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UXA2022 Day 1; Natasha Ballantyne - The life-changing potential of digital inclusion

uxaustralia
August 25, 2022

UXA2022 Day 1; Natasha Ballantyne - The life-changing potential of digital inclusion

So you’re designing with accessibility guidelines (WCAG), but how are you designing for vulnerability and inclusion? This talk will share some of the vulnerability guidelines we have developed for websites, products and services to ensure we are designing inclusively.

uxaustralia

August 25, 2022
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  1. Note that this is an unedited transcript of a live event and therefore may contain errors. This transcript
    is the joint property of CaptionsLIVE and the authorised party responsible for payment and may not be
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    www.captionslive.com.au | [email protected] | 0447 904 255
    UX Australia
    UX Australia 2022 – Hybrid Conference
    Thursday, 25 August 2022
    Captioned by: Kasey Allen & Carmel Downes

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    Page 103
    life who was diagnosed as an adult with ADHD, what that has been like
    for her, what it is like now, her advocacy for changes to the medical
    system. It was on ABC. Hopefully it was recorded and is available. I am
    fairly certain they do publish those talks afterwards. I with encourage you
    to take a look. It was a powerful speech that she gave. Last talk before
    the break and following on from that thread, please join me in welcoming
    Natasha to the stage, thank you very much. (APPLAUSE)
    NATASHA BALLANTYNE: Hopefully everyone can hear me. A tech test. I
    don't have dogs in my talk. I will in my next one, I promise.
    To kick us off, hopefully everyone has done one of these before, but
    I am a researcher and it is natural that I will get everyone to fill out a poll
    to kick us off. The question here is how do you define inclusion? Actually,
    I asked the same question last week and there was silence. I did have a
    slider when I think two people filled it out. We had a discussion
    afterwards and we said "Why is this such a hard question to answer?" And
    a gentleman said "It is because no-one wants to get it wrong". The thing
    is in this space, none of us are experts. Some of us have lived experience
    but you might have the lived experience of one as per that statement. It
    is about making sure we do the best that we can until we can do better.
    This was particularly important, based on the disability discrimination act
    and the disability and inclusion act in 1992 and also in 2004.
    Hi, I am Natasha. To kick us off I will tell you a bit about who I am
    in culture inclusion and then I will get to what I do. A little bit about me. I
    am a proud third generation Australian. My grandad came here with the
    English navy as part of World War II. I live on the Central Coast in NSW,
    where I grew up. It is where I reside today and it is on the land of the
    Darkinjung country. I am excited to be here presenting to you in person. I
    can't believe we are an in person conference and on the land of the Kulin

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    Page 104
    Nation. I will give a visual description, as I am not sure if anyone on the
    line is following along just with the audio, or might have a visual
    impairment, or is choosing to follow the audio for their own reasons? I
    have pink top on and long blonde hair. I gave a same visual description at
    an event I did on Tuesday and I forgot to introduce who I was. I was MC
    for the event for two hours and all everyone knew about me was that I
    had big furry earrings.
    I work at PricewaterhouseCoopers and I am a national design
    director for our product innovation team. I am lucky to dedicate 20% of
    my time to what I call vulnerability design. I will say we didn't plan
    between Ted, Fiona and I to all talk about very similar themes but
    hopefully what I share with you today will emphasise the things they have
    talked about. It is about us all working together to make sure we are
    inclusive. The other thing I should mention is I have some lived
    experience. I only have my own lived experience. I have an invisible
    disability. This led me to work part-time most of last year. I had five
    surgeries, I was in and out of hospital and the eight hour wait that Ted
    talked about in that video, that was common to me in my time last year.
    This was actually pretty interesting to experience because I turned from
    being a designer to actually a participant and seeing how decisions that
    we make as designers, strategists and business people can change lives.
    This was a post that came up two weeks ago on my LinkedIn feed. I
    thought it was an interesting post. One of the things that got me stuck
    was the language "Disabled people". I thought Jessica Lopez is a business
    student, that is all right, the intent is there, what she is saying is
    powerful, it is just a bit of language tripping her up. For those that don't
    work in this space, we normally use people first language, and that means
    people with a disability rather than disabled people.
    Some of the things she says that stood out to me, disabled people

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    Page 105
    innovate technologies to live in a world that is not built for them. They
    build for themselves and we all benefit. When you innovate to include
    disabled people you benefit everyone. This is called the curb-cut effect. I
    am sure all of you crossing the road at some point have seen the indent
    in the curb that was designed for people in wheelchairs. It is used by
    everyone today, strollers, bikes, or not wanting to do that step down from
    the curb.
    Ultimately, disability and inclusion mean different things to different
    people. This was the top comment that came up on LinkedIn. What Salsi
    says is "I don't like to use the term disabled as what is in your post shows
    opposite of disability". Jessica replied and she said she likes using the
    term "Disabled" because it is something that has power under the law.
    What Salsi didn't realise is Jessica is someone with lived experience. She
    was born with no arms or no legs. In her choice, she chooses to use the
    term "Disabled". This really shows not everyone with a disability actually
    has an impairment or something which stops them from accessing the
    different services that we have. This is why when I talk about disability, I
    also like to talk about vulnerability.
    This brings me to the title of my talk: The Life Changing Potential
    of Digital Inclusion. I will mention that the images that I use today in the
    interests of anonymity, I have tried to pick the ones that are as
    representative as possible the personalities and characteristics of different
    people I have spoken to but they are images for images sake. The other
    thing I call out is that I noticed a couple of my images have been used on
    some of the other talks and this presents an interesting conundrum in
    terms of we are talking about inclusion but we probably all went on
    Unsplash and Googled "Someone with a disability" but we are getting
    there.
    I would like to acknowledgement of country before we continue. I

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    Page 106
    would like to acknowledge the traditional custodians of the land on which
    we meet today, the Wurundjeri peoples of the eastern Kulin Nation and
    pay my respects to their elders past, present and future. I extend that
    same respect to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples here today
    and the lands that our virtual attendees are dialing in from. The photo
    that you see here is of Tiddalik the greedy frog. It is a rock at Wollombi.
    As part of this acknowledgement of country, I would like to encourage
    everyone to go out and explore their local lands and see some of the
    stories that make up the lands that they reside in.
    I would like to say as each of us as an acknowledgement today as
    speakers has gravitas with some of the political events happening in our
    nation. We are so close to having a parliamentary voice for codesign,
    representing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The other
    thing I will say is whilst I don't specifically mention first nations people
    and their experiences and how we need to be more inclusive in our talk,
    they should absolutely be front of mind.
    Labels. Sorry, Fiona. Labels are important because we need to
    understand those that are systemically underrepresented. If someone
    identifies as any of these labels, it doesn't necessarily mean that they
    have additional access needs. I am going to read - I want to make sure
    we get these right and the other thing I will call out is these were created
    for us to look at our employee experience at PricewaterhouseCoopers and
    we did off the back of working with the centre for inclusive design. It is
    about us applying it to our own practice as well as to our clients. We have
    the first nations people to kick us off and culturally and linguistically
    diverse. They are people who can identify themselves as people due to
    circumstances like their country of birth or country of birth of their
    parents, what languages they speak and their religious affiliation. We then
    have gender inclusive and LGBTQIA, specifically ensuring that male and

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    Page 107
    female stereotypes, gender and sexual orientation don't define our
    societal roles and expectations.
    We then have physical disabilities, relating to physical conditions
    that effect things like a person's mobility, their physical capacity, their
    stamina or dexterity. Examples could include brain or spinal cord injuries,
    multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, hearing and visual impairments. We then
    have neurodiversity and cognitive differences. Specifically understanding
    the unique differences among people with these conditions and how they
    could equip them in varying degrees. We then have mental ill health
    conditions. These effect mood, thinking and behaviour, depression,
    anxiety, schizophrenia to eating disorders and addictive behaviours.
    Last but not least, age diverse. Arguably, this is going to be one of
    the largest categories of vulnerability that we will see in our society.
    Especially when we look at the Australian Bureau of Statistics which says
    that the number of people aged 65 and over will go from 3.7 million in
    2017 to 8.7 million in 2046.
    Notably, the other thing I will mention is whilst they are the groups
    that are vulnerable, we need to think about the circumstances that they
    experience and when they have those circumstances, with the systemic
    exclusion, this is when we really need to direct our support. Some of
    those circumstances can include financial hardship, unemployment, being
    in social housing, being homeless, low literacy or no education.
    Recently, I went to Lismore, for those that have been paying
    attention to what is happening on the news, Lismore had a series of
    extreme flooding. I know all of us were rocked here in NSW for anyone
    that is coming from NSW. Lismore was really affected. There was two-
    storey buildings that were underwater off the back of the huge rain that
    we had in March this year. The reason why I wanted to bring Lismore up
    is I was there a few weeks ago and I needed a prescription from a doctor.

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    Page 108
    I called around to different doctors surgeries and one of the ones I called
    was a Lismore doctors surgery. I want to read you the message which
    they had on their answering machine. "Our practice has been significantly
    effected by the Lismore floods. Our offices are currently closed. Our
    operating out of temporary locations. Please be patient with us. We only
    have one phone line compared to our usual four. These are trying times
    for our community and we will do our best to support you." This is almost
    five months after the floods. They are still effected.
    This is why when I think about accessibility, I don't just like to think
    about disability because not everyone who has a disability is actually
    vulnerable. When I think about accessibility, I like to think about
    vulnerability. Vulnerability based on systemic circumstances that someone
    has experienced as part of being one of those underrepresented voices
    but also the context of things that they are experiencing in our society
    today.
    At a time when people are feeling more isolated than ever during
    the COVID pandemic, 43% of Australians say digital services are helping
    them feel more connected. Our PwC Australia 2022 citizen survey found
    close to half agree that the government's digitisation of services are
    making them more accessible for all. This holds true across all age
    groups. I will say whilst these results are extremely positive, when we
    look at our underrepresented groups, the divide is widening.
    Here is the photo that has been on two other talks today, I think.
    According to the 2021 Australian Digital Inclusion Index, the number of
    Australians who are excluded from digital society still remains at 11% of
    our Australian population. To put it into perspective, this translates to half
    the population of Melbourne.
    What is digital inclusion? It is about removing the barriers that
    prevent all people, including those with lived experience of a disability or

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    Page 109
    a vulnerability to equally access our world.
    Here is a couple of inclusive design guidelines that do exist today. I
    reviewed about 105 different inclusive design sets of guidelines. That is
    about 1,050 different principals we viewed in order to understand what
    this means in our society today. I will say that I reviewed 107 after
    listening to Fiona and Ted's talk. One of the ones I would recommend is
    the designing for posters from the UK Home Office. The Microsoft
    inclusive design personas and principles, the Barclays inclusive design
    principles and the Australian Digital Inclusion Index as well. When it
    comes to the digital context however, the leading guidelines are the
    WCAG guidelines and how appropriate we are talking about them when
    we are about to launch version three of the guidelines. It will cater for a
    broader range of disabilities and it will cater for a broader range of
    assisting technologies. It is timely that we think about vulnerability.
    There are four WCAG design principles. I won't spend too much
    time of these because most of you are across these, hopefully. If you
    want more information, I encourage you to go to the W3C, they have a
    free course and there is recent training. The principles are perceivable,
    operable, understandable and robust. We use "usable", the reason why
    we use that is the way and context that we use our digital platforms are
    now interactive, they are no longer static content. We need to think about
    understandability and usability. The guidelines roughly translate to the
    acronym and depending on the success criteria that sits underneath them,
    you can get a rating.
    We are proposing that there is two more principles we need to
    consider. The first one is inclusive. We need inclusive in there. Inclusive is
    really about understanding the diversity and uniqueness of our
    population, so we can create safe accessible and affordable experiences
    and spaces that everyone can use.

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    Page 110
    Then we have trustworthy. This is particularly important because
    without trust people don't engage with digital services and this is really
    about making sure, no One is left behind through engagement, simplicity
    and security.
    Let's start with the principle inclusive. The principle here and then
    for each of the principles I will have a category and a couple of guidelines
    that we will walk through. The first category is digital connectivity. The
    first guideline we have, within it we have create a bridge to digital
    channels. What this is about is helping those that are systemically
    vulnerable being able to transition to more digital channels and giving
    them the option to interact face to face or assisted if needed. There is a
    lack of confidence, in terms of peoples' understanding of digital and
    technology which really effects their uptake and 59% of people in a recent
    survey that PwC conducted actually believe companies have lost their
    human touch because they are focused too much on technology. This
    guideline is about no wrong door to support and ensuring people who are
    vulnerable have priority access to those channels that are more intensive
    servicing.
    I will put it into context. I am a consultant so I had to put one
    model in here. Starting with digital self-service. Something as simple like
    changing your password, this is probably something that most people can
    do online in that level one category. If we take something more
    complicated, such as changing my name, in the instance this is changing
    my name due to a marriage for example, maybe this is something that
    can be digital service or digitally assisted if I need to provide an identity
    check. If I am going through family and domestic violence, I actually need
    to change my identity and have a digital security and safeguard on my
    account, I can probably go up to level six and that is not where
    everyone's situation is the same and we need to understand peoples'

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    Page 111
    uniqueness and this is a guide that can help us, in terms of how we triage
    the servicing and help them towards the right channels of interaction.
    The next guideline that we have, make it accessible to provide equal
    resources. Our citizen survey in 2022 found one of the largest digital
    divide we had was geography. If rural and remote areas there is patchy,
    unreliable or entirely absent Internet connection. In Victoria, there is a
    recent program connecting Victoria which is looking to improve mobile
    coverage and it is also looking to increase broadband speeds, particularly
    in rural locations to enhance emergency communication. This is not the
    case everywhere. What can we do? Create multiple access points for
    people to access digital services. These can be things like community
    hubs through to libraries in the rural and remote situations but it can also
    be about nudging people when things become available to increase that
    uptake.
    The next one is enable offline and cross device experiences. When
    we talk about homelessness and this is something which is particularly
    something I am passionate about after some of the work that I have been
    doing over the last few years, there is a common misconception that
    people who are homeless don't have access to mobile phones. A recent
    study at the University of Sydney and VincentCare did was 95% of people
    who experience homelessness have a mobile phone, a higher percentage
    than the number of people who have a phone in the adult population
    compared to that of homelessness. It is 80% of our adult population. The
    difference for someone in a state of homelessness is their phone may not
    always be charged, they may not have access to data and we need to
    enable the offline and cross device experiences. Some of the things we
    think about is enabling them to download information from a web page,
    being able to save information for access offline and if we do this, this will
    help increase the digital inclusion.

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    Page 112
    I will tell a couple of stories as we go through the principles. I will
    say if anything is triggering as we go through this, please feel free to exit
    out of the room and make sure you look after yourself first. This
    particular individual is someone who I spoke to when I was doing some
    research in Brisbane and I was looking at the impact of financial hardship
    on homelessness. What she told me is she applied for five jobs a week as
    part of her getting Centrelink. She wasn't having luck in getting a job still.
    The problem was her phone was never charged and she kept missing calls
    and as a result she didn't call them back because she didn't have credit.
    This is where digital initiatives, such as the services NSW licence can
    come in handy. One of the things she mentioned was a lot of people were
    asking for identification but her wallet kept getting stolen. She was
    homeless and couldn't provide identification unless she had that digital
    licence which was starting to roll out now. Going back to her not having
    credit, things like the initiative that Telstra is doing, in terms of having
    action test to pay phones and making that free of charge is helping close
    that divide. This is where we look at cross-channel servicing.
    In 2020, 11 million calls were made across Australia from Telstra
    pay phones, including more than 230,000 calls to critical services like 000
    and Lifeline.
    Our next category for inclusive design is digital ability. Underneath
    digital ability, the first one is recognise diversity and difference. I won't
    chat too much about this one because we went through it in terms of the
    underrepresented voices. Making sure we are thinking about everyone
    that we are designing for.
    The second one we have is educate and extend digital
    comfortability. This is about increasing the ability that people have to be
    able to interact online. The example that you see here of a QR check-in.
    There was a grandma that went viral because she had over 100 photos of

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    Page 113
    all these different QR codes on her phone. She didn't realise that it was
    actually a QR code to link you to a web page where you had to provide
    your details. This is where basic operational skills is a real gap in some of
    our generation. Things like downloading and opening files, connecting to
    the Internet and setting passwords is a gap in what a lot of people can do
    online. What we need to do is connect private sector and government in
    our initiatives we are doing around extending digital ability to improve
    peoples' access and comfortability with digital.
    The last principle that we have is make it affordable and close the
    gap. When we talk about making it affordable, it is not just about
    donating our old devices, it is about testing the digital products that we
    create. This is about making sure they work on newer and older
    technologies. There are smaller screen sizes, older software variants and
    when new technologies evolve, make sure that is not the only way people
    can access your design. We can optimise development for low data
    consumption, smaller image sizes and no forced downloads.
    This brings us to our principle inclusive. The final principle that we
    have is trustworthy. I thought this was a nice principle, in terms of Fiona
    and Ted talking about trust and how important digital trust is in the
    people that we design for.
    Our first category is digital safety. This is the COVID safety app. I
    am not sure if anyone downloaded this app. 8 million Australians
    downloaded this app and it was designed to - if you came into close
    contact with someone who had COVID it would notify you. As part of
    downloading this app you had the option to share your data with the
    government, in terms of your COVID tracking and of the 8 million who
    downloaded the app, only 800 people gave permission for their data to be
    stored. That is a huge lack of digital trust. What do we need to do?
    We need to increase cyber security for all channels to build this

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    Page 114
    trust. For me personally, I experienced it first hand, in terms of a cyber
    security risk when the ATO and MyGov worked together to try and make
    it as accessible as possible for people to download their $10,000 if they
    were without a job during the COVID period. What happened during this
    time was someone hacked into my ATO account and were able to set up
    an identity for me through my Australian Business Number which led to
    $10,000 being taken from my super. I was one of 150 people that this
    happened to. The reason that this happened was because we were trying
    to open up the door for it to be easier for people to were vulnerable to
    access support. What actually happened was that it created a cyber
    security risk. We need to think about cyber security in terms of inclusion
    as well.
    The next one is self-identification of additional access needs. We
    know people don't always feel comfortable disclosing their situation to
    businesses and to other people, it shouldn't be forced. When they do tell
    us that they are ready to share about their situation, we should make
    sure we have got the appropriate support in place for them. The example
    that you see here on the right-hand side is a quick exit button. This is
    really important when providing information to vulnerable cohorts,
    particularly in the situation of family and domestic violence, as sometimes
    accessing this information can put them in a life-threatening situation.
    This button that you see on the top right of the screen clears your
    browsing history and takes you to a safe web page.
    I wanted to share one story which was actually shared at a recent
    conference, so some of you in Melbourne may have heard this story. It is
    really important when we talk about trust and safety. I will try and keep it
    brief.
    Alex was a 20-year-old who opened an account with Robinhood, an
    investing app that allows you to buy stocks with no fees and no

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    Page 115
    experience. Alex took his own life in June 2020 after being fearful of
    owing $700,000. He was sent an automated email from Robinhood at
    3.30 in the morning letting him know his stocks had dropped and he
    needed to make an urgent payment in three days of $170,000. Alex
    immediately emailed the company asking if they could look into it but he
    received an automatic reply saying the responses were delayed. That
    night he took his own life. The thing that really stuck with me after
    hearing this story and reading up more about it is that there was a CBS
    interview with Alex's parents and in that interview, they were asked the
    question "Do you think if Robinhood had someone manning a phone or
    email account, Alex would still be here today?" And their response
    "Absolutely". The lesson here is when customers identify as having
    additional access needs, make sure we have the appropriate support in
    place to ensure that we can care for them effectively.
    The next guideline that we have is around ethical use of personal
    data and I know we touched on this one a little bit from the other talks. It
    is about using data for good not for harm. Things like when someone
    misses a payment on a bill, particularly if they miss two in a row, we
    should use that to automatically put them on a payment plan, we
    shouldn't use it to restrict their service. Having a think about how we use
    data effectively in order to help customers out of that vulnerable
    situation.
    Our last category that we have is trustworthy. The first guideline
    that sits underneath trustworthy is giving users control over what is on
    record. When we think of control, it is about in the moment control and it
    is also about reflective control. When I sign up for my profile, I want to
    know how information is used so that way I can determine how much I
    want to disclose. Similarly if I have been a member with a product or
    service for a period of time, encourage me to update my information and

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    Page 116
    make sure it is accurate and up to date. The other thing that we can talk
    about here in terms of control is things like a progress stepper or a review
    screen. Having these digital safeguards in place can make someone feel
    comfortable that the information they are disclosing, because they have
    the chance to review it before they continue.
    The second guideline we have is easy and consistent information
    break down. The example that you see on the right was something that
    went viral on LinkedIn of a 17-year-old that designed remotes for her
    grandad. We think about the consistent information break down, I
    encourage you to go back to the principles that Ted mentioned in his talk
    for cognitive disabilities. They aren't the only ones that benefit from easy
    and consistent information. When people experience vulnerability, they
    also have trouble with information processing and retaining information.
    What does the easy and consistent breakdown consist of? Writing things
    in plain language and unblocking familiarity. Codesign with us, never
    without us. I thought it was beautiful that the opening key note talked
    about the same sort of sentiment and this became really popular after the
    2004UN disability convention had this as their particular tag line. We think
    about codesign, it is about understanding all of the different voices that
    are in the room and it is creating a partnership rather than tokenism.
    When we talk about particularly service design, UX design and research
    and triangulation of methods, what we should be doing is triangulation of
    people to understand the different perspectives that we have.
    I am almost done. I will wrap up with a little bit of a story and then
    I will recap on the six principles. This particular gentleman was a PE
    teacher who I met in Brisbane when I was doing research on the
    transport experience for people with a disability. This gentleman went in
    for a routine knee replacement. He wasn't too surprising being a PE
    teacher. When he had the replacement, three days into his post-surgery

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    Page 117
    he developed a staph infection. Five days into his post surgery, he had to
    be amputated above the knees. This particular gentleman is still teaching.
    He is a PE theory teacher and science teacher but for him in particular,
    when he decides to get the bus to work every day, he decides to walk up
    the bus stop, which is on top of a hill from the bottom of his house, on his
    stumps. He chooses not to take his wheelchair with him. When I asked
    him why he said "It is not I can't get the wheelchair up there, that is easy
    it is when I hop on the bus they chain me in because that is a legal and
    safety requirement that Queensland transport had at the time". He said it
    is the only time he feels like he his a disability.
    Ultimately, disability and inclusion mean different things to different
    people. For those that - and that is the conclusion of trustworthy as a
    principle.
    We have the six principles of accessibility and inclusion. For those
    that didn't get a photo, you can take it now. The acronym and when you
    think about your designs remember it together so we can be more
    inclusive. Then to finish, what is one thing you would do differently to be
    more inclusive? Hopefully that second question will be up there now.
    Thank you. (APPLAUSE)
    STEVE BATY: Thank you, Natasha. That concludes that segment. It was a
    long segment. There was an awful lot to it. I will give you a break before
    we have our last talk for the day, before you run out, you should have
    received access your email to give you access to tomorrow's talk. If you
    going to view them online, so if you are listening in via Zoom, you should
    have that now. If not, jump on Slack and send a message and we can
    check it for you. Otherwise, go stretch your legs, go rest your mind,
    shake it off and then come back for what will be a very interesting closing
    talk for the afternoon. Thank you all.

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