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オープンデータで社会はどう変わるのか?(オープンデータの定義と意義)

 オープンデータで社会はどう変わるのか?(オープンデータの定義と意義)

2019年5月29日に小金井市で開催された「オープンデータ化支援研修」における講義資料です。
研修全体の内容については「総務省オープンデータ研修ポータル」をご覧ください。
https://www.opendata-training.org/support/material/

Sayoko Shimoyama

May 29, 2019
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  1. $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ΦʔϓϯσʔλͰ
    ࣾձ͸Ͳ͏
    มΘΔͷ͔ʁ
    2019.5.29 (Wed.)
    ΦʔϓϯσʔλԽࢧԉݚम
    ౦ژ౎খۚҪࢢ
    Ұൠࣾஂ๏ਓϦϯΫσʔλ
    ୅දཧࣄ
    Լࢁ ࣿ୅ࢠ

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  2. Լࢁ ࣿ୅ࢠʢ͠΋΍· ͞Α͜ʣ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    lσʔλϑϧ׆༻ࣾձz ͷ࣮ݱΛ໨ࢦ͠ɺσʔλ׆༻ਓࡐ
    ͷҭ੒ʹऔΓ૊ΜͰ͍Δ
    ओͨΔॴଐ Ұൠࣾஂ๏ਓϦϯΫσʔλ ୅දཧࣄ
    ຽؒاۀ ΠϯϑΥɾϥ΢ϯδגࣜձࣾ औక໾
    ϛʔΧϯύχʔגࣜձࣾ σʔλενϡϫʔυ
    ؠֶ࡚Ԃ৘ใՊֶઐ໳ֶߍ ඇৗۈߨࢣ
    ެతػؔ ಺ֳ׭๪ Φʔϓϯσʔλ఻ಓࢣ
    ૯຿ল ஍Ҭ৘ใԽΞυόΠβʔ
    $JWJD5FDI $PEFGPS+BQBOσʔλ׆༻ΞυόΠβʔɾ
    σʔλΞΧσϛʔߨࢣ
    $PEF GPS:0,0)"."$#0

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  3. ҧ͍Λฉ͔ΕͨΒઆ໌Ͱ͖·͔͢ʁ
    σʔλ ৘ใ
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  4. ʮσʔλʯͱ͸ʁ
    *40ٴͼ+*4ن֨ʹΑΔఆٛ
    "SFJOUFSQSFUBCMFSFQSFTFOUBUJPOPGJOGPSNBUJPOJOBGPSNBMJ[FENBOOFS
    TVJUBCMFGPSDPNNVOJDBUJPO JOUFSQSFUBUJPO PSQSPDFTTJOHz
    ৘ใͷදݱͰ͋ͬͯɺ
    ఻ୡɺղऍ·ͨ͸ॲཧʹద͢ΔΑ͏ʹܗࣜԽ͞Εɺ
    ࠶౓৘ใͱͯ͠ղऍͰ͖Δ΋ͷ
    *40*&$ IUUQTXXXJTPPSHPCQVJJTPTUEJTPJFDFEFO
    ೔ຊ޻ۀن֨ʮ9৘ใॲཧ༻ޠجຊ༻ޠʯIUUQLJLBLVSVJDPNY9IUNM
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  5. σʔλ͸ɺ৘ใΛܗࣜԽͨ͠΋ͷ
    σʔλ ৘ใ
    ࠶౓৘ใͱͯ͠ղऍͰ͖Δ΋ͷ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  6. ਺ࣈ

    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  7. ৘ใ
    ౦ژ౎ͷ
    ۠ࢢொଜ਺͸
    Ͱ͢ɻ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  8. σʔλ
    ౎ಓ෎ݝ໊ ۠ࢢொଜ਺
    ౦ژ౎
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ʢ৘ใΛʮදʯͷܗͰܗࣜԽͨ͠΋ͷʣ

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  9. ৘ใ⁶σʔλ
    ૒ํ޲ʹม׵Մೳ
    ౦ژ౎ͷ
    ۠ࢢொଜ͸
    Ͱ͢ɻ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ౎ಓ෎ݝ໊ ۠ࢢொଜ਺
    ౦ژ౎

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  10. σʔλԽ͢Δͱ
    ଞͷσʔλͱ૊Έ߹ΘͤΒΕΔ
    Φʔϓϯσʔλऔ૊࣏ࣗମ
    Ұཡ
    ʢฏ੒೥݄೔࣌఺ʣ
    IUUQTDJPHPKQQPMJDZPQFOEBUB
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ౦ژ౎಺Ͱ
    ΦʔϓϯσʔλΛ
    ਪਐ͍ͯ͠Δ࣏ࣗମ͸
    ͍ͭ͋͘Δ͔ʁ

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  11. ଞͷσʔλͱ૊Έ߹ΘͤΔͱ
    ৽ͨͳ৘ใ͕ಘΒΕΔ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ౦ژ౎ͷ۠ࢢொଜͷ͏ͪ

    ͕ΦʔϓϯσʔλʹऔΓ૊ΜͰ͍Δ
    ౎ಓ෎ݝ໊ ۠ࢢொଜ਺
    ΦʔϓϯσʔλΛਪਐ͍ͯ͠Δ
    ۠ࢢொଜ਺
    ౦ژ౎
    ެ։ࡁ
    ະެ։

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  12. ଞͷσʔλͱ૊Έ߹ΘͤΔͱ
    ৽ͨͳ৘ใ͕ಘΒΕΔ
    IUUQTQVCMJDUBCMFBVDPNWJFXTTIFFU FNCFEZEJTQMBZ@DPVOUZFTQVCMJTIZFTPSJHJOWJ[@TIBSF@MJOL
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ౦ژ౎͸ୈҐ

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  13. σʔλͷ૊Έ߹Θͤ͸৽ͨͳՁ஋ΛੜΉɿ
    αϯϑϥϯγείࢢ º :FMQ
    nαϯϑϥϯγείࢢͰ͸ɺҿ৯ళʹ
    ର࣮ͯ͠ࢪͨ͠อ݈Ӵੜݕࠪͷ݁Ռ
    Λσʔλͱͯ͠ެ։͍ͯ͠Δ
    n:FMQ͸ͦΕΛαʔϏεʹऔΓࠐΈɺ
    l)FBMUI 4DPSFzͱͯ͠఺ຬ఺
    ͷείΞԽ֤ͯ͠ҿ৯ళͷ
    ϨϏϡʔϖʔδʹදࣔ

    n ੈք࠷େڃͷϩʔΧϧϏδωεͷϨϏϡʔαΠτ
    n ೔ຊͰ͍͏ͱ͜Ζͷʮ৯΂ϩάʯతͳαʔϏε
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  14. σʔλͷ૊Έ߹Θͤ͸৽ͨͳՁ஋ΛੜΉɿ
    αϯϑϥϯγείࢢ º :FMQ

    ӴੜείΞɿ

    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  15. σʔλͷ૊Έ߹Θͤ͸৽ͨͳՁ஋ΛੜΉɿ
    αϯϑϥϯγείࢢ º :FMQ

    :FMQ͸ϢʔβʔʹΑΓ҆৺ɾ҆શΛಧ͚ΒΕΔ
    αʔϏεΛఏڙՄೳʹ
    ௚ۙͷอ݈Ӵੜ
    ݕࠪʹ͓͍ͯҧ൓
    ͕߲͋ͬͨ໨
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  16. αϯϑϥϯγείࢢ º :FMQ͔Βݟ͑Δ
    σʔλ͕΋ͨΒࣾ͢ձมֵ

    ΋͠αϯϑϥϯγείࢢ͕
    Ӵੜௐࠪ݁ՌΛαΠτͰެද͍ͯ͠Δ
    ͚ͩͩͬͨΒʁ
    Ұ෦ͷਓ͔͠ݟʹདྷͳ͍
    ΋͠:FMQ͕
    ಠࣗʹҿ৯ళΛධՁ͢Δ
    είΞΛ෇͚͍ͯͨΒʁ
    ެฏੑ͕୲อ͞Εͳ͍
    ڧΈɿళฮͷӦۀσʔλ΍ޱίϛ
    σʔλΛूΊͯɺଟ͘ͷϢʔβ͕
    ू·Δ৔Λ͍࣋ͬͯΔ
    ڧΈɿࢢຽͷ҆શΛकΔͨΊʹ࣮ࢪ
    ͨ͠ௐࠪ݁Ռͱͯ͠ɺެฏͳσʔλ
    ΛఏڙͰ͖Δ
    σʔλ͕ڞ༗͞ΕΔ͜ͱͰ
    ʮ૊৫Λ௒͑ͯಘҙ෼໺Λ෼୲Ͱ͖ΔࣾձʯʹͳΔ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  17. ߦ੓ͷσʔλ͸୭ʹͰ΋࢖͑ΔΑ͏ʹ
    ެ։͞Ε͍ͯΔඞཁ͕͋Δ
    nӴੜௐࠪ͸ࢢͷ੫ۚΛ࢖ͬͯӡ༻͞Ε͍ͯΔͷͰɺ
    ೲ੫ऀ͸౳ͦ͘͠ͷσʔλΛ࢖͏ݖརΛ͍࣋ͬͯΔ
    n୭Ͱ΋ࣗ༝ʹ࢖͑ΔσʔλͰ͋Δඞཁ͕͋Δ

    ΋͠αϯϑϥϯγείࢢ͕
    :FMQ͚ͩʹӴੜௐࠪ݁ՌσʔλΛ
    ౉͍ͯͨ͠Βʁ
    ಛఆاۀΛࢧԉ͢ΔܗʹͳΓෆެฏ
    Φʔϓϯσʔλ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  18. Φʔϓϯσʔλͷఆٛ
    ࠃɺ஍ํެڞஂମٴͼࣄۀऀ͕อ༗͢Δ׭ຽσʔλͷ͏ͪɺࠃຽ୭΋͕Πϯλʔωοτ
    ౳Λ௨ͯ͡༰қʹར༻ʢՃ޻ɺฤूɺ࠶഑෍౳ʣͰ͖ΔΑ͏ɺ࣍ͷ͍ͣΕͷ߲໨ʹ΋֘
    ౰͢ΔܗͰެ։͞ΕͨσʔλΛΦʔϓϯσʔλͱఆٛ͢Δ
    ʲग़యʳʮΦʔϓϯσʔλجຊࢦ਑ʯฏ੒೥݄೔
    ߴ౓৘ใ௨৴ωοτϫʔΫࣾձਪਐઓུຊ෦ɾ׭ຽσʔλ׆༻ਪਐઓུձܾٞఆ
    Ӧར໨తɺඇӦར໨తΛ໰Θͣ
    ೋ࣍ར༻Մೳͳϧʔϧ͕ద༻͞Εͨ΋ͷ
    ػց൑ಡʹదͨ͠΋ͷ
    ແঈͰར༻Ͱ͖Δ΋ͷ
    2019/5/29 $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  19. Φʔϓϯσʔλ
    ˠΠϝʔδͱͯ͠͸
    ʮσʔλͷҰൠ։์ʯ
    ྫʣମҭؗͷҰൠ։์
    lࢢຽͷͨΊʹ։์͢Δ
    lͩΕͰ΋ແྉͰࣗ༝ʹ࢖͑Δ
    lʮ঎ചਓ͓அΓʯͱ͔͸͠ͳ͍
    lͨͩ͠ɺ๏཯Ͱې͡ΒΕ͍ͯΔ͜ͱ͸
    ౰વڐՄ͞Εͳ͍
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

    OPEN
    DATA

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  20. l0QFO#Z%FGBVMUz
    ೥ (ʮΦʔϓϯσʔλݑষʯʹΑΔࠃࡍతͳ߹ҙ
    ʮ੫ۚΛ࢖ͬͯ࡞ΒΕͨ
    σʔλ͸શͯެڞࡒͱͯ͠
    ެ։͢Δ΂͖Ͱ͋Δʯ
    ͱ͍͏ߟ͑ํΛ
    ݪଇͱͯ͠࠾༻
    2019/5/29 $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  21. ʮΦʔϓϯσʔλʯͱ͸ɺ
    ݩʑօ͞Μͷ΋ͷͩͬͨσʔλΛ
    ฦ͢͜ͱͩͱߟ͍͑ͯ·͢ɻ
    - Miquel Mateu, Open Data Manager of Barcelona City

    14-18 June 2016, World Data Viz Challenge 2016,
    Barcelona
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  22. $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ೥ɿ׭ຽσʔλ׆༻ਪਐجຊ๏ࢪߦ
    ࠃٴͼ࣏ࣗମ͸ΦʔϓϯσʔλʹऔΓ૊Ή͜ͱ͕ٛ຿ͱͳͬͨ

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  23. Φʔϓϯσʔλͷҙٛ
    ࠃຽࢀՃɾ׭ຽڠಇͷਪਐΛ௨ͨ͡
    ॾ՝୊ͷղܾɺܦࡁ׆ੑԽ
    ߦ੓ͷߴ౓Խɾޮ཰Խ
    ಁ໌ੑɾ৴པͷ޲্
    ʲग़యʳʮΦʔϓϯσʔλجຊࢦ਑ʯฏ੒೥݄೔
    ߴ౓৘ใ௨৴ωοτϫʔΫࣾձਪਐઓུຊ෦ɾ׭ຽσʔλ׆༻ਪਐઓུձܾٞఆ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  24. Φʔϓϯσʔλͷҙٛ
    ࠃຽࢀՃɾ׭ຽڠಇͷਪਐΛ௨ͨ͡
    ॾ՝୊ͷղܾɺܦࡁ׆ੑԽ
    ߦ੓ͷߴ౓Խɾޮ཰Խ
    ಁ໌ੑɾ৴པͷ޲্
    ʲग़యʳʮΦʔϓϯσʔλجຊࢦ਑ʯฏ੒೥݄೔
    ߴ౓৘ใ௨৴ωοτϫʔΫࣾձਪਐઓུຊ෦ɾ׭ຽσʔλ׆༻ਪਐઓུձܾٞఆ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  25. ͳͥ׭ຽڠಇ͕ඞཁͳͷ͔ʁ
    ͜Ε·Ͱ͸ߦ੓͕ެڞαʔϏεӡӦͷओମͩͬͨ
    2019/5/29 $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ߦ੓ ॅຽ
    ੫ۚ
    ެڞαʔϏε

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  26. ͳͥ׭ຽڠಇ͕ඞཁͳͷ͔ʁ
    ੫ऩ͕ݮΔͱɺ͜Ε·Ͱ௨ΓͷެڞαʔϏε͸
    ҡ࣋Ͱ͖ͳ͘ͳΔ
    2019/5/29 $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ߦ੓ ॅຽ
    ੫ۚ
    ެڞαʔϏε

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  27. ׭ຽڠಇʹΑͬͯ
    ஍ҬΛ࣋ଓՄೳʹ͢Δ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ߦ੓ ॅຽ
    ੫ۚ
    ެڞαʔϏε
    اۀɾݚڀػؔ
    ߦ੓͕ಘҙͳ෦෼ɺ
    ߦ੓ʹ͔͠Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    ෦෼ʹूத͢Δ
    ຽ͕ؒಘҙͳͱ͜Ζ͸
    ຽؒʹ೚ͤΔ

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  28. ΦʔϓϯσʔλʹΑͬͯɺ૊৫Λ௒͑ͯ
    ಘҙ෼໺Λ෼୲Ͱ͖Δࣾձ͕࣮ݱ͢Δ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ߦ੓ ॅຽ
    ੫ۚ
    ެڞαʔϏε
    اۀɾݚڀػؔ
    ߦ੓ͷ࣋ͭ৘ใΛ
    ʮσʔλʯͱ͍͏
    ڞ༗ʹదͨ͠ܗͰ
    ຽؒʹ։์͢Δ
    OPEN
    DATA

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  29. ࣄྫɿʮͣ͠Έͪ*OGPʯ
    ʢ੩Ԭࢢ º τϤλ*5։ൃηϯλʔʣ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ੩Ԭࢢʮͣ͠Έͪ*OGPʯ
    nಓ࿏ަ௨৘ใΛ
    ΦʔϓϯσʔλԽ
    n௨ߦن੍΍ࡂ֐ൃੜ
    ͳͲͷσʔλΛ
    ϦΞϧλΠϜͰ഑৴
    τϤλ*5։ൃηϯλʔ
    nڞಉ࣮ݧͰʮͣ͠Έͪ
    *OGPʯͷσʔλΛऔಘ
    ͠ΧʔφϏͰ৘ใ഑৴
    ʢσʔλެ։ݩʣ
    ن੍ؔ࿈σʔλɿ੩Ԭࢢݐઃہಓ࿏෦ಓ࿏อશ՝
    ๷ࡂؔ࿈σʔλɿ੩Ԭࢢ૯຿ہةػ؅ཧ૯ࣨ
    $&')(!",*1%
    # "" #
    7
    #13/-5/6 #.54506/+2

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  30. ࣄྫɿʮͣ͠Έͪ*OGPʯ
    ैདྷ͸ඞཁͳ৘ใΛඞཁͳਓʹ
    ಧ͚ΒΕͳ͔ͬͨ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ௨ߦن੍
    ৘ใ
    νϥγ΍ެࣜ8FCαΠτ౳Ͱ
    ৘ใൃ৴
    ඞཁͳλΠϛϯάͰ
    ඞཁͳ৘ใ͕ಘΒΕͳ͍
    #&'03&
    ߦ੓ υϥΠόʔ

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  31. ࣄྫɿʮͣ͠Έͪ*OGPʯ
    ΦʔϓϯσʔλͰϦΞϧλΠϜ
    ʹ৘ใ͕ಧ͚ΒΕΔΑ͏ʹ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ௨ߦن੍
    Φʔϓϯ
    σʔλ
    Φʔϓϯσʔλͱͯ͠
    ௨ߦن੍৘ใΛެ։
    ඞཁͳλΠϛϯάͰ
    ࠷৽৘ใ͕ಘΒΕΔ
    "'5&3
    ߦ੓ υϥΠόʔ
    ຽؒاۀ
    ΧʔφϏ
    ։ൃ͍ͯ͠Δ੡඼ʹ
    ΦʔϓϯσʔλΛࡌͤͯ
    αʔϏεఏڙ
    ˞੩ԬࢢͰ͸ΧʔφϏͳͲͷػց͔Β
    ΦʔϓϯσʔλʹΞΫηεͰ͖ΔΑ͏ʹ
    ͢ΔͨΊʹɺ"1* "QQMJDBUJPO
    1SPHSBNNJOH*OUFSGBDF
    ͱ͍͏࢓૊Έ
    Ͱσʔλ͕ެ։͞Ε͍ͯ·͢

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  32. Φʔϓϯσʔλͷҙٛ
    ࠃຽࢀՃɾ׭ຽڠಇͷਪਐΛ௨ͨ͡
    ॾ՝୊ͷղܾɺܦࡁ׆ੑԽ
    ߦ੓ͷߴ౓Խɾޮ཰Խ
    ಁ໌ੑɾ৴པͷ޲্
    ʲग़యʳʮΦʔϓϯσʔλجຊࢦ਑ʯฏ੒೥݄೔
    ߴ౓৘ใ௨৴ωοτϫʔΫࣾձਪਐઓུຊ෦ɾ׭ຽσʔλ׆༻ਪਐઓུձܾٞఆ
    $$#:4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  33. Φʔϓϯσʔλͷҙٛ
    ࠃຽࢀՃɾ׭ຽڠಇͷਪਐΛ௨ͨ͡
    ॾ՝୊ͷղܾɺܦࡁ׆ੑԽ
    ߦ੓ͷߴ౓Խɾޮ཰Խ
    ಁ໌ੑɾ৴པͷ޲্
    ʲग़యʳʮΦʔϓϯσʔλجຊࢦ਑ʯฏ੒೥݄೔
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    ΦʔϓϯσʔλԽ
    ͢Δ࡞ۀͷ෼ɺ
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  34. ࣄྫɿ
    ৘ใެ։੥ٻͷܰݮʢ੩Ԭࢢʣ
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  35. τʔλϧίετ͕ߴ͍ͷ͸ͲͪΒʁ
    ৘ใެ։੥ٻ 74Φʔϓϯσʔλ
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    ೥ؒ੥ٻ݅਺ʢ೥໨ʣɿ ݅
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    ݅͋ͨΓͷରԠ࣌ؒɿ ࣌ؒ
    ৬һͷ࣌څɿ ԁ
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  36. ࢼࢉ݁Ռɿ
    Φʔϓϯσʔλ͸ॳظίετ͕͔͔Δ͕ɺ
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  37. ࣄྫɿ
    ࢢຽ͔Βͷۤ৘ͷܰݮʢࡸߐࢢʣ
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  38. Φʔϓϯσʔλͷҙٛ
    ࠃຽࢀՃɾ׭ຽڠಇͷਪਐΛ௨ͨ͡
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    ߦ੓ͷߴ౓Խɾޮ཰Խ
    ಁ໌ੑɾ৴པͷ޲্
    ʲग़యʳʮΦʔϓϯσʔλجຊࢦ਑ʯฏ੒೥݄೔
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  39. ಁ໌ੑɾ
    ৴པͷ޲্
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  40. Φʔϓϯσʔλ͸ி಺Ͱ
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  41. Φʔϓϯσʔλͷҙٛ
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  42. 2019/5/29 CC BY 4.0 SAYOKO SHIMOYAMA, LINKDATA 42

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  43. 2ߦ੓͕อ༗͢ΔσʔλશͯΛ
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  44. 2ΦʔϓϯσʔλͷϦεΫͱ͠
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  45. ʮϦεΫ͕͋Δ͔Βެ։͠ͳ͍ʯ
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  46. ϦεΫ໘͚ͩΛҙࣝͤͣɺࢢຽͷ
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  47. 2͢ͰʹϗʔϜϖʔδ΍ઐ༻ΞϓϦͰ
    ৘ใΛ഑৴͍ͯ͠ΔͷͰɺΦʔϓϯ
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  48. ࣄྫɿʮ͗͢φϏʯ࿈ಈܕ
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  49. ࣄྫɿʮ͗͢φϏʯ࿈ಈܕ
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  50. LinkData.org
    ୭Ͱ΋ΦʔϓϯσʔλΛެ։Ͱ͖Δ࢓૊ΈͰ׭ຽڠಇΛαϙʔτ
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  51. දσʔλΛػցՄಡੑͷߴ͍σʔλʹม׵ͯ͠഑৴
    ୭Ͱ΋؆୯ʹΦʔϓϯσʔλΛެ։Մೳ
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  52. LinkData.org
    ར༻࣏ࣗମ਺

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  53. LinkData.org
    ొ࿥Ϣʔβ਺

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  54. Ұൠࣾஂ๏ਓϦϯΫσʔλ
    ୅දཧࣄ Լࢁ ࣿ୅ࢠ
    Email: [email protected]
    ຊࢿྉʹؔ͢Δ࣭͝໰ɾ͝ҙݟ΍ɺ
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    ͪ͜Β΁͓د͍ͤͩ͘͞ɻ
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