Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

Java (Micro) Performance Measuring

Java (Micro) Performance Measuring

Java Micro Benchmarks - how to do it! Measuring performance seams to be easy. Take a time-stamp before your method call, take another one after it and calculate the difference. But what about the JVM? What about class loading? What about Just-in-time compilation? What about code optimization?

E7c3430a01629f9ca6d3bcb847e8e3b2?s=128

Thomas Uhrig

June 24, 2012
Tweet

Transcript

  1. Java (Micro) Performance Measuring How to measure and test the

    performance of Java applications Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 1 of 27 trendscope.com
  2. Agenda What is performance? Definition | Why Java? | Micro

    A simple approach Timestamps | Pitfalls The JVM Warm-Up | JIT | GC A suitable approach Framework Examples Sorts | Ordering | Repeatable Some remarks on performance testing Reports | Statistics References Papers | Websites | Tools Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 2 of 27
  3. • throughput • response time • utilization of resources •

    memory • subjective impressions • locks Computer performance is characterized by the amount of useful work accomplished by a computer system compared to the time and resources used. _____________ Wikipedia Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 3 of 27 What is performance? onlyhdwallpapers.com
  4. Why (just) Java? • most of you are familiar with

    Java • Java isn't just a language, it's a platform (JRuby, Scala, Clojure, Groovy, etc.) • the general concept of a virtual machine language • it's complicated to measure right, but easy to do it wrong Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 4 of 27 Java Performance, Addison-Wesley
  5. What means “micro”? Micro means small. • small code blocks

    (classes or methods) • everybody can use it, even in small projects • I'm sure, everybody has tried it already Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 5 of 27 pennystockalerts.com
  6. A simple approach long before = System.currentTimeMillis(); methodCall(); long after

    = System.currentTimeMillis(); long time = after – before; for(int i = 0; i < 1000; i++) { long before = System.currentTimeMillis(); methodCall(); long after = System.currentTimeMillis(); total = after – before; } 1. record start time 2. run the code 3. record end time 4. calculate the difference Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 6 of 27
  7. Something went wrong... The execution time changes when we rearrange

    the tests or change the input data the test is operating on! Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 7 of 27
  8. Something went wrong... The execution time changes converge when we

    increase the iterations! Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 8 of 27
  9. But what went wrong? We missed some pitfalls around benchmarking

    in general and especially around Java micro benchmarking! Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 9 of 27 zephram.de
  10. Pitfalls 1/4 We missed some important facts of the Java

    platform: • System.currentTimeMillis() has a pretty bad resolution • if the measurement error should be < ±1 ms, it fails for all tasks < 200 ms • in reality, the resolution varies between 10 and 100 ms • it's a wall-clock time! • the JVM has a “warm-up phase” • classes are loaded when they're first used (I/O, search, parsing, verification, etc.) • code can be JIT compiled (after 1.500 calls on a client or 10.000 on a server) • Garbage Collection & Object Finalization • GC & OF is nearly out of control for the programmer Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 10 of 27
  11. Pitfalls 2/4 We missed some important facts of the Java

    platform: • dead code elimination • the JVM can remove “dead code” during the execution • if you don't use the return value, the whole method-call can be removed! • code optimization • e.g. loop-enrollment, removing duplicate assignments or type checks • the JVM can also de-optimize the code! • if a new class is loaded which can be used in a generic method • if a new path (e.g. an catch-block) becomes a “hotspot” Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 11 of 27
  12. Pitfalls 3/4 We missed some important facts of the Java

    platform: • a lot of JVM options can influence the performance (of course): • -server or -client are influencing the JIT compilation threshold • -enableassertions or -disableassertions can influence checks • the type of garbage collector • the memory size (-Xmx) Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 12 of 27
  13. Pitfalls 4/4 We also missed some important facts of modern

    computers: • caching • especially I/O caching, e.g. by reading files • but also CPU caching • Power Management • other programs and processes • virus scanners, screen savers, updates • Eclipse itself Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 13 of 27
  14. Suggestions for improvements Some simple tips to improve the measurement:

    • System.nanoTime() has a better resolution • it should never be worse than System.currentTimeMillis() • depending on the hardware and OS it can deliver accuracy in the microsecond range • load all classes before the test • manually • by executing the task several time before measuring • use ClassLoadingMXBean to control class loading during the measurement Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 14 of 27
  15. Suggestions for improvements Some simple tips to improve the measurement:

    • use the return values of your method to avoid “dead code” elimination • avoid JIT compilation • run the code repeatedly until it execution time doesn't varies anymore • use CompilationMXBean to keep track of the compilation Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 15 of 27
  16. GC/OF GC/OF is nearly out of control for the programmer,

    so what we can do? • first, call System.gc() and System.runFinalization() until memory usage is stabilized • do your measurement • repeat step one after your measurement • does it take long? • have many objects been created during the test? • log the results/time of the GC/OF, because it's part of the performance But: • There's no guarantee for System.gc() or system.runFinalization() • Don't call System.gc() or System.runFinalization() during your measurement, because the can influence your results. Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 16 of 27 blog.leasingshop24.de
  17. A suitable approach 1. load all classes (manually or by

    executing the task once) 2. execute the task repeatedly until its execution time doesn't varies anymore 3. get a first estimate of the execution time 4. try to clean the JVM (GC/OF) 5. use this estimate to measure a sufficiently large number of executions 6. keep track of JIT compilation 7. calculate the elapsed time of multiple executions 8. clean the JVM again and measure the needed time Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 17 of 27 Use a framework! e.g. JBenchmark by Brent Boyer (see references) wpteach.com
  18. A suitable approach ...has to give reliable answers to the

    most crucial questions: Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 18 of 27 How long takes task A? Does it fluctuate? Is task A faster then task B? weddingbycolor.com
  19. A suitable approach Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig

    | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 19 of 27 hsa.ie ...hast to give use some statistics! The most important metrics are: • The mean can tell you how long the task is running over a (huge) number of executions. • The standard deviation can tell whether the execution time fluctuates • A historical log can tell how the performance has evolved over time
  20. Doing it right! Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig

    | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 20 of 27
  21. Doing it right! Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig

    | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 21 of 27
  22. Keep in mind To keep our measurement reliable and repeatable,

    we have to keep some general things in mind: • the results depend on the particular machine • the results depend on the particular JVM version/ vendor • the results depend on the particular JVM options • the results depend on the particular running processes of the system • the results depend on the particular operating system • the results can depend on “random” events like a network or power management And last but not least: The results can depend on you! Shit in, shit out! Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 22 of 27 goerieblogs.com
  23. Shit in, shit out! for (int i = 0; i

    < loop; i++) { before = System.currentTimeMillis(); new QuickSort().sort(list1); after = System.currentTimeMillis(); total += after - before; } Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 23 of 27
  24. Shit in, shit out! • Insertion Sort Best: O(n) Average:

    O(n + d) Worst: O(n2) • Quick Sort Best: O(nlog n) Average: O(nlog n) Worst:: O(n2) Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 24 of 27
  25. Keep in mind Micro Performance Measuring is just one test,

    but not the only one! • Because only single classes or methods are tested, the overhead of a complex class-/call- hierarchy is ignored. • A single measurement of an algorithm can't tell you much about the performance of a whole application. Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 25 of 27 Prof iling Stress Tests Load Tests gesellschaftsspiele.de
  26. References Brent Boyer, Robust Java benchmarking, 2008, https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-benchmark1 Brian Goetz,

    Java theory and practice: Anatomy of a flawed microbenchmark, 2005, https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-jtp02225 Daan van Etten, Why Many Java Performance Tests are Wrong, 2009, http://java.dzone.com/articles/why-many-java-performance-test Orcacle, Monitoring and Management of the Java Platform, 2012, http://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/management R. Henry, Sorting Algorithms Demonstration in Java, http://home.westman.wave.ca/~rhenry/sort Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt. Themen des Software-Engineerings | 26 of 27 thesqueezepage.org
  27. Questions? Java (Micro) Performance Measuring | Thomas Uhrig | Akt.

    Themen des Software-Engineerings | 27 of 27 tokeofthetown.com