentbeef
    SADB
    10

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  11. @presidentbeef 11

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  12. @presidentbeef
    Getting Started
    12

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  13. @presidentbeef
    1 - Identify a Problem
    Repeated incidents with the same root cause
    Opt-in security, e.g. in APIs
    Unsafe calls/settings no one should use, ever
    13

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  14. @presidentbeef
    2 - Identify a Solution
    Write a safer library
    Make security opt-out
    Detect unsafe calls/settings/API usage
    14

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  15. @presidentbeef
    3 - Enforce the Solution
    Write tests
    Use static analysis
    Use dynamic analysis
    15

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  16. @presidentbeef
    4 - Automate Enforcement
    Part of continuous integration
    Part of code review
    Standalone, continuously-running process
    Local scripts/hooks
    16

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  17. @presidentbeef
    Automation Strategies
    17

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  18. @presidentbeef
    Continuous Integration
    18

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  19. @presidentbeef
    Code Review
    19

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  20. @presidentbeef
    Deployment Gate
    20

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  21. @presidentbeef
    Separate Process
    21

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  22. @presidentbeef
    Local Script/Git Hook
    22

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  23. @presidentbeef
    Scenario
    23

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  24. @presidentbeef
    1 - Identify a Problem
    get_survey(survey_id)
    24

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  25. @presidentbeef
    2 - Identify a Solution
    get_survey(survey_id, user_id)
    25

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  26. @presidentbeef
    3 - Enforce the Solution
    Use static analysis to check for use
    26

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  27. @presidentbeef
    Statically Analyzing
    27

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  28. @presidentbeef
    Regular Expressions
    ● grep
    ● ack
    ● ag
    ● …or build your own
    28

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  29. @presidentbeef
    grep/ack
    grep -R "get_survey([^,)]\+)" *
    ack "get_survey\([^,)]+\)" --type=python
    29

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  30. @presidentbeef
    Changed
    Files
    grep
    file1
    file2
    file3
    ...
    Desired Flow
    30

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  31. @presidentbeef
    Bash
    git checkout $@ --quiet
    files=$(git diff --name-status master HEAD | grep -E "^(A|M)" | cut -f 2)
    grep "get_survey([^,)]\+)" $files
    31

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  32. @presidentbeef
    Bash
    bash check_stuff.sh 9c2ca25
    32

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  33. @presidentbeef
    Changed
    Files
    Rules
    file1 - warning X
    file2 - warning Y
    file3 - warning X
    ...
    Multiple Rules
    33

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  34. @presidentbeef
    Create a Rule
    class CheckSurvey < Rule
    def run(file_name, code)
    if code =~ /get_survey\([^,)]+\)/
    warn file_name, "get_survey without user ID"
    end
    end
    end
    34

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  35. @presidentbeef
    Base Rule Class
    class Rule
    @rules = []
    @warnings = []
    def self.inherited klass
    @rules << klass
    end
    def self.run_rules files
    files.each do |name|
    code = File.read(name)
    @rules.each do |r|
    r.new.run(name, code)
    end
    end
    end
    def self.warnings
    @warnings
    end
    def warn file_name, msg
    Rule.warnings << [file_name, msg]
    end
    end 35

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  36. @presidentbeef
    Code to Run It
    system "git checkout #{ARGV[0]}"
    files = `git diff --name-status master HEAD | grep -E "^(A|M)" | cut -f 2`
    Rule.run_rules(files.split)
    Rule.warnings.each do |file_name, message|
    puts "#{message} in #{file_name}"
    end
    if Rule.warnings.any?
    exit 1
    end
    36

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  37. @presidentbeef
    Ruby
    ruby check_stuff.rb 9c2ca25
    37

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  38. @presidentbeef
    False Positives
    # Remember not to use get_survey(survey_id)!
    function get_survey(node) {...}
    38

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  39. @presidentbeef
    False Negatives
    get_survey(input.split(",")[0])
    39

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  40. @presidentbeef
    Abstract Syntax Trees
    40

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  41. @presidentbeef
    Compilation vs. Static Analysis
    Lexical
    Analysis
    Parse into
    Abstract Syntax Tree
    Input Program Text
    Convert to
    Intermediate Form(s)
    Optimize
    Output Compiled Code
    Analyze!
    Output Finding Report
    Semantic Analysis
    41

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  42. @presidentbeef
    get_survey(survey_id)
    call
    args
    local
    nil "get_survey"
    "survey_id"
    42

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  43. @presidentbeef
    S-Expressions
    (call nil "get_survey" (local "survey_id"))
    get_survey(survey_id)
    43

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  44. @presidentbeef
    Ruby (RubyParser)
    s(:call, nil, :get_survey, s(:call, nil, :survey_id))
    RubyParser.new.parse("get_survey(survey_id")
    44

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  45. @presidentbeef
    Python (Astroid)
    Module()
    body = [
    Discard()
    value =
    CallFunc()
    func =
    Name(get_survey)
    args = [
    Name(survey_id)
    ]
    starargs =
    kwargs =
    ]
    AstroidBuilder().string_build("get_survey(survey_id)")
    45

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  46. @presidentbeef
    JavaScript (Esprima)
    {
    "type": "Program",
    "body": [
    {
    "type": "ExpressionStatement",
    "expression": {
    "type": "CallExpression",
    "callee": {
    "type": "Identifier",
    "name": "get_survey"
    },
    "arguments": [
    {
    "type": "Identifier",
    "name": "survey_id"
    }
    ]
    }
    }
    ],
    "sourceType": "script"
    }
    esprima.parse("get_survey(survey_id)")
    46

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  47. @presidentbeef
    Existing Tools
    47

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  48. @presidentbeef
    www.pylint.org
    48

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  49. @presidentbeef
    Pylint Custom Checker
    import astroid
    from pylint.interfaces import IAstroidChecker
    from pylint.checkers import BaseChecker
    class GetSurveyChecker(BaseChecker):
    __implements__ = IAstroidChecker
    name = 'survey_checker'
    msgs = {'E9312': ('Call to get_survey without user ID',
    'get_survey',
    'Calls to get_survey must include user ID.') }
    priority = -1
    def visit_callfunc(self, node):
    if (isinstance(node.func, astroid.Name)
    and node.func.name == 'get_survey'
    and len(node.args) == 1):
    self.add_message('get_survey', node=node)
    def register(linter):
    linter.register_checker(GetSurveyChecker(linter)) 49

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  50. @presidentbeef
    Pylint Custom Checker
    pylint --load-plugins custom my_file.py
    50

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  51. @presidentbeef
    Pylint Custom Warning
    ************* Module my_file
    ...
    E: 12, 4: Call to get_survey without user ID (get_survey)
    ...
    51

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  52. @presidentbeef
    brakeman.org
    52

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  53. @presidentbeef
    Brakeman Custom Check
    require 'brakeman/checks/base_check'
    class Brakeman::CheckGetSurvey < Brakeman::BaseCheck
    Brakeman::Checks.add self
    Brakeman::WarningCodes::Codes[:get_survey] = 2001
    @description = "Finds get_survey calls without a user_id"
    def run_check
    @tracker.find_call(target: false, method: :get_survey).each do |result|
    next if duplicate? result
    add_result result
    if result[:call].second_arg.nil?
    warn :result => result,
    :warning_type => "Direct Object Reference",
    :warning_code => :get_survey,
    :message => "Use of get_survey without user_id",
    :confidence => CONFIDENCE[:high]
    end
    end
    end
    end
    53

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  54. @presidentbeef
    Brakeman Custom Check
    brakeman --add-checks-path custom_checks/
    54

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  55. @presidentbeef
    Brakeman Custom Warning
    55

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  56. @presidentbeef
    Custom Tools
    56

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  57. @presidentbeef
    Esprima
    esprima.org
    57

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  58. @presidentbeef
    JavaScript (Esprima)
    {
    "type": "Program",
    "body": [
    {
    "type": "ExpressionStatement",
    "expression": {
    "type": "CallExpression",
    "callee": {
    "type": "Identifier",
    "name": "get_survey"
    },
    "arguments": [
    {
    "type": "Identifier",
    "name": "survey_id"
    }
    ]
    }
    }
    ],
    "sourceType": "script"
    }
    esprima.parse("get_survey(survey_id)")
    58

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  59. @presidentbeef
    Walking Esprima AST
    var check_get_survey = function(ast) {
    if(ast.type == "CallExpression" &&
    ast.callee.type == "Identifier" &&
    ast.callee.name == "get_survey" &&
    ast.arguments.length == 1) {
    console.log("get_survey called without user_id at line ",
    ast.loc.start)
    }
    }
    var walk = function(ast) {
    if(Array.isArray(ast))
    {
    ast.forEach(walk);
    }
    else if(ast.type) {
    check_get_survey(ast)
    for (key in ast) {
    walk(ast[key])
    }
    }
    }
    var esprima = require('esprima');
    walk(esprima.parse('get_survey(survey_id)', { loc: true }))
    59

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  60. @presidentbeef
    RubyParser
    github.com/seattlerb/ruby_parser
    60

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  61. @presidentbeef
    Ruby (RubyParser)
    s(:call, nil, :get_survey, s(:call, nil, :survey_id))
    RubyParser.new.parse("get_survey(survey_id")
    61

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  62. @presidentbeef
    Walking RubyParser AST
    require 'ruby_parser'
    require 'sexp_processor'
    class FindGetSurvey < SexpInterpreter
    def process_call exp
    if exp[1].nil? and
    exp[2] == :get_survey and
    exp[4].nil?
    puts "get_survey called without user_id at line #{exp.line}"
    end
    end
    end
    ast = RubyParser.new.parse "get_survey(survey_id)"
    FindGetSurvey.new.process ast
    62

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  63. @presidentbeef
    Summary
    Start small: identify single issue to solve
    Tailor solution to your environment
    Automate enforcement
    63

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  64. @presidentbeef
    Go Mash Some Code!
    @PresidentBeef / presidentbeef.com
    @Brakeman / brakeman.org
    @BrakemanPro / brakemanpro.com
    @MakotoTheCat
    64

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