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Varnish or Nginx? - Symfony Live

Varnish or Nginx? - Symfony Live

The slides for my "Reverse caching proxies: Varnish or Nginx?" talk at Symfony Live in Portland.

Thijs Feryn

May 23, 2013
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  1. Reverse caching proxies Varnish or nginx? By thijs feryn

  2. Hi# my#name# is#Thijs

  3. I’m# an#evangelist#at

  4. I’m# a#board#member# at

  5. None
  6. None
  7. h"p://joind.in/8680 Please# give#me# feedback

  8. What‘s'a' reverse'proxy?

  9. Why?

  10. Why? ✓#Hide#origin#server ✓#SSL#termina?on ✓#Load#balancing ✓#Caching ✓#Compression

  11. Why? ✓#Hide#origin#server ✓#SSL#termina?on ✓#Load#balancing ✓#Caching ✓#Compression

  12. Protect'your' backend'servers

  13. Kevin'&'Whitney

  14. None
  15. None
  16. Cache;control CacheBControl#“maxBage=3600,#sB maxage=1000,#public,#mustBrevalidate”

  17. Expires Expires#"Wed,#1#Jan#2014#20:00:00#GMT"

  18. ETag IfBNoneBMatch:#"3e86B410B3596Ybc" ETag:#"3e86B410B3596Ybc" Problems with browser cache

  19. What’s'not'cacheable? by#convention

  20. What’s#not#cacheable? ✓!HTTP!POST,!PUT,!DELETE ✓!Cookie!&!Set3Cookie!headers ✓!Authoriza<on ✓!Vary!* ✓!TTL!==!0

  21. Meet$the$gladiators

  22. None
  23. ✓Poul0Henning$Kamp ✓Verdens$Gang$AS ✓Redpill$Linpro ✓2005:$ideas$@$Verdens$Gang ✓2006$:$development$&$V1 ✓2008:$v2 ✓2011:$v3 ✓Varnish$soGware ✓Reverse$proxy$only

  24. None
  25. ✓Igor$Sysoev ✓2002:$development ✓2004:$first$release ✓12,18%$of$the$internet ✓CK10$problem ✓Event$driven,$async ✓$3M$funding ✓Webserver$&$reverse$proxy

  26. Install

  27. curl%http://repo.varnish3cache.org/debian/GPG3key.txt%|%sudo%apt3 key%add%3 echo%"deb%http://repo.varnish3cache.org/ubuntu/%precise% varnish33.0"%|%sudo%tee%3a%/etc/apt/sources.list sudo%apt3get%update sudo%apt3get%install%varnish curl%http://repo.varnish3cache.org/debian/GPG3key.txt%|%sudo%apt3 key%add%3 echo%"deb%http://repo.varnish3cache.org/debian/%squeeze% varnish33.0"%|%sudo%tee%3a%/etc/apt/sources.list

    sudo%apt3get%update sudo%apt3get%install%varnish
  28. deb%http://nginx.org/packages/ubuntu/%lucid%nginx deb3src%http://nginx.org/packages/ubuntu/%lucid%nginx deb%http://nginx.org/packages/debian/%squeeze%nginx deb3src%http://nginx.org/packages/debian/%squeeze%nginx Go$to$hWp://wiki.nginx.org/Pgp$for$PGP$signature Go$to$hWp://wiki.nginx.org/Install$for$more$info

  29. Configure

  30. DAEMON_OPTS="-a/:80/\ -T/localhost:6082/\ -f//etc/varnish/default.vcl/\ -S//etc/varnish/secret/\ -s/malloc,256m" In'“/etc/default/varnish”

  31. backend/default/{ //////.host/=/"127.0.0.1"; //////.port/=/"8080"; } In'“/etc/varnish/default.vcl”

  32. server%{ %%listen%%%%%%%80; %%server_name%%host3name.dev; %%access_log%%%/var/log/nginx/access.log; %%error_log%%%/var/log/nginx/error.log; %%location%/%{ proxy_pass%%http://localhost:8080; proxy_cache%proxy3cache; proxy_cache_key%"$scheme://$host $request_uri";

    proxy_cache_valid%%%200%302%%1h; } } In#“/etc/nginx/sites0enabled”
  33. proxy_cache_path%/tmp/%levels=1:2% keys_zone=proxy3cache:10m%inactive=5m; Add#to#“/etc/nginx/ nginx.conf”

  34. Backend Listen/8080 In'“/etc/apache2/ports.conf”

  35. None
  36. ✓mod_php ✓mod_fcgid!&!php3cgi ✓mod_proxy_fcgi!&!php3fpm ✓Behind!Varnish!&!Nginx

  37. server%{ listen%%%%%%%80; server_name%%nginx3proxy.dev; %%root%%%/home/data/www; %%access_log%%/var/log/nginx/access.log; %%access_log%%/var/log/nginx/error.log; %%location%/%{ %%index%%index.php; %%} location%~%\.php$%{

    fastcgi_split_path_info%^(.+\.php)(/.+)$; fastcgi_pass%127.0.0.1:9000; fastcgi_index%index.php; include%fastcgi_params; fastcgi_param%%SCRIPT_FILENAME%%%$request_filename; fastcgi_cache%%%fastcgi3cache; fastcgi_cache_valid%%%200%302%%1h; fastcgi_cache_key%"$scheme://$host$request_uri"; %%} }
  38. hWps://www.varnish0cache.org/trac/wiki/ Future_Feature#FCGIbackendsupport

  39. Out of the box

  40. None
  41. POST, DELETE & PUT cookies & auth headers set-cookie headers

    cache ttl <= 0 vary “*” Varnish will not cache
  42. POST, DELETE & PUT “no-cache", "no-store", "private” set-cookie headers cache

    ttl <= 0 X-Accel-Expires: 0 Nginx will not cache
  43. About cookies

  44. About cookies HTTP cookie request header via browser HTTP set-cookie

    response header via webserver
  45. set%$bypass%0; if%($http_cookie)%{ set%$bypass%1; } fastcgi_cache_bypass%$bypass; fastcgi_no_cache%$bypass;

  46. Monitoring & Logging

  47. access_log error_log

  48. varnishstat varnishlog varnishtop

  49. varnishstat

  50. 4+05:26:25 Hitrate%ratio:%%%%%%%10%%%%%%100%%%%%%254 Hitrate%avg:%%%%%0.8486%%%0.7619%%%0.7285 %%%%%1760818%%%%%%%%%6.99%%%%%%%%%4.82%client_conn%3%Client%connections%accepted %%%%11088687%%%%%%%%25.96%%%%%%%%30.36%client_req%3%Client%requests%received %%%%%8042715%%%%%%%%11.98%%%%%%%%22.02%cache_hit%3%Cache%hits %%%%%2609561%%%%%%%%11.98%%%%%%%%%7.15%cache_miss%3%Cache%misses %%%%%%%47104%%%%%%%%%1.00%%%%%%%%%0.13%backend_conn%3%Backend%conn.%success %%%%%%%%%610%%%%%%%%%0.00%%%%%%%%%0.00%backend_fail%3%Backend%conn.%failures %%%%%2998265%%%%%%%%12.98%%%%%%%%%8.21%backend_reuse%3%Backend%conn.%reuses

    %%%%%%%12081%%%%%%%%%0.00%%%%%%%%%0.03%backend_toolate%3%Backend%conn.%was%closed %%%%%3010356%%%%%%%%13.98%%%%%%%%%8.24%backend_recycle%3%Backend%conn.%recycles %%%%%%%%%%13%%%%%%%%%0.00%%%%%%%%%0.00%backend_retry%3%Backend%conn.%retry %%%%%%%%%520%%%%%%%%%0.00%%%%%%%%%0.00%fetch_head%3%Fetch%head %%%%%2857965%%%%%%%%11.98%%%%%%%%%7.83%fetch_length%3%Fetch%with%Length %%%%%%151309%%%%%%%%%2.00%%%%%%%%%0.41%fetch_chunked%3%Fetch%chunked %%%%%%%%4404%%%%%%%%%0.00%%%%%%%%%0.01%fetch_close%3%Fetch%wanted%close %%%%%%%%%676%%%%%%%%%0.00%%%%%%%%%0.00%fetch_failed%3%Fetch%failed %%%%%%%31164%%%%%%%%%0.00%%%%%%%%%0.09%fetch_304%3%Fetch%no%body%(304) %%%%%%%%%220%%%%%%%%%%.%%%%%%%%%%%%.%%%n_sess_mem%3%N%struct%sess_mem %%%%%%%%%%53%%%%%%%%%%.%%%%%%%%%%%%.%%%n_sess%3%N%struct%sess %%%%%%%29540%%%%%%%%%%.%%%%%%%%%%%%.%%%n_object%3%N%struct%object %%%%%%%29561%%%%%%%%%%.%%%%%%%%%%%%.%%%n_objectcore%3%N%struct%objectcore %%%%%%%%5058%%%%%%%%%%.%%%%%%%%%%%%.%%%n_objecthead%3%N%struct%objecthead %%%%%%%%2613%%%%%%%%%%.%%%%%%%%%%%%.%%%n_waitinglist%3%N%struct%waitinglist %%%%%%%%%%%3%%%%%%%%%%.%%%%%%%%%%%%.%%%n_vbc%3%N%struct%vbc %%%%%%%%%%22%%%%%%%%%%.%%%%%%%%%%%%.%%%n_wrk%3%N%worker%threads %%%%%%%%1789%%%%%%%%%0.00%%%%%%%%%0.00%n_wrk_create%3%N%worker%threads%created
  51. varnishlog

  52. %%%11%SessionOpen%%c%12.12.12.1%53727%:80 %%%11%ReqStart%%%%%c%12.12.12.1%53727%1401010767 %%%11%RxRequest%%%%c%GET %%%11%RxURL%%%%%%%%c%/ %%%11%RxProtocol%%%c%HTTP/1.1 %%%11%RxHeader%%%%%c%Host:%12.12.12.6 %%%11%RxHeader%%%%%c%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(Macintosh;%Intel%Mac%OS%X%10.8;%rv:17.0)% Gecko/20100101%Firefox/17.0 %%%11%RxHeader%%%%%c%Accept:%text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/ *;q=0.8

    %%%11%RxHeader%%%%%c%Accept3Language:%nl,en;q=0.7,fr3be;q=0.3 %%%11%RxHeader%%%%%c%Accept3Encoding:%gzip,%deflate %%%11%RxHeader%%%%%c%Connection:%keep3alive %%%11%VCL_call%%%%%c%recv%lookup %%%11%VCL_call%%%%%c%hash %%%11%Hash%%%%%%%%%c%/ %%%11%Hash%%%%%%%%%c%12.12.12.6 %%%11%VCL_return%%%c%hash %%%11%VCL_call%%%%%c%miss%fetch %%%11%Backend%%%%%%c%13%default%default %%%11%TTL%%%%%%%%%%c%1401010767%RFC%0%31%31%1357920021%0%1357920020%0%0 %%%11%VCL_call%%%%%c%fetch %%%11%TTL%%%%%%%%%%c%1401010767%VCL%120%31%31%1357920021%30 %%%11%VCL_return%%%c%hit_for_pass %%%11%ObjProtocol%%c%HTTP/1.1 %%%11%ObjResponse%%c%OK %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%Date:%Fri,%11%Jan%2013%16:00:20%GMT %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%Server:%Apache %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%X3Powered3By:%PHP/5.3.231ubuntu4.18 %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%Cache3Control:%no3cache,%no3store,%max3age=0 Client'
  53. %%%11%VCL_return%%%c%hit_for_pass %%%11%ObjProtocol%%c%HTTP/1.1 %%%11%ObjResponse%%c%OK %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%Date:%Fri,%11%Jan%2013%16:00:20%GMT %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%Server:%Apache %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%X3Powered3By:%PHP/5.3.231ubuntu4.18 %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%Cache3Control:%no3cache,%no3store,%max3age=0 %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%Vary:%Accept3Encoding %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%Content3Encoding:%gzip %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%Content3Length:%119

    %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%Content3Type:%text/html %%%11%Gzip%%%%%%%%%c%u%F%3%119%336%80%80%887 %%%11%VCL_call%%%%%c%deliver%deliver %%%11%TxProtocol%%%c%HTTP/1.1 %%%11%TxStatus%%%%%c%200 %%%11%TxResponse%%%c%OK %%%11%TxHeader%%%%%c%Server:%Apache %%%11%TxHeader%%%%%c%X3Powered3By:%PHP/5.3.231ubuntu4.18 %%%11%TxHeader%%%%%c%Cache3Control:%no3cache,%no3store,%max3age=0 %%%11%TxHeader%%%%%c%Vary:%Accept3Encoding %%%11%TxHeader%%%%%c%Content3Encoding:%gzip %%%11%TxHeader%%%%%c%Content3Type:%text/html %%%11%TxHeader%%%%%c%Content3Length:%119 %%%11%TxHeader%%%%%c%Accept3Ranges:%bytes %%%11%TxHeader%%%%%c%Date:%Fri,%11%Jan%2013%16:00:20%GMT %%%11%TxHeader%%%%%c%X3Varnish:%1401010767 %%%11%TxHeader%%%%%c%Age:%0 %%%11%TxHeader%%%%%c%Via:%1.1%varnish %%%11%TxHeader%%%%%c%Connection:%keep3alive %%%11%Length%%%%%%%c%119 %%%11%ReqEnd%%%%%%%c%1401010767%1357920020.712090731%1357920020.727306366%0.000087738% Client'
  54. %%%13%BackendClose%3%default %%%13%BackendOpen%%b%default%127.0.0.1%51597%127.0.0.1%8080 %%%13%TxRequest%%%%b%GET %%%13%TxURL%%%%%%%%b%/ %%%13%TxProtocol%%%b%HTTP/1.1 %%%13%TxHeader%%%%%b%Host:%12.12.12.6 %%%13%TxHeader%%%%%b%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(Macintosh;%Intel%Mac%OS%X%10.8;%rv:17.0)% Gecko/20100101%Firefox/17.0 %%%13%TxHeader%%%%%b%Accept:%text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/ *;q=0.8

    %%%13%TxHeader%%%%%b%Accept3Language:%nl,en;q=0.7,fr3be;q=0.3 %%%13%TxHeader%%%%%b%X3Forwarded3For:%12.12.12.1 %%%13%TxHeader%%%%%b%X3Varnish:%1401010767 %%%13%TxHeader%%%%%b%Accept3Encoding:%gzip %%%13%RxProtocol%%%b%HTTP/1.1 %%%13%RxStatus%%%%%b%200 %%%13%RxResponse%%%b%OK %%%13%RxHeader%%%%%b%Date:%Fri,%11%Jan%2013%16:00:20%GMT %%%13%RxHeader%%%%%b%Server:%Apache %%%13%RxHeader%%%%%b%X3Powered3By:%PHP/5.3.231ubuntu4.18 %%%13%RxHeader%%%%%b%Cache3Control:%no3cache,%no3store,%max3age=0 %%%13%RxHeader%%%%%b%Vary:%Accept3Encoding %%%13%RxHeader%%%%%b%Content3Encoding:%gzip %%%13%RxHeader%%%%%b%Content3Length:%119 %%%13%RxHeader%%%%%b%Content3Type:%text/html %%%13%Fetch_Body%%%b%4(length)%cls%0%mklen%1 %%%13%Length%%%%%%%b%119 %%%13%BackendReuse%b%default Backend'
  55. Examples varnishlog%3c%3m"VCL_call:hit"%|%grep%RxURL varnishlog%3c%3m"VCL_call:miss"%|%grep%RxURL varnishlog%3a%3w%/tmp/varnish.log varnishlog%3r%/tmp/varnish.log varnishlog%3i%RxHeader%3I%Cookie

  56. varnishtop

  57. list%length%20 %%%107.57%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(Windows%NT%6.1;%W %%%101.96%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(Windows%NT%6.1;%W %%%%82.49%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/4.0%(compatible;%MSIE% %%%%69.90%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(compatible;%MSIE% %%%%64.04%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(Windows%NT%6.1;%W %%%%43.74%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/4.0%(compatible;%MSIE% %%%%22.01%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(iPod;%U;%CPU%iPho %%%%21.43%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/4.0%(compatible;%MSIE% %%%%19.86%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(X11;%Linux%x86_64

    %%%%15.47%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(Windows%NT%6.1;%W %%%%12.96%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(Windows%NT%6.1;%W %%%%%4.87%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/4.0%(compatible;%MSIE% %%%%%2.97%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(compatible;%MSIE% %%%%%2.75%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(Windows%NT%6.1;%W %%%%%2.56%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(Windows%NT%6.1;%r %%%%%0.97%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(Windows;%U;%Windo %%%%%0.86%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(iPhone;%CPU%iPhon %%%%%0.83%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(Windows;%U;%Windo %%%%%0.53%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(compatible;%Googl %%%%%0.44%RxHeader%%%%%%%User3Agent:%Mozilla/4.0%(compatible;)
  58. Examples varnishtop%3i%RxHeader%3I%\^User3Agent varnishtop%3i%RxRequest varnishtop%3i%RxHeader%3I%\^Host varnishtop%3i%RxHeader%3I%Cookie

  59. The#flow

  60. 1

  61. 2

  62. 3

  63. %%%11%SessionOpen%%c%12.12.12.1%53727%:80 %%%11%ReqStart%%%%%c%12.12.12.1%53727%1401010767 %%%11%RxRequest%%%%c%GET %%%11%RxURL%%%%%%%%c%/ %%%11%RxProtocol%%%c%HTTP/1.1 %%%11%RxHeader%%%%%c%Host:%12.12.12.6 %%%11%RxHeader%%%%%c%User3Agent:%Mozilla/5.0%(Macintosh;%Intel%Mac%OS%X%10.8;%rv:17.0)% Gecko/20100101%Firefox/17.0 %%%11%RxHeader%%%%%c%Accept:%text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/ *;q=0.8

    %%%11%RxHeader%%%%%c%Accept3Language:%nl,en;q=0.7,fr3be;q=0.3 %%%11%RxHeader%%%%%c%Accept3Encoding:%gzip,%deflate %%%11%RxHeader%%%%%c%Connection:%keep3alive %%%11%VCL_call%%%%%c%recv%lookup %%%11%VCL_call%%%%%c%hash %%%11%Hash%%%%%%%%%c%/ %%%11%Hash%%%%%%%%%c%12.12.12.6 %%%11%VCL_return%%%c%hash %%%11%VCL_call%%%%%c%miss%fetch %%%11%Backend%%%%%%c%13%default%default %%%11%TTL%%%%%%%%%%c%1401010767%RFC%0%31%31%1357920021%0%1357920020%0%0 %%%11%VCL_call%%%%%c%fetch %%%11%TTL%%%%%%%%%%c%1401010767%VCL%120%31%31%1357920021%30 %%%11%VCL_return%%%c%hit_for_pass %%%11%ObjProtocol%%c%HTTP/1.1 %%%11%ObjResponse%%c%OK %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%Date:%Fri,%11%Jan%2013%16:00:20%GMT %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%Server:%Apache %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%X3Powered3By:%PHP/5.3.231ubuntu4.18 %%%11%ObjHeader%%%%c%Cache3Control:%no3cache,%no3store,%max3age=0 Got'it?'
  64. Cache'key

  65. Cache'key sub%vcl_hash%{ hash_data(req.url); if%(req.http.host)%{ hash_data(req.http.host); }%else%{ hash_data(server.ip); } return%(hash); }

  66. Cache'key fastcgi_cache_key%"$scheme://$host$request_uri"; proxy_cache_key%"$scheme://$host$request_uri";

  67. Hashing cookies

  68. Hashing'cookies sub%vcl_hash%{ if(req.http.Cookie%~%"country"){ hash_data(regsuball(req.http.Cookie,%"^. +;?%?country=([a3zA3Z039]+)(%|;|%;).* $","\1")); %%} }

  69. Hashing'cookies set%$key%"$scheme://$host$request_uri"; if%($http_cookie%~*%"country=([^;]+)(?:;|$)"){ set%$key%"$scheme://$host$request_uri$1"; } proxy_cache_key%$key; fastcgi_cache_key%$key;

  70. Hashing'cookies Cache3Control:%no3store,%no3cache,%must3 revalidate,%post3check=0,%pre3check=0 Watch!out! for! session_start()

  71. Cache# purging

  72. sub%vcl_recv%{ %%%%%%%%if%(req.request%==%"PURGE")%{ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%return%(lookup); %%%%%%%%} } sub%vcl_hit%{ %%%%%%%%if%(req.request%==%"PURGE")%{ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%purge; %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%error%200%"Purged"; %%%%%%%%}

    } sub%vcl_miss%{ %%%%%%%%if%(req.request%==%"PURGE")%{ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%error%404%"Not%in%cache"; %%%%%%%%} } Purge HTTP!call! to!purge
  73. Purge HTTP!call! to!purge curl%3X%PURGE%http://varnish.dev/your3page

  74. sub%vcl_recv%{ %%%%%%%%if%(req.request%==%"PURGE")%{ ban("req.http.host%==%"%+%req.http.host%+%"% &&%req.url%==%"%+%req.url); error%200%"Banned"; %%%%%%%%} } Ban sub%vcl_recv%{ %%%%%%%%if%(req.request%==%"PURGE")%{

    %%%%%%%%%%%%ban("req.http.host%==%"%+%req.http.host%+% "%&&%req.url%~%"%+%req.url); error%200%"Banned"; %%%%%%%%} } Ban!URL! pattern Ban!URL Name! doesn’t! matter
  75. sub%vcl_recv%{ %%%%%%%%if%(req.request%==%"PURGE")%{ %%%%%%%%%%%%ban("obj.http.x3host%==%"%+%req.http.host%+% "%&&%obj.http.x3url%==%"%+%req.url); %%%%%%%%%%%%error%200%"Banned"; %%%%%%%%} } sub%vcl_fetch%{ %%%%%%%%set%beresp.http.x3url%=%req.url; %%%%%%%%set%beresp.http.x3host%=%req.http.host;

    } sub%vcl_deliver%{ %%%%%%%%unset%resp.http.x3url; %%%%%%%%unset%resp.http.x3host; } Smart#bans Ban!lurker! friendly
  76. grep%3lr%'http://host.dev/test.php'%/tmp/cache/*%|%xargs% rm Purge

  77. Purge location%~%/purge(/.*)%{ fastcgi_cache_purge%fastcgi3cache%"$scheme://$host $request_uri$1"; } location%~%/purge(/.*)%{ proxy_cache_purge%proxy3cache%"$scheme://$host $request_uri$1"; } hWps://github.com/FRiCKLE/ngx_cache_purge

  78. Purge hWps://github.com/FRiCKLE/ngx_cache_purge curl%http://nginx.dev/purge/your3page HTTP!call! to!purge

  79. Loadbalancing

  80. probe healthcheck { .url = "/status.php"; .interval = 60s; .timeout

    = 0.3 s; .window = 8; .threshold = 3; .initial = 3; .expected_response = 200; } backend www { .host = "www.example.com"; .port = "http"; .probe = healthcheck; } Probes
  81. Directors ✓Round0robin ✓Random ✓Client ✓Hash ✓Fallback ✓DNS

  82. backend%one%{ %%%.host%=%“localhost”; %%%.port%=%“80”; } backend%two%{ %%%.host%=%“127.0.0.1”; %%%.port%=%“81”; } director%localhosts%random%{ %%%%{%.backend%=%one;%.weight=4;}

    %%%%{%.backend%=%two;%.weight=6;} %%%%{%.backend%=%{% %%%%%%%%%%%%.host%=%“localhost”;% %%%%%%%%%%%%.port%=%“82”;% %%%%%%%%}% %%%%} } sub%vcl_recv%{ %%%%set%req.backend%=%localhosts; } Random
  83. director%localhosts%fallback%{ %%%%{%.backend%=%one;} %%%%{%.backend%=%two;} } sub%vcl_recv%{ %%%%set%req.backend%=%localhosts; } Fallback Picks!first! healthy!

    backend Order! matters
  84. director%localhosts%client%{ %%%%{%.backend%=%one;%.weight=1;%} %%%%{%.backend%=%two;%.weight=1;%} } sub%vcl_recv%{ %%%%set%req.backend%=%localhosts; %%%%//Load%balance%by%client%IP,%this%is%the%default% %%%%set%client.identity%=%client.ip; } IP#hash

    Uses! client.identity
  85. upstream backend { server backend1.example.com weight=5; server backend2.example.com:8080; server unix:/tmp/backend3;

    } server { location / { proxy_pass http://backend; } } Random
  86. upstream backend { server backend1.example.com; server backend2.example.com backup; } server

    { location / { proxy_pass http://backend; } } Fallback
  87. upstream backend { ip_hash; server backend1.example.com weight=2; server backend2.example.com; server

    backend3.example.com down; server backend4.example.com; } server { location / { proxy_pass http://backend; } } IP#hash
  88. Hit/miss'marker

  89. Hit/miss#marker sub%vcl_deliver%{ %%if%(obj.hits%>%0)%{ %%%%set%resp.http.X3Cache%=%"HIT"; %%} %%else%{ %%%%set%resp.http.X3Cache%=%"MISS"; %%} }

  90. Hit/miss#marker add_header%X3Cache%$upstream_cache_status; ✓MISS ✓EXPIRED$ ➡expired,$request$was$passed$to$backend ✓UPDATING$ ➡expired,$stale$response$was$used$due$to$proxy/fastcgi_cache_use_stale$updating ✓STALE$ ➡expired,$stale$response$was$used$due$to$proxy/fastcgi_cache_use_stale ✓HIT

  91. Set'Time'To'Live

  92. CacheBControl#“maxBage=10,#sBmaxage=5,# public,#mustBrevalidate” TTL

  93. TTL CacheBControl#“maxBage=10,#sBmaxage=5,# public,#mustBrevalidate” 5!seconds

  94. TTL CacheBControl#“maxBage=10,#sBmaxage=5,# public,#mustBrevalidate” 10!seconds

  95. Force#TTL sub%vcl_fetch%{ %%%%if(req.url%~%"^/bla")%{ %%%%%%%%set%beresp.ttl%=%10s; %%%%}%else%{ %%%%%%%%set%beresp.ttl%=%3600s; %%%%} }

  96. Force#TTL location%/%{ proxy_pass%%http://localhost:8080; proxy_cache%proxy3cache; proxy_cache_key%"$scheme://$host$request_uri"; proxy_cache_valid%%%200%302%%1h; } location%~%/bla%{ proxy_pass%%http://localhost:8080; proxy_cache%proxy3cache;

    proxy_cache_key%"$scheme://$host$request_uri"; proxy_cache_valid%%%200%302%%10s; }
  97. Edge'Side'Includes

  98. header.php menu.php main.php footer.php

  99. <html> <body> <table> <tr> <td colspan="2" > <?php include('header.php') ?>

    </td> </tr> <tr> <td><?php include('menu.php') ?></td> <td><?php include('main.php') ?></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" > <?php include('footer.php') ?> </td> </tr> </table> </body> </html>
  100. header.php menu.php main.php footer.php TTL'5s No'caching TTL'10s TTL'2s

  101. <html> <body> <table> <tr> <td colspan="2" > <esi:include src="/header.php" />

    </td> </tr> <tr> <td><esi:include src="/menu.php" /></td> <td><esi:include src="/main.php" /></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" > <esi:include src="/footer.php" /> </td> </tr> </table> </body>
  102. <?php function esi($file){ if(isset($_SERVER['Surrogate-Capability']) && preg_match('/^(.+)="ESI/1.0$/',$_SERVER['Surrogate-Capability'])){ header("Surrogate-Control: content='ESI/1.0'"); $url =

    'http://'. $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'].substr($_SERVER['SCRIPT_NAME'], 0,1+strrpos($_SERVER['SCRIPT_NAME'],'/')).$file; echo "<esi:include src=\"$url\" />".PHP_EOL; } else { include($file); } } ESI#PHP#helper#func?on
  103. <?php include('esi.php'); ?> <html> <body> <table> <tr> <td colspan="2" >

    <?php echo esi('header.php'); ?> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><?php echo esi('menu.php'); ?></td> <td><?php echo esi('main.php'); ?></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" > <?php echo esi('footer.php'); ?> </td> </tr> </table> </body> </html>
  104. ESI#VCL sub%vcl_recv%{ %%%%set%req.http.Surrogate3Capability="key=ESI/1.0"; } sub%vcl_fetch%{ % if(beresp.http.Surrogate3Control~"ESI/1.0")%{ %%%%%%%%%unset%beresp.http.Surrogate3Control; % %%%%set%beresp.do_esi=true;

    %%%%} }%
  105. Nginx#&#ESI# hWps://github.com/taf2/nginx0esi Not'official Haven’t' tested'it'yet

  106. SSL

  107. Varnish'doesn’t' support'SSL

  108. Nginx'does'...

  109. server%{ %%listen%43; %%ssl%on;% %%ssl_certificate%/path/to/ssl.crt; %%ssl_certificate_key%%/path/to/ssl.key; %%server_name%%hostname.dev; %%access_log%%/var/log/nginx/access.log; %%error_log%%/var/log/nginx/error.log; %%location%/%{ %%%%proxy_pass%http://localhost:80;

    % proxy_set_header%%X3Real3IP%%$remote_addr; % proxy_cache%%%proxy3cache; % proxy_cache_key%"$scheme://$host$request_uri"; % proxy_cache_valid%%%200%302%%1h; %%} } SSL
  110. Who'won?

  111. Use the right tool for the job

  112. And! on!that! bombshell!...

  113. None
  114. h"p://joind.in/8680 Please# give#me# feedback

  115. Thanks