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openSUSE MicroOS, a platform for everything from containers, to IoT, and even the desktop

openSUSE MicroOS, a platform for everything from containers, to IoT, and even the desktop

An overview and discussion regarding the openSUSE Project's latest rolling-release distribution, MicroOS. The session will detail how concerns regarding the stability of rolling releases are addressed by narrowing the scope of OS, and using technologies like (Atomic) Transactional Updates and automated health checking to guarantee the system keeps working. The session will cover how MicroOS is developed, and the broad range of suitable use cases, from Container server workloads, to Raspberry Pi's and Desktops including real-world examples from the community.

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Richard Brown

February 06, 2021
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Transcript

  1. Picture openSUSE MicroOS & SLE Micro A Platform For Everything

    from containers, to IoT, and even desktops 2 FEBURARY 2021
  2. Copyright © SUSE 2021 2 Richard Brown MicroOS Release Engineer

    rbrown@suse.com @sysrich About Myself openSUSE contributor since it began SUSE employee since 2013 Passionate advocate of rolling releases Former Customer (Systems Manager), QA Engineer, openSUSE Board Member & openSUSE Chairperson Currently Linux Distribution Engineer in Future Technology Team focusing on two rolling distributions openSUSE MicroOS – Single Purpose Self Administering OS openSUSE Kubic – MicroOS for Kubernetes & Containers Photographer in spare time
  3. Copyright © SUSE 2021 3 What is MicroOS?

  4. Copyright © SUSE 2021 4 Why is MicroOS? Computers are

    no longer only laptops, desktops, and servers. People no longer use laptops, desktops and servers the same way as they used to.
  5. Copyright © SUSE 2021 5 IoT: IP WebCams Do you

    have an IP Webcam or similar IoT Device? Ever updated it?
  6. Copyright © SUSE 2021 6 IoT: IP WebCams There are

    millions of these devices • 78% of total detected malware activity is due to IoT botnets (2018) • Failed updates result in many, many unhappy customers
  7. Copyright © SUSE 2021 7 Embedded: O2 UK Network Outage

    2019 Identified some clear requirements • Reliable Updates • Automatic Recovery • Outage can be very expensive • Repair can be very time consuming
  8. Copyright © SUSE 2021 8 Edge: Trains

  9. Copyright © SUSE 2021 9 Edge: Trains aka. 300 Device

    Rolling Datacentres Significant local analysis required: - State of components - Control System (signal and barrier detection) Status reports regularly sent to workshops via LTE, GSM-R, UMTS Big data analysis subsequently carried out in Public Cloud Availability: >>99% Sensors: ~300 Fleet: ~100 Trains, each providing: - 1-2 billion data points/year; 100-200 billion data points overall - 0.5 Terabytes of data/year; 50 Terabyte overall
  10. Copyright © SUSE 2021 10 Datacentres: Really Big Clusters Several

    hundred machines All with the same OS version Workload in containers - Kubernetes Automatic update Automatic rollback Machine with problems? kill and replace
  11. Copyright © SUSE 2021 11 Modern Realities Virtualisation More Services

    = More VMs, not more physical hardware Containers Limits incompatibilities, isolates service problems Cloud More Hardware is always just a Credit Card away IoT Single-purpose devices are increasingly prolific
  12. Copyright © SUSE 2021 12 New World Requirements Scalable Small,

    really small, in order to: - minimise need for updates - minimise need for configuration - rollout easily and repeatedly at scale Predictable Run same way on every boot Is not alterable during operation System should be customisable by user before deployment Reliable Automated installation of system updates Automatic rollback in the event of issues with system updates Workloads isolated from Base OS (eg. Containers as first class workload)
  13. Copyright © SUSE 2021 13 Regular Linux is NOT good

    enough Traditional Linux is like a Swiss Army Knife Lots of Services & Features - with increased chances of incompatibilities between services - and increased risk of complex failures
  14. Copyright © SUSE 2021 14 Users Already Know This We

    build wonderfully complex Linux, just for users to take it and: - Deploy Single Purpose VM/Cloud/IoT instances - Minimise installed services - Ignore patching for Rip n’ Replace - Add more instances over micro- managing their existing fleets
  15. Copyright © SUSE 2021 15 Handcrafted isn’t good enough Building

    custom Single Purpose systems by hand is a lot of work Still often have issues with Configuration Management Still need effort to keep patched Optimising for RAM/CPU/Disk is HARD
  16. Copyright © SUSE 2021 16 Nobody is perfect Even the

    best designed & maintained systems have flaws Those flaws need to be prevented from getting in the way of what the system is meant to do Anything worth doing, is worth being able to undo
  17. Copyright © SUSE 2021 17 openSUSE MicroOS openSUSE MicroOS is

    both predictable & immutable. It cannot be altered during runtime. MicroOS is reliable with automated updates and automated recovery from faulty updates. MicroOS is small with only what is needed to run it’s “one job”. Applications/Services are expected to be Containerised or Sandboxed.
  18. Copyright © SUSE 2021 18 SLE Micro SLE Micro is

    both predictable & immutable. It cannot be altered during runtime. SLE Micro is reliable with automated updates and automated recovery from faulty updates. SLE Micro is small with only what is needed to run it’s “one job”. Applications/Services are expected to be Containerised.
  19. Copyright © SUSE 2021 19 MicroOS Architecture openSUSE MicroOS is

    a rolling release based on openSUSE Tumbleweed. MicroOS is wholly built, developed, and tested as part of the Tumbleweed release process. Any test failure detected before the release of either Tumbleweed & MicroOS can prevent the release of both distributions. SLE Micro is a regular release based on SUSE Linux Enterprise.
  20. Copyright © SUSE 2021 20 Pretty Small (and Shrinking) 619MB

    Bare Metal Install 165 MB kernel-default 152 MB kernel-firmware 68 MB grub2 382MB VM Image 68 MB grub2 35 MB kernel-default-base 10 MB systemd 288 RPMs, 210 Source Packages
  21. Copyright © SUSE 2021 21 “I NEVER want to touch

    a running system” - Every SysAdmin, ever
  22. Copyright © SUSE 2021 22 Transactional Updates Any change to

    a system should be applied reliably, reproducibly, and reversibly. Transactional Updates are: - Atomic - Either fully applied, or not at all - Applied without impacting the running system
  23. Copyright © SUSE 2021 23 Transactional Update User View ro

    ro ro ro curr. root
  24. Copyright © SUSE 2021 24 Transactional Update Phase 1 ro

    ro ro ro 1 curr. root ro ro-Clone
  25. Copyright © SUSE 2021 25 Transactional Update Phase 2 ro

    ro ro ro 1 curr. root rw ro-Clone 2 Change rw
  26. Copyright © SUSE 2021 26 Transactional Update Phase 3 ro

    ro ro ro 1 curr. root rw ro-Clone 2 Change rw 3 zypper up
  27. Copyright © SUSE 2021 27 Transactional Update Phase 4 ro

    ro ro ro 1 curr. root ro ro-Clone 2 Change rw 3 zypper up Change ro 4
  28. Copyright © SUSE 2021 28 Transactional Update Activation ro ro

    ro ro 1 curr. root New root ro-Clone 2 Change rw 3 zypper up Change ro 5 “Rollback” 4
  29. Copyright © SUSE 2021 29 Transactional Update After Reboot ro

    ro ro ro curr. root ro
  30. Copyright © SUSE 2021 30 Transactional Update Without Reboot ro

    ro ro ro curr. root ro ro New root
  31. Copyright © SUSE 2021 31 Powered by btrfs Unique Very

    space efficient – each snapshot only contains diffs Config files in /etc are part of the snapshot and rollback Brings many benefits of image- style upgrades without their limitations Flexible No new package format necessary (eg. rpm-ostree) No size limitation for partitions/OS Easily enhanceable Reliable Able to use boot config from previous working snapshots Smaller threat surface for boot- blocking issues
  32. Copyright © SUSE 2021 32 Rollback In the event of

    a failure/unwanted behavioural change Immutable: Nothing has changed on disk Rollback is done by booting an old snapshot This can be done as often as wanted
  33. Copyright © SUSE 2021 33 Health Check Checks for errors

    during boot phase Error with new snapshot? Rollback to last known working snapshot Error with already successful booted snapshot? Try reboot, else shutdown services, inform admin Needs access to harddisk
  34. Copyright © SUSE 2021 34 Secure Updates Updates downloaded with

    https Packages signed Repositories signed Intruder cannot exchange good, new packages with old, insecure ones Verify Packages System not updated if (dependency) conflicts occur Snapshots get immediately deleted if error occur during update
  35. Copyright © SUSE 2021 35 Hardware Requirements ARM (aarch64): EFI,

    either firmware or uboot X86_64: UEFI Legacy BIOS Memory (Virtualised): 512MB + Workload Storage: / (root) – 5GB /var - 5GB
  36. Copyright © SUSE 2021 36 Deployment Options DVD/NET ISO w.

    YaST Customisable, streamlined, installer VM/Vagrant/Cloud/Pi Images Preconfigured, ready to use disk images Yomi Installing directly using Saltstack Combustion/Ignition For use to configure images/systems on first boot
  37. Copyright © SUSE 2021 37 Ignition https://github.com/coreos/ignition Partial replacement of

    cloud-init Features: Partitioning disks Formatting partitions Writing files, enable systemd services Configure users Runs out of initramfs during first boot Does not touch sub-systems not mentioned in user supplied config
  38. Copyright © SUSE 2021 38 Combustion Combustion can do everything

    Ignition can plus: Create additional files Install Packages Setup Devices Repartition existing Hard Drives Runs as a dracut module, executing scripts from external storage labelled “combustion” or “ignition” https://en.opensuse.org/ Portal:MicroOS/Combustion
  39. Copyright © SUSE 2021 39 Toolbox MicroOS’ read-only root filesystem

    raises some challenges: - Reboot needed to install additional tools - Situation after reboot is different then before Toolbox: - Launches small, privileged container - Root filesystem available below /media/root - zypper to install the necessary tools - Persistent between usages
  40. Copyright © SUSE 2021 40 My openSUSE MicroOS Life

  41. Copyright © SUSE 2021 41 MicroOS Desktop openSUSE MicroOS Desktop

    is MicroOS where the ”one job” is running as a Desktop. MicroOS Desktop provides only a minimal base system with a Desktop Environment and Basic Configuration Tools ONLY. All Applications, Browsers, etc are provided by FlatPaks from FlatHub.
  42. Copyright © SUSE 2021 42 Who is the MicroOS Desktop

    for? It is not for everyone. Your Tumbleweed & Leap Desktops are Safe :) It should be perfect for lazy developers, who no longer want to mess around with their desktop and just ”get stuff done”, especially if they develop around containers. It should also appeal to the same audience now more used to an iOS, Chromebook or Android-like experience where the OS is static, automated & reliable and the Apps are the main thing the user cares about.
  43. Copyright © SUSE 2021 43 MicroOS Desktop Goals MicroOS Desktop

    should be reliable, predictable & immutable, just like regular MicroOS. MicroOS Desktop should be less customisable than regular openSUSE Tumbleweed/Leap. MicroOS Desktop should be small, but not at the expense of functionality. Printing, Gaming, Media Production and much more should all work. MicroOS Desktop should just work “out of the box”.
  44. Copyright © SUSE 2021 44 MicroOS Desktop Status MicroOS Desktop

    should be reliable, predictable & immutable, just like regular MicroOS. MicroOS Desktop should be less customisable than regular openSUSE Tumbleweed/Leap. MicroOS Desktop should be small, but not at the expense of functionality. Printing, Gaming, MultiMedia are all valid use cases. MicroOS Desktop should just work “out of the box”.
  45. Copyright © SUSE 2021 45

  46. Copyright © SUSE 2021 46 Not a Container OS openSUSE

    MicroOS/SLE Micro is not designed to be used as the Base OS inside containers Tumbleweed and SLE are already our Container OSs registry.opensuse.org/tumbleweed – 90.4MB registry.opensuse.org/busybox – 9.4MB registry.suse.com/suse/sle15 - 117MB
  47. Insert Image Copyright © SUSE 2021 Talking about containers...

  48. Copyright © SUSE 2021 48 openSUSE Kubic openSUSE Kubic is

    now a MicroOS Derivative, focused specifically on Containers and Kubernetes. Like MicroOS, it is wholly built, developed, and tested as part of the Tumbleweed release process.
  49. Copyright © SUSE 2021 49 Kubernetes is special Lots of

    Moving Parts Containers, Kubernetes, Container Runtime, and base Operating System all need to be updated regularly Containers at Scale Kubernetes is designed to run 100s-1000s of containers at once Large Clusters Kubernetes clusters can span dozens or hundreds of physical machines or VMs
  50. Copyright © SUSE 2021 50 Kubic – openSUSE’s Kubernetes OS

    Inheriting all the usual benefits of openSUSE MicroOS, with optimisations for Containers and Kubernetes, including – Fully Integrated kubeadm – CRI-O Container Runtime – Kured for automating reboots across the cluster – Kubic-Control – alternative cluster bootstrapping tool
  51. Copyright © SUSE 2021 51 Kubic + Rancher = Kubic

    NG? If MicroOS in Kubic has the single purpose of running Kubernetes with a containerised control plane, why not have Rancher control the patch level of the cluster nodes? • Removal of transactional-update & podman from Kubic base image • btrfs send/receive of centrally curated root subvolume image • Updates delivered via containers then deployed transactionally on nodes • btrfs checksum verification of node rootfs compared to curated root subvolume image
  52. Copyright © SUSE 2021 52 Join the Fun opensuse-kubic@opensuse.org -

    Mailing list #kubic on irc.freenode.net - IRC openSUSE:Factory & devel:kubic on build.opensuse.org - Build Service
  53. Picture Thank you For more information, contact SUSE at: +1

    800 796 3700 (U.S./Canada) +49 (0)911-740 53-0 (Worldwide) Maxfeldstrasse 5 90409 Nuremberg www.suse.com © 2020 SUSE LLC. All Rights Reserved. SUSE and the SUSE logo are registered trademarks of SUSE LLC in the United States and other countries. All third-party trademarks are the property of their respective owners.