Coevolution of massive black holes and galaxies

Coevolution of massive black holes and galaxies

This lecture is part of the course "physics of active galactic nuclei" offered to graduate students in astrophysics by Rodrigo Nemmen and Joao Steiner at IAG USP.

https://rodrigonemmen.com/teaching/active-galactic-nuclei/

C5ca9433e528fd5739fa9555f7193dac?s=128

Rodrigo Nemmen

May 20, 2016
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  1. 1.

    Rodrigo Nemmen Massive Black Holes as Cosmic Bullies AGA5727 -

    Active Galactic Nuclei Credit: Randall, …, Bulbul et al. 2015 ApJ
  2. 2.

    Cosmic radiation background Frequency [Hz] Flux density [nW/m2 sr] microwaves

    IR optical X-rays γ-rays big bang stars/AGN AGN G. Ghisellini log (radiation flux) log (frequency / Hz)
  3. 3.

    Cosmic radiation background Frequency [Hz] Flux density [nW/m2 sr] nuclear

    fusion / accretion X-rays big bang stars/AGN AGN black hole accretion ?? log (radiation flux) log (frequency / Hz)
  4. 4.

    Evidence for coevolution between massive black holes and galaxies AA52CH13-Heckman

    ARI 4 August 2014 10:48 1010 109 108 107 106 60 80 100 200 300 400 Elliptical/classical bulge Pseudobulge AGN Quiescent M BH /M Velocity dispersion/km s–1 log 10 (M BH /M ) a Figure 9 ualreviews.org sonal use only.
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    log dρ./dt (M year–1 Mpc–3) z t (Gyr) 2.0 ×

    10–4 0.3 12 10 8 6 4 2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 1.5 × 10–4 1.0 × 10–4 5.0 × 10–5 Black hole growth dρ STAR /dt*8.0e–4 (Fardal et al. 2007) dρ STAR /dt*8.0e–4 (Hopkins & Beacom 2006) Cosmic history: growth of massive black holes and stars Shankar et al. 2009 ⟨black hole accretion rate⟩ star-formation rate
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    M-σ relation: Black hole mass related to large scale properties

    of galaxies MBH = 2 ⇥ 108M ✓ 200 km s 1 ◆5.6 Woo+13; McConnell & Ma 13; Heckman & Best ARA&A 14 1010 109 108 107 106 60 80 100 200 300 400 Elliptical/classical bulge Pseudobulge AGN Quiescent 9.0 6 7 8 9 10 M BH /M Velocity dispersion/km s–1 log 10 (M BH /M ) M a b Figure 9 nnualreviews.org ersonal use only.
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    MBH = 2 ⇥ 108M ✓ 200 km s 1

    ◆5.6 Woo+13; McConnell & Ma 13; Heckman & Best ARA&A 14 1010 109 108 107 106 60 80 100 200 300 400 Elliptical/classical bulge Pseudobulge AGN Quiescent 9.0 6 7 8 9 10 M BH /M Velocity dispersion/km s–1 log 10 (M BH /M ) M a b Figure 9 nnualreviews.org ersonal use only. central black hole host galaxy property: grav. potential of spheroid M-σ relation: Black hole mass related to large scale properties of galaxies
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    M-σ : Fundamental link between assembly of black holes and

    galaxy formation or coincidence? MBH = 2 ⇥ 108M ✓ 200 km s 1 ◆5.6 Woo+13; McConnell & Ma 13; Heckman & Best ARA&A 14 1010 109 108 107 106 60 80 100 200 300 400 Elliptical/classical bulge Pseudobulge AGN Quiescent 9.0 6 7 8 9 10 M BH /M Velocity dispersion/km s–1 log 10 (M BH /M ) M a b Figure 9 nnualreviews.org ersonal use only. central black hole host galaxy property: grav. potential of spheroid
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    T ~ 106 - 107 K bremsstrahlung radiation Dbrem /

    ⇢2 2) The cooling flow riddle
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    Consequences of cooling flows in galaxy clusters High accretion rates

    ~1000 M‒ yr-1 Large reservoir of cold gas: T < 1 keV Lots of star formation
  13. 19.

    Consequences of cooling flows in galaxy clusters High accretion rates

    ~1000 M‒ yr-1 Large reservoir of cold gas: T < 1 keV Lots of star formation ~30 M‒ yr-1 And what Chandra and XMM-Newton saw Little star formation, <10 M‒ yr-1 Much less cold gas than expected Something is heating up the gas in galaxy clusters
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    (a)]: A 3D rendering of our MAD a = 0.99

    model at t = ). Dynamically-important magnetic fields are twisted in the image) at the center of an accre ly dominates the jet structure ets with cyan-blu xima Jet simulation: Tchekhovskoy
  16. 27.

    Jet power OUT jet bubble age / P E t

    = Credit: Chandra Chandra observations of nearby radio-loud elliptical galaxies provide jet powers and BH accretion rates BH bub ( / ) s R c bub (4 ) PV X-ray cavities McNamara+05, Nature How to estimate the power required to heat up/ create the cavities in clusters Fabian 12 ARA&A Heating rate
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    ADAF & kpc ⇠ few pc ~10 R s ~100

    AU ~10 -3 pc M ckinney+ Black hole jets affect the growth/ formation of galaxies, groups and clusters “AGN feedback” “Radio mode” AGN feedback
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    Brüggen et al. 2005 0.4 Mpc Simulation of AGN feedback

    via jets (“radio mode”) in a cluster atmosphere
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    Observational considerations • Feedback on cluster scales is more easily

    observable (larger physical scales, denser atmospheres, brighter diffuse emission from the hot gas in the X-rays) • Feedback on galactic scale is hard to resolve and a smoking gun is still needed Slide courtesy of M. Volonteri
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    Observational considerations • Feedback on cluster scales is more easily

    observable (larger physical scales, denser atmospheres, brighter diffuse emission from the hot gas in the X-rays) • Feedback on galactic scale is hard to resolve and a smoking gun is still needed Slide courtesy of M. Volonteri was
  22. 33.

    molecular outflow: OH absorption (Herschel) Ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS S

    F111191+3257: evidence for quasar feedback Tombesi et al. 2015, Nature
  23. 34.

    ultra-fast outflow: X-ray absorption line (Suzaku) molecular outflow: OH absorption

    (Herschel) Ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS S F111191+3257: evidence for quasar feedback Tombesi et al. 2015, Nature
  24. 35.

    Credit: NASA Tombesi et al. 2015, Nature “Quasar mode” AGN

    feedback”: Black hole winds important when there are no jets
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    AGN feedback quenches star formation → redder galaxies her assume

    s energy is k holes on on between size of the edback are growth and also Sup- ur panels). laxies soon orces have oles in the gnificantly erate level. affected by ch plots the on rate and on of time. he galaxies as distorted is shocked as into the bursts and vident that the gas, as accretion rates are both quenched in the remnant, and black hole growth saturates owing to feedback provided by accretion energy. However, the damping of star formation and black hole activity is also Sup- ur panels). laxies soon orces have oles in the gnificantly erate level. affected by ch plots the on rate and on of time. he galaxies as distorted is shocked as into the bursts and vident that the gas, as perature of black holes. centres. ird pair of y converted ing to the ge to form ose to the Figure 2 Black hole activity, star formation and black hole growth plotted as a function of time during a galaxy–galaxy merger. The star formation rate (SFR), black hole accretion Di Matteo+ 05, Nature relation between starbursts and AGNs
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    Galaxy formation and evolution Affect thermodynamic state of galaxy clusters

    Reionization of the universe Larger impact of AGNs http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v468/n7320/full/nature09527.html
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    High-redhift quasars Sloan Digital Sky Survey: SDSS pioneered the optical

    selection of z=6 quasars with the first large area survey in the i’ and z’ filters Shallow-wide survey: find rare bright quasars SDSS Deep finds 11 fainter quasars over 300 sq deg Fan et al.(2000-2006) Jiang et al.(2008;2009) courtesy of C. Willott M. Volonteri
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    Optical luminosity function Luminosity functions: Tools to study evolution of

    AGN population through cosmic time S. M. Croom et al. The binned 2SLAQ LF for six redshift intervals from z = 0.4 to 2.6. The filled points are those derived using the model-weighted estimator d Croom et al. 2009, ApJ
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    Schematic luminosity functions for AGNs 9.7. Mass and luminosity evolution

    of the AGN population 311 z=0 z=0 z=0 z=0 z=1 z=1 z=1 z=2 z=2 z=2 Luminosity evolution L-dependent density evolution Density evolution L Space Density Φ (L,Z) Figure 9.12. Various schematic luminosity functions for AGNs showing how such objects can vary in luminosity and space density through cosmic time. Luminosity functions: Tools to study evolution of AGN population through cosmic time Netzer
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    Quasars have been detected at very large distances, corresponding to

    a very young age of the Universe. As massive as the largest SMBHs today, but when the Universe was 0.75 Gyr old! WHEN do you make the first massive black holes? Gultekin et al. 2009 The farthest quasar currently known, ULASJ112010641, at z=7.1, has estimates of the MBH mass MBH~2 x109 Msun (Mortlock et al. 2011) M. Volonteri, Brera 2013
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    Mfin =2x109 Msun tH (z=7)~0.75 Gyr fEdd =0.3-1; ε~0.1 㱺

    Min >300-ish Msun ULASJ112010641 M(t) = M in e ( 1−ε ε fEdd t 0.45Gyr ) M. Volonteri, Brera 2013
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    HOW can you make the first massive black holes? PopIII

    stars remnants Gas-dynamical collapse Stellar-dynamical collapse M. Volonteri, Brera 2013 Slide: M. Volonteri
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    Testing MBH seed formation: 
 two techniques 1. Semi-analyical modelling

    - Analytical “recipes” for MBH formation and growth - Monte-Carlo realizations of the merger history of dark matter halos in a LCDM cosmology - computationally inexpensive =>statistical samples 1. Cosmological simulations - No need to use global quantities or smooth functions - Gravity and hydrodynamics naturally included - Either high resolution or large volume due to computational costs MV, Haardt & Madau 2003,MV & Natarajan 2009, MV & Begelman 2010 M. Volonteri, Brera 2013
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    z=5.7 (t=1.0 Gyr) z=1.4 (t=4.7 Gyr) z=0 (t=13.6 Gyr) Hirschmann

    et al. 2012 Millennium Simulation mass assembly in a hierarchical universe Slide: Rachel Somerville
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    MBHS are grown from seed BHs. These seeds are incorporated

    into larger and larger halos, accreting gas and coalescing after galaxy mergers. time local galaxy high-z protogalaxies local galaxy high-z protogalaxies Cosmic evolution of MBHs M. Volonteri, Brera 2013
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    The growth of MBHs in galaxies Galaxy Massive black hole

    Early universe Today How do MBH seeds grow to become supermassive? The seeds at high redshift are small, ∼100-105 Msun M. Volonteri, Brera 2013
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    How do MBH seeds grow to become supermassive? BH-BH mergers

    vs gas accretion The seeds at z>20 are small, ∼100-105 Msun Total mass density in MBHs is constant in time: just reshuffle the mass function Total mass density in MBHs grows with time M. Volonteri, Brera 2013
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    MBH - host relations: how are they established? Is the

    correlation regulated by the galaxy or by the MBH? Feedback: The MBH regulates the process: when it reaches a limiting mass and luminosity it drives outflows that sweep away the surrounding gas, thus halting both its own growth and star formation in the galaxy. Feeding: the galaxy sets the MBH mass by regulating the amount of gas that trickles to the MBH Casuality: central-limit-theorem, i.e., a large number of mergers will average out the extreme values of MBH /Mbulge towards the ensemble average M. Volonteri, Brera 2013
  41. 58.

    MBH - host relations: co- evolution of MBHs and galaxies

    early universe today today adjustment symbiosis dominance M. Volonteri, Brera 2013
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    The Illustris Cosmological Simulation ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature13316 Properties of galaxies reproduced

    by a hydrodynamic simulation M. Vogelsberger1, S. Genel2, V. Springel3,4, P. Torrey2, D. Sijacki5, D. Xu3, G. Snyder6, S. Bird7, D. Nelson2 & L. Hernquist2 Previous simulations of the growth of cosmic structures have broadly reproduced the ‘cosmic web’ of galaxies that we see in the Universe, but failed to create a mixed population of elliptical and spiral galaxies, because of numerical in- accuracies and incomplete physical models. Moreover, they were unable to track the small-scale evolution of gas and stars to the present epoch within a representative portion of the Universe. Here we report a simulation that starts 12 million years after the Big Bang, and traces 13 billion years of cosmic evolution with 12 billion resolution elements in a cube of 106.5 megaparsecs a side. It yields a reasonable population of ellipticals and spirals, reproduces the observed distribution of galaxies in clusters and characteristics of hydrogen on large scales, and at the same time matches the ‘metal’ and hydrogen content of galaxies on small scales. Theinitialconditionsfor structureformationintheUniversearetightly constrained from measurements of anisotropies in the cosmic micro- wave background radiation1. However, previous attempts toreproduce the properties of the observed cosmological structures with computer modelshaveshownonlylimitedsuccess.Nosingle,self-consistentsim- ulation of the Universe was able to simultaneously predict statistics on large scales, such as the distribution of neutral hydrogen or the galaxy population of massive galaxy clusters, together with galaxy properties onsmallscales,suchasthemorphologyanddetailedgasandstellarcon- tentofgalaxies.Thechallengelies infollowingthe baryonic component of the Universe using hydrodynamic simulations2–4, whichare required volumeandimprovedresolution,oursimulationisevolvedwiththenovel hydrodynamic algorithm AREPO5, which uses a moving unstructured Voronoi tessellation in combination with a finite volume approach (Methods).Finally,weemployanumericallywell-posedandreasonably complete model for galaxy formation physics, which includes the for- mationofbothstarsandSMBHs,andtheireffectsontheirenvironments in forms of galactic super-winds driven by star formation, as well as radio bubbles and radiation proximity effects caused by active galactic nuclei (AGNs; see Methods). Unlike previous attempts, we find a mix of galaxy morphologies ranging from blue spiral galaxies to red ellipticals, with a hydrogen and
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    Start from early universe initial conditions Build simulation which includes

    relevant physics Allow galaxies to “self-consistently” evolve Challenge: Push toward a predictive theory of galaxy formation
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    Incorporate comprehensive physics/feedback model: Radiative Cooling Star formation Stellar Evolution

    Galactic Winds AGN Feedback Illustris Project Methods Full description of physical model in: Vogelsberger et al., (2013 arXiv: 1305.2913)
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    Black holes in Illustris 9 Figure 4. Central panel: stellar

    half-mass of all galaxies at z = 0 versus their central black hole mass. Colour-coding is according to the g r colours of galaxies. The thick black line denotes the best-fit MBH - Mstar , HM relation from Kormendy & Ho (2013) fitted to ellipticals and galaxies with bulges only. Symbols with error bars are from Kormendy & Ho (2013) as well, where circles are for ellipticals, Sijacki et al. 2015, MNRAS