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How Do I Game Design? (OSCON 2015)

6ed02dec32058508c6feb43b2fbc94f7?s=47 Secret Lab
July 23, 2015

How Do I Game Design? (OSCON 2015)


Secret Lab

July 23, 2015

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  1. How Do I Game Design?

  2. Hello!

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  4. Jon Manning @desplesda Paris B-A @parisba Tim Nugent @the_mcjones

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  6. We are Australian If we don’t make sense, let us

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  9. What We'll Be Doing • Discussing game design! • Focusing

    on Mechanics, Dynamics, Aesthetics • Analysis of what fun is, why games have it, and how to design for it • Pointing out where game design knowledge can be used for UX, UI, community, project, and company building
  10. What We Won't Be Covering • Any programming whatsoever •

    Learning how to use a game engine • Learning how to get a job as a game designer
  11. This is a general introduction We don’t have time to

    go too in-depth!
  12. It’s about play

  13. Why do we play Because they're fun!

  14. Why do we play games? • But: • Why are

    they fun? • What do we mean when we say "fun"? • These are big, contentious questions with no single answer • Here's one answer:
  15. Why are games fun? • Games elicit specific feelings in

    their players • Discovery • Power • Teamwork • Skilfulness • Fear • More... • We play games because we like experiencing these feelings • Similar reason to why we like movies, books, TV, theatre, art..
  16. Why are games fun? How do games elicit these feelings?

  17. Mechanics, Dynamics, Aesthetics LeBlanc, Hunicke & Zubek 2004

  18. • Games are unpredictable (to varying degrees) • Player choice

    affects what happens • The choices available to the player are created by the game designer How are games different from other media?
  19. What Choices Are Created? • Players interact with games in

    very specific, constrained ways
  20. • Players take turns moving pieces • Pieces have different

    rules for moving • Pieces capture other pieces • You win when you capture the king (more or less)
  21. • One player is "it" • If the "it" player

    touches another player, that player becomes "it"
  22. • Jump over the rope • If the rope hits

    you, it's the next person's turn • Arguably not a game?
  23. Aside: Game Definitions game /gām/ n. (pl. -games) a non

    productive activity that involves a competition confined by procedures.
  24. Aside: Game Definitions game /gām/ n. (pl. -games) a non

    productive activity that involves a competition confined by procedures.
  25. Aside: Game Definitions game /gām/ n. (pl. -games) a formalized

    experience in which players make choices to have a meaningful experience. game /gām/ n. (pl. -games) an artwork characterized by an act of exploration. game /gām/ n. (pl. -games) an interactive object in which players interact with each other resulting in an unequal outcome. game /gām/ n. (pl. -games) a challenge in which players interact with each other resulting in a specific state of affairs. game /gām/ n. (pl. -games) a medium that involves a playful relationship representing a subset of the world. game /gām/ n. (pl. -games) a non productive activity that involves a competition confined by procedures.
  26. Aside: Game Definitions gamedefinitions.com

  27. Our Definition For our purposes, a game is: anything in

    which you play, subject to defined
  28. ANYWAY

  29. • Jump over the rope • If the rope hits

    you, it's the next person's turn • Arguably not a game?
  30. • Walking, running • Weapons • Collectables • AI shoots

    at you • Hit points • Lots more..
  31. • Resource collection • Buildings • Units • Fog of

    War • Orthogonal unit differentiation
  32. Mechanics • We call these game rules "mechanics" o Why

    not just "rules"? o Rules are instructions. o Mechanics are descriptions of how systems function. • Players interact with these systems!
  33. Dynamics • A thermostat has these mechanics: o "If the

    temperature is below 72°F, turn on the heater" o "If the temperature is above 72°F, turn on the air conditioner"
  34. • This creates negative feedback - the system will work

    to try to settle on a single value Heater On Heater On Cooler On Cooler On Dynamics
  35. Dynamics • Mechanics combine together to create dynamics. • “Tag”

    is a good, simple example. o Mechanic: The goal of the game is to not be "it". o Mechanic: When the player who is "it" touches you, you are "it". o Dynamic: the player who is "it" moves towards players who are not "it", who then flee. • Behaviour is separate from mechanics.
  36. Dynamics • Another, mostly abstract example:
 o Mechanic: Players can

    earn points, and can cause other players to lose points. o Mechanic: The winner is the first player with 10 points. o Dynamic: When a player gets close to winning, other players will gang up on them and bring them down.
  37. Dynamics • Closely related to strategy, but not the same

    thing • If a game mechanics mean playing a certain way will win the game more often, the fact that you end up playing that way is the dynamic
  38. Dynamics • Often difficult to work out from just reading

    the rules • The concept of discovered check is not obvious in the rules of chess
  39. Aesthetics • Dynamics have effects on players. • In tag,

    the "it" player chases you o This makes you feel hunted • When you're "it", you chase the other players o This makes you feel like a hunter
  40. Aesthetics Sensation Game as sense-pleasure Fantasy Game as make-believe Narrative

    Game as unfolding story Challenge Game as obstacle course
 Fellowship Game as social framework Discovery Game as uncharted territory Expression Game as soap box Submission Game as mindless pastime Aesthetics are the way that games make us feel. From 8kindsoffun.com
  41. Aesthetics • Arguably, aesthetics are what we're usually talking about

    when we describe "fun". • They're often what players are subconsciously looking for when selecting a game o "I want a game that makes me feel powerful" o "I want a game that makes me feel like I'm working in a team" o "I want a game where I can have fun with my friends"
  42. MDA Summary Mechanics Dynamics Aesthetics • Designers create mechanics •

    Mechanics, when played, create dynamics • Dynamics have aesthetic effects on players
  43. Players See This Differently Developer Player Mechanics Dynamics Aesthetics

  44. Examining a game using MDA

  45. “The Resistance” • Rebels vs Evil Government • Most players

    are “rebels” (good guys) • Some players are “spies” (bad guys) • Spies know who their fellow spies are, but rebels don’t know
  46. “The Resistance” Rules • Each turn: • Current “leader” player

    picks some players to go on a “mission” • Players vote on whether this selection is good • Selected players secretly pick a “success” or “failure” card; these are gathered and shuffled, then revealed to everyone • If any “failure” cards were picked, the mission fails • Next player clockwise becomes leader • 3 mission fails = spies win • 3 mission successes = rebels win
  47. “The Resistance” Mechanics • At a higher level: • Hidden

    information • Fixed game time • Perfect knowledge of own state • Subset of players have perfect knowledge of full state
  48. “The Resistance” Dynamics • Accusation • Rebels end up looking

    for evidence of spies • Deduction • Rebels need to work out who they can trust; this leads to: • Creation of “circles of trust” • Small exclusionary groups form, often hostile to actual non-spies • Camouflage • Spies can choose to help missions succeed • Misdirection • “I’m not the spy! You’re the spy!” • Sacrifice • One spy denounces another, to gain trust
  49. “The Resistance” Aesthetics • For rebels: • Paranoia • Uncertainty

    • For spies: • Silent teamwork • Fear of discovery
  50. Small rule changes mean big gameplay changes

  51. Two new rules

  52. Two new rules • Same as "The Resistance", but with

    an Arthurian theme • One Good player is Merlin • Knows who all the Evil players are • One Evil player is the Assassin • At end of game, if Good has won but the Assassin can correctly identify Merlin, Evil wins
  53. New Dynamics • Merlin tries to give information to good

    players, without giving themselves away • Players (both Good and Evil) try to discover Merlin's identity • Evil players pretend to be Merlin • Merlin tries to find independent justifications for stuff they know • Multiple routes to victory for Evil players • Merlin discovery gambits • Merlin discovery counter-gambits • Merlin discovery counter-counter-gambits
  54. New Aesthetics • Frustration (for Merlin) • Out-thinking • Fast

    talking • Guardianship (for Good players) • Vigilance (for Assassin and for Good players)
  55. Dynamics create aesthetics through narrative

  56. Games tell stories Not just written narrative, but emergent narrative

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  59. Ravenholm is a scary level • Why? • Several well-placed

    elements combine to create a scary experience
  60. Reinforcement through setting

  61. Pre-Written Narrative (Artist’s Impression) Marc Laidlaw

  62. Reinforcement through dynamics • Player is deliberately starved of ammo

    • Earlier areas featured plenty of ammo • Sudden shift in availability creates contrast and unease (“Why can’t I find ammo? Am I not playing this game right?") • To compensate, player is forced to improvise and get closer than usual to dangerous enemies • New mechanics designed to reinforce scariness
  63. • Small • Fast • Jump at player • On

    hit, player’s health drops to 1%
  64. Effective Dynamics • Games tell stories through gameplay. • This

    is in addition to any prewritten narrative. • Games are important because they’re the only medium for interaction in which the narrative depends entirely on the player.
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  67. Effective Dynamics • Effective written stories have dramatic tension. •

    Effective emergent stories have dramatic tension, too!
 • But what is dramatic tension?
  68. Dramatic Tension Time Rising tension Climax Resolution/ Denouement

  69. Dramatic Tension Time Meet Luke, sand people, escape Tatooine, escape

    Death Star Attack Death Star Yay, medals
  70. Dramatic tension • How does dramatic tension form? • Through

    a combination of: • Uncertainty • Inevitability
  71. Uncertainty The outcome is unknown. Anyone could win or lose.

  72. Inevitability The contest between players is moving forward towards resolution,

    and the outcome is imminent.
  73. Tension requires both of these • Without uncertainty, the outcome

    is too obvious • Without inevitability, the outcome is too distant
  74. Dramatic Tension • Game dynamics can create both uncertainty and

  75. Sources of Inevitability

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  77. Sources of Uncertainty

  78. Sources of Uncertainty

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  81. Mechanics Dynamics Aesthetics

  82. Losing Players Can Make A Comeback Uncertainty Fixed Duration of

    Race Inevitability The first person to pass the finish line wins the game. When players collide with item boxes, they receive a random item. One item is the Blue Shell, which is a homing missile that slows down players in front of you. When a player is in last place, they have an increased chance of collecting blue shells. ` Holy crap! That was so close, but you hit me with a shell just before I crossed the finish line! I hate you! Let’s go again!
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  86. No knowledge of what’s behind each door Uncertainty Number of

    rooms is finite Inevitability The player can walk from room to room. Rooms contain items, like books, boxes, documents, keys… Items can be picked up and examined. ` Oh man, I hope things work out for her in the end…
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  89. Dynamics are hard to intuit

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  91. Paper prototyping helps you fail as quickly as

  92. • Spend as little time as possible thinking about changes,

    and as much time as possible testing changes • Games are about interacting components • The only way to work out the next steps in your design is to put it in motion Tips for Failing Fast
  93. Fail Fast • Your first attempts will be terrible. •

    This is good. • Discover what you don't like about your work, make a change, and test it again. Repeat.
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  95. Using your knowledge

  96. Game design for not-games

  97. User stories • "As a <role>, I want <goal/desire> so

    that <benefit>” • Action -> Desirable outcome • What -> Why • Mechanic -> Aesthetic • Consider thinking about how the action leads to the desirable outcome through the expression of your UI’s mechanics
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  99. Analysing “desire paths” in software • Mechanic: Walking is easier

    along paths. • Mechanic: When people walk on terrain, a rough path is gradually formed. • Dynamic: People create new paths that are shorter than the formal, paved paths. • “Aesthetic”: People are unhappy at ugly paths.
  100. Analysing “desire paths” in software Understand how people are interacting

    with your existing mechanics, and identify if they’re resulting in an aesthetic that you don’t want. If they are, change it.
  101. Analysing “desire paths” in software • Mechanic: The text of

    tweets can be copied and pasted. • Mechanic: Tweets have a limited length. • Dynamic: To indicate the source of a copied tweet, users add attribution (“RT @username: text of original tweet”) • Aesthetic: Users are dissatisfied with having to reword tweets to fit within the limit • Corrective action: Define a new type of tweet, called a “retweet”, that embeds the original tweet
  102. Addendum: People make contests out of anything • Mechanic: The

    number of retweets is counted • Mechanic: The number of users who favourite a tweet is also counted • Dynamic: Retweets expose a tweet to more users, favourites do not • Dynamic: Users craft their tweets to be retweeted more often • Aesthetic: Retweets are considered more valuable • Aesthetic: Weird Twitter
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  105. Mechanics don’t directly lead to outcomes • They rely on

    the expression of the rules through dynamics • This is why “mandatory fun” rules never result in actual fun • You can’t design fun, but you can design for fun • You can’t design a positive company culture, but you can design systems and mechanisms that reinforce positive elements of a culture
  106. @thesecretlab

  107. Thanks! @desplesda
 @parisba @the_mcjones @thesecretlab Slides/notes will be available at:

    http://blog.secretlab.com.au Want more of this sort of thing?
 Visit GDC in San Francisco in March next year, and attend the annual 2-day Game Design Workshop: