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Nudge Theory

Nudge Theory

Nudge theory: influencing empowered teams to do the things that matter to you

Successful DevOps means empowering teams. “You build it, you run it” is a fine principle, but it means you need to let your teams make their own choices. But you still have things you want all teams to do, and you need to balance the benefits of the right technologies against the costs of running multiple data stores, deployment platforms, languages, etc.

Includes a brief overview of nudge theory and the EAST framework developed by the UK government’s Behavioural Insights team as a framework for influencing behaviour and explores what nudge theory can teach us about making it easy and attractive for disparate teams to do things for the common good.

Continuous Lifecycle London 2017

A288fb976fc633cde90a2bc19bf2b5a6?s=128

Sarah Wells

May 18, 2017
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Transcript

  1. Nudge theory: influencing empowered teams to do the things that

    matter to you Sarah Wells Principal Engineer, Financial Times @sarahjwells
  2. @sarahjwells Hello

  3. @sarahjwells 1. The challenge 2. Nudge theory 3. Influencing teams

    at the FT
  4. @sarahjwells 1. The challenge

  5. @sarahjwells Need to be able to try things out and

    take risks
  6. @sarahjwells We don’t have time to wait for a decision

  7. @sarahjwells We don’t have to build it right to find

    out if it’s the right thing
  8. @sarahjwells Continuous delivery means we can get this stuff out

    there in days
  9. @sarahjwells Being able to do stuff quickly is great!

  10. @sarahjwells “You build it, you run it”

  11. @sarahjwells Great for building stable well-monitored services

  12. @sarahjwells I’m not going to support it if someone forced

    me to do it wrong
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  14. @sarahjwells One size does NOT fit all

  15. @sarahjwells BUT…

  16. @sarahjwells What happens when the project finishes?

  17. @sarahjwells What’s it like to move teams?

  18. @sarahjwells What about higher level goals?

  19. @sarahjwells For the good of the company • Security •

    Cost control • Operability • Support
  20. @sarahjwells For the good of the people • Recruitment •

    Career growth/learning • Ability to switch teams
  21. @sarahjwells 2. Nudge theory

  22. @sarahjwells –David Halpern, ‘Inside the Nudge Unit’ “a ‘nudge’ is

    essentially a means of encouraging or guiding behaviour”
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  24. @sarahjwells Attractive to governments!

  25. @sarahjwells US government

  26. @sarahjwells – https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/09/15/executive- order-using-behavioral-science-insights-better-serve-american “A growing body of evidence demonstrates

    that behavioral science insights … can be used to design government policies to better serve the American people”
  27. @sarahjwells UK government

  28. @sarahjwells The “Nudge Unit” now employs 70 people in London,

    New York and Sydney
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  30. @sarahjwells Data-driven

  31. @sarahjwells Some examples

  32. @sarahjwells Schiphol airport

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  34. @sarahjwells – https://worksthatwork.com/1/urinal-fly “Sphinx, the urinal manufacturer that provides the

    toilets for Schiphol, says that having the fly in the toilet represents savings in cleaning costs of 20% or more”
  35. @sarahjwells UK organ donation register – http://www.behaviouralinsights.co.uk/publications/applying- behavioural-insights-to-organ-donation/

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  39. @sarahjwells In one year, would mean ~ 96,000 additional registrations

  40. @sarahjwells Travel during the London 2012 Olympics

  41. @sarahjwells 62 million journeys during the Olympics – 35 per

    cent above normal
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  44. @sarahjwells – http://content.tfl.gov.uk/olympic-legacy-personal-travel-report.pdf “Across the two weeks of the Olympics,

    more than three quarters of the London travelling population made some sort of change to their travel patterns as a result of the Games and just 23 per cent continued to travel as normal.”
  45. @sarahjwells – http://www.cyclingweekly.co.uk/news/did-the-olympics-give- cycling-a-boost-31296 “the government’s Ride to Work scheme

    … leapt in popularity after the Olympics, with a 30% increase in uptake in the third quarter of 2012 compared with 2011.”
  46. @sarahjwells So - how do you influence behaviour?

  47. @sarahjwells If you want to encourage a behaviour, make it:

  48. @sarahjwells Easy • Reduce the ‘hassle’ factor of taking up

    a service • Harness the power of defaults • Simplify messages
  49. @sarahjwells Attractive • Attract attention • Think about the incentives

  50. @sarahjwells Social • Show what other people are doing •

    Use the power of networks • Encourage people to make a commitment
  51. @sarahjwells Timely • Pick the right time • Offer immediate

    costs and benefits • Help people plan behaviour in advance
  52. @sarahjwells Easy, Attractive, Social and Timely (EAST) – http://www.behaviouralinsights.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/ BIT-Publication-EAST_FA_WEB.pdf

  53. @sarahjwells 3. Influencing teams at the FT

  54. @sarahjwells Developer tooling: then and now

  55. @sarahjwells FT Platform

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  57. @sarahjwells Lots of decisions made for you

  58. @sarahjwells Didn’t collaborate with their end users

  59. @sarahjwells ‘Forced’ upgrades

  60. @sarahjwells – matt.chadburn.co.uk/notes/teams-as-services.html “pick the best value tools for the

    job at hand, be they things developed and supported by internal teams or external to the company.”
  61. @sarahjwells Internal teams no longer have a captive market

  62. @sarahjwells But they should have all the advantages

  63. @sarahjwells Tools and APIs over platforms

  64. @sarahjwells “Look at this! And here’s how easy it is

    to use”
  65. @sarahjwells Defining what it means to build a system

  66. @sarahjwells “Your system is expected to be stable, secure and

    well monitored”
  67. @sarahjwells “If you as a project choose new technologies, either

    you do overnight support or you provide enough documentation and handover for first line to be happy doing so”
  68. @sarahjwells Define what you want, not how to do it

  69. @sarahjwells “It should be possible for a new developer to

    get their development and deployment environment set up in 20 minutes”
  70. @sarahjwells The Engineering Checklist

  71. @sarahjwells Checklists are great

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  78. @sarahjwells Github web hook

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  84. @sarahjwells “Your web application health check should look like this”

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  88. @sarahjwells Communication

  89. @sarahjwells Good things get around

  90. @sarahjwells Graphite and Grafana

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  93. @sarahjwells Circle CI

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  95. @sarahjwells Giving people information

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  99. @sarahjwells Programmatic checks for standards compliance

  100. @sarahjwells FT AWS tag standards • team • environment •

    stopSchedule • etc…
  101. @sarahjwells Tagbot: checking AWS tags and terminating instances that don’t

    comply
  102. @sarahjwells If no-one is doing the thing you want them

    to - it’s your problem
  103. @sarahjwells You need to be willing to discuss things (e.g.

    github user names)
  104. @sarahjwells How does this relate to Nudge theory again?

  105. @sarahjwells Easy: a reminder • Reduce the ‘hassle’ factor of

    taking up a service • Harness the power of defaults • Simplify messages
  106. @sarahjwells Easy: • Checklists • APIs • Example code, client

    libraries
  107. @sarahjwells Easy: • Supporting self-service • Customer service: dedicated slack

    channel, status pages, helpful error messages, feedback mechanisms
  108. @sarahjwells Attractive: a reminder • Attract attention • Think about

    the incentives
  109. @sarahjwells Attractive: • Showing how this will make their life

    less painful • Making clear the value that team and the FT as a whole get from doing it
  110. @sarahjwells Attractive: • Information in places people look at •

    Great documentation, screen shots, demos
  111. @sarahjwells Social: a reminder • Show what other people are

    doing • Use the power of networks • Encourage people to make a commitment
  112. @sarahjwells Social: • Show how other people are doing on

    this measure • Agreeing on when a team will tackle something
  113. @sarahjwells Social: • Showing off about stuff - lightning talks,

    demos, explainer sessions, posters • Getting client teams to talk about how easy/useful it is
  114. @sarahjwells Timely: a reminder • Pick the right time •

    Offer immediate costs and benefits • Help people plan behaviour in advance
  115. @sarahjwells Timely: • Telling people what they are going to

    need to do and when • Frequently and via lots of mechanisms
  116. @sarahjwells Timely: • Telling people what’s coming next • Talking

    to customers and doing things for them proactively
  117. @sarahjwells 1. The challenge 2. Nudge theory 3. Influencing teams

    at the FT
  118. @sarahjwells Teams that make their own decisions can move faster

  119. @sarahjwells But you can end up with a proliferation of

    approaches
  120. @sarahjwells Provide a good solution and teams will use it

  121. @sarahjwells EAST can help to nudge the teams towards that

    solution
  122. @sarahjwells Thank you!