An exploratory practice of blended learning in engineering English classes

An exploratory practice of blended learning in engineering English classes

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Takuro FUJITA

June 29, 2019
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  1. An exploratory practice of blended learning in engineering English classes

    Takuro FUJITA National Institute of Technology(KOSEN), Fukui College takuro619@gmail.com The 17th Asia TEFL International Conference & The 6th FLLT International Conference June 30 2019 This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17K04831.
  2. • What is exploratory practice? • What is blended learning?

    • Background of this study • The purpose of this study • Method • Results & Discussion
  3. What is Exploratory Practice? Exploratory Practice involves 1. practitioners (e.g.:

    preferably teachers and learners together) working to understand: (a) what they want to understand, following their own agendas; (b) not necessarily in order to bring about change; (c) not primarily by changing; (d) but by using normal pedagogic practices as investigative tools, so that working for understanding is part of the teaching and learning, not extra to it; (e) in a way that does not lead to ‘burn-out,’ but that is indefinitely sustainable; 2. in order to contribute to (f) teaching and learning themselves; (g) professional development, both individual and collective. Allwright (2003, p.p.127-128)
  4. What is Exploratory Practice? 7 principles of EP 1. put

    ‘quality of life’ first 2. work primarily to understand language classroom life 3. involve everybody 4. work to bring people together 5. work also for mutual development 6. integrate the work for understanding into classroom practice 7. make the work a continuous enterprise Allwright (2003, summarized from pp.128-130)
  5. What is Exploratory Practice? I conducted this practitioner research 1.

    to improve my students’ quality of life in the classroom, and 2. to understand language classroom life, 3. by using normal pedagogical tools I tried to 4. involve my students and 5. make the work a continuous enterprise
  6. What is blended learning? “…a ‘narrow’ definition - for example

    ‘blending face-to-face plus web-based learning’ - excludes the use of CD Rom and other technologies and therefore could be seen as excessively restrictive. (Sharma, 2010, p.457)
  7. BL in this study refers to F2F classroom + web-based

    training (WBT)
  8. About NIT, Fukui College • to cultivate engineers who possess

    excellent practical ability, rich humanity & creativity, and who contribute to diverse growth in society. Basic Philosophy Departments • Mechanical Engineering • Electrical & Electronic Enginering • Electronics & Information Engineering • Chemistry & Biology • Civil Engineering
  9. In what situation do engineers use English? (Kaewpet, 2009) •

    Methods • Semi-structured interviews to employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, former civil engineers students, and ESP teachers • Results: 33 communicative events • Reading: design drawings, written instructions/advice, computer programs, textbooks, abstract of projects etc. • Writing: Safety checklists/forms, e-mails, minutes of meetings, daily/periodic reports etc. • Speaking: oral presentation, meetings/seminars, occasional visits, everyday tasks and duties, and daily life situations • Listening: spoken instructions/advice and international seminars/conferences. • Multi-skills: technical terms in professional conversations, and applying for a job
  10. In what situation do engineers use English? (Fujita, 2017) •

    Methods • Semi-structured interviews to students and engineering teachers at KOSEN and Japanese engineers • Results: 6 task-types 15 target tasks • Affiliation: Introducing one’s company, describing one’s company’s products, collecting information about companies • Socializing: Daily conversations • Business: Arranging schedules, Reporting on the progress of work, discussing work-related matters, giving instruction/advice • Research and Engineering: Searching for technical information, reading academic articles and technical documents, explaining the operation of machinery • Learning English: Studying English
  11. Textbooks My puzzle - necessity to introduce basic engineering English

    - lack of time for communication (huge amount of time for explicit instruction) Kameyama, Aoyama & Takeda (2017). Fundamental Science in English I. Seibido - Numbers & Calculations - Figures, Graphs, Functions - State of substance, Ions - Electricity, Heat - Human body - Stars and planets - Energy
  12. Textbooks My puzzle - necessity to introduce basic engineering English

    - lack of time for communication (huge amount of time for explicit instruction) Kameyama, Aoyama & Takeda (2017). Fundamental Science in English I. Seibido - Numbers & Calculations - Figures, Graphs, Functions - State of substance, Ions - Electricity, Heat - Human body - Stars and planets - Energy
  13. Previous study: Fujita 2018 Method - 3rd-year students at KOSEN

    took an English course with blended learning approach. - Homework (instructional videos + vocabulary exercise) -> quiz, pair-work (linguistic practice) -> task - Reaction paper was collected and analyzed qualitatively. Results - increased pedagogy : usability of LMS, Simplicity of grammar instructions, a positive attitude toward English classes - increased flexibility and accessibility
  14. The purpose of the study is to understand what the

    first-year students at KOSEN feel about blended learning in their engineering English classes
  15. 1st-grade students at NIT, Fukui College Participants • 3 classes

    (N=123) • 15-17 years old • (Hopefully) Good relationship with students
  16. Textbooks • Lesson 1: Numbers and Calculations • Addition /

    Subtraction / Multiplication / Division • Lesson 2: Figures • Polygons / Area / Circle / Space Figures / Volume 1SBDUJDF • Lesson 3: State of Substance • Atoms & Molecules / Boiling Point & Melting Point / Temperature & Volume • Lesson 4: Graphs and Functions • Coordinates / Graphs of Linear Equations / Quadratic Functions 1SBDUJDF
  17. • A likert-scale questionnaire • Reaction paper (students’ comments) Data

    Collection & Analysis
  18. Data Collection & Analysis • Likert-scale questionnaire • Learners’ feelings

    and attitudes toward blended learning • Adapted from Kogo & Tominaga (2010) • Perceived effectiveness • Perceived flexibility • Quantitatively analyzed • Mean, SD, and effect size (Cohen’s d)
  19. Data Collection & Analysis • Reaction Paper (RP) • Comments

    about F2F classes and WBT, the points students understood, did not understand, what they want to do at English classes. • More than 100 letters in Japanese • Qualitatively analyzed • Google form
  20. • A likert-scale Questionnaire • Reaction paper (students’ comments) 1SBDUJDF

    1SBDUJDF 2VFTUJPOOBJSF 2VFTUJPOOBJSF 3FBDUJPOQBQFS 2VFTUJPOOBJSF 3FBDUJPOQBQFS "QSJM +VMZ +BOVBSZ 2VFTUJPOOBJSF 3FBDUJPOQBQFS 5PFYBNJOFMFBSOFST`GFFMJOHT BCPVUCMFOEFEMFBSOJOH Data Collection & Analysis
  21. Review (WBT) Practice 1 (From April to July) • Creating

    word problems • Describing the way of finding area and volume of polygons Vocabulary exercise Reading & FFI Receptive Task Production Task • Introduction of new words • Translation practice (pair-work) • Comprehension check • Explicit grammar instruction (only Lesson 1) • Word problems about addition, subtraction etc. • Word problems about polygons • Instructional videos (explicit grammar instruction) • Vocabulary quiz (Quizlet)
  22. &YQMJDJUHSBNNBS JOTUSVDUJPO 4ZOUBY *EJPNT QISBTFT WBT: Instructional videos

  23. • Important phrases both in L1 and L2 • A

    variety of exercises Quizlet
  24. • Increased Flexibility • Personalized learning • Studying anytime and

    anywhere • Increased Effectiveness • Orientation of different teaching approaches Results: reaction papers
  25. • Using WBT enabled the learners to study at their

    own pace, according to their level of understanding. Results: Extract I like English classes because I could study at my own pace at the e- learning room. Even if I didn’t understand some parts, I could watch instructional videos repeatedly and work on these points again and again. Personalized learning
  26. • WBT made it possible for learners to study wherever

    they are, and whenever they want to. Results: Extract I think studying with instructional videos is very convenient and efficient, because I can utilize them wherever I am, and whenever I want to. Studying anywhere and anytime
  27. • Learners made favorable comments about combining face-to-face classrooms and

    web-based training. Extract I want you to continue blended learning approach because I can experience both e-learning, which enables me to study at my own pace, and face-to-face classes, where I promote my understanding of the content of lessons by discussing opinions and thoughts with other people. I feel preparing for English classes is very important, so I will study hard. Orientation of different teaching approaches Results:
  28. Reflection • Favorable comments about WBT • Increased flexibility: •

    Personalized learning • Studying at anywhere and anytime • Increased effectiveness • Orientation of different teaching approaches
  29. Production Task Practice 2 (From October to January) Homework (WBT)

    • Compare three substances of melting and boiling points • Describing reaction formulae, how to solve a quadratic equations Review Quiz Reading & Practice Receptive Task • Instructional videos (explicit grammar instruction) • Vocabulary quiz (Quizlet) • Comprehension check • Reading passages aloud • Reading another passages related to the topic • Form-focused quiz (jumbled sentences etc)
  30. • Increased Flexibility • Personalized learning • Studying anytime and

    anywhere • Increased Effectiveness • Orientation of different teaching approaches • Increased understanding of lesson contents • Acquiring the habit of studying at home Results: reaction papers
  31. • Using Moodle enabled the learners to study at their

    own pace, according to their level of understanding. Results: Extract I liked English classes because I could study at my own pace at e- learning room, and even if there were some points that I didn’t understand, I could watch instructional videos repeatedly and work on that point again,. Personalized learning
  32. • WBT made it possible for learners to study wherever

    they are, and whenever they want to. Results: Extract In the latter term, the teacher required us to watch instructional videos and prepare for English classes. I studied at home when I had free time. I studied on the train on my way to and from school. The preparation for English classes promoted the understanding of the content of lessons. In face-to-face classes, the teacher took time for speaking activities, so I could practice conversation, which I think is efficient way of utilizing class time. Studying anywhere and anytime
  33. • Learners made favorable comments about combining face-to-face classrooms and

    web-based training. Extract Preparing for English classes with instructional videos and working on a task in face-to-face classrooms is good, because I can review efficiently by watching the videos repeatedly, and I can also learn new contents in the classroom. Orientation of different teaching approaches Results:
  34. • Preparing for English classes promoted understanding the contents of

    lessons. Extract I realized that preparing for next English classes promotes understanding of lessons, so I will keep doing it. Review quiz, which was conducted at the beginning of each lesson, and review tests, which was conducted at the end of the unit, make me study, so they are very useful. I want you to give us more opportunities to study at the e- learning room. Increased understanding of lesson contents Results:
  35. • Preparing for English classes increased the time to study

    and made them know how to study English. Results: Extract Preparing for English classes enabled me to form a habit of studying at home, and I feel like studying not only English but also other subjects, which has resulted in spending more time for studying. Acquiring the habit of studying at home
  36. Results Likert-scale questionnaires Phase 1 (April) Phase 2 (July) Phase

    3 (January) M SD M SD M SD Effectiveness 3.76 0.70 4.19 0.70 4.16 0.73 Flexibility 3.66 0.62 4.11 0.70 4.08 0.76 • Effectiveness: Phase 1 < Phase 2 = Phase 3 • Flexibility: Phase 1 < Phase 2 = Phase 3 Phase 1-2 Phase 2-3 Phase 1-3 Effectiveness 0.61 -0.04 0.56 Flexibility 0.68 -0.04 0.61 Table 1. Descriptive statistics of effectiveness and flexibility Table2. Effect sizes between each phase (Cohen’s d)
  37. Reflection • Favorable comments about blended learning approach • increased

    flexibility and increased pedagogy (Graham, 2006) • formation of good learning habit + increased understanding of lesson contents (flipped approach) • WBT is suitable for explicit grammar instruction. • WBT: explicit grammar instruction • F2F classes: communicative activities and tasks • Applicable for different graders • Fujita (2018): 3rd-graders • This study: 1st-graders • Digital Divide • careful consideration of distributing WBT is essential.
  38. Reference Allwright, D. (2003). Exploratory Practice: Rethinking practitioner research in

    language teaching. Language Teaching Research, 7, 113-141. Graham, C. R. (2006). Blended learning systems: Definition, current trends, and future directions. In C. J. Bonk & C. R. Graham (Eds.), The handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs (pp. 3−21). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Fujita, T. (2017). A needs analysis for constructing a task-syllabus in the National Institute of Technology. JABAET Journal, 21, 5-33. Fujita, T. (2018). A case study on blended learning in English classes teaching at the National Institute of Technology. Paper presented at The 12th International Symposium on Advanced in Technology Education, 78-83. Kameyama, T., Aoyama, M., & Takeda, J. (2017). Fundamental Science in English I. Seibido. Kaewpet, C. (2009). Communication needs of Thai civil engineering students. English for Specific Purposes, 28, 266-278. Kogo, C., & Tominaga, A. (2010). Changes of learners’ adaptability to e-learning after the blended course completion. Research report of JSET Conferences, 103-110. Sharma, P. (2010). Blended learning. ELT Journal, 64, 456-458. Sharma, P., & Barret, B. (2007). Blended learning: Using technology in and beyond the language classroom. London: Macmillan Education.
  39. An exploratory practice of blended learning in engineering English classes

    Takuro FUJITA takuro 619@gmail.com Quantitative Qualitative phase 1-2 phase 2-3 Flexibility: Phase 1 < Phase 2 = Phase 3 Personalized learning + + Studying anytime and anywhere + + Effectiveness : Phase 1 < Phase 2 = Phase 3 Orientation of different teaching approaches + + Increased understanding of lesson contents + Acquiring the habit of studying at home + Vocabulary exercise Reading Passages Tasks Videos & Quizlet Videos & Quizlet Review quiz Reading Practice Tasks Practice 1 (phase 1-2) Practice 2 (phase 2-3)