Consortium (W3C) • Internet standard (STD) documents published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) • Request for Comments (RFC) documents published by the Internet Engineering Task Force • Standards published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) • Standards published by Ecma International (formerly ECMA) • The Unicode Standard and various Unicode Technical Reports (UTRs) published by the Unicode Consortium • Name and number registries maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
on the web (whatever format) but with an open licence, to be Open Data ★★ Available as machine-‐readable structured data (e.g. excel instead of image scan of a table) ★★★ Available as (2) plus non-‐proprietary format (e.g. CSV instead of excel) ★★★★ All the above plus, Use open standards from W3C (RDF and SPARQL) to idenLfy things, so that people can point at your stuﬀ ★★★★★ All the above, plus: Link your data to other people’s data to provide context
voluntary associations—institutions established by citizens with an objective other than private profit. These can range from schools to clubs dedicated to the full range of human activities, from acrobatics to zoology, by way of beach clearing. . . “ Nialls Ferguson
formation of technological “voluntary associations—institutions established by citizens” • The gathering of data-scientists and developers within such associations-institutions will need to be fed by these real open data. • Associations will form for the purpose of improvement on whatever aspects the (big) data represents. • Not necessarily on-line only but can be traditional communities as well.
of other collaboraters created a LIVE Singapore! exhibition based on data of urban activities. The exhibition highlights the informational and artistic possibilities that may be possible if such data is available openly.
The municipality of Venice, ISMAR-CNR, CORILA, The Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport (Venice Water Authority) and The Veneto Region (the Regional Secretariat for Infrastructure - GIS and Cartography). Shows the level of tide and currents inside the lagoon in Venice
by openspending.org. It is possible to drill down to details if you want to. You can even create your own spending visualisation with Openspending.org data (contains open spending data from a growing list of countries) with the Assembly Kit.
data management system that can be used by companies and governments as a tool to help organise and manage their open data oﬀering. Used by various government data catalogue such as data.gov.uk and publicdata.eu.
of STUDIO SWARM ( http://swarm.is/) • Human Traﬃc: Fung Kwok Pan & Vito Chin • Tools of the trade images from their respective websites • LIVE Singapore!: MIT senseable city lab ( http://senseable.mit.edu/ livesingapore/ ) • Bubble Tree Diagram showing UK government sendings: http:// www.openspending.org • Citymapper screenshot: http://citymapper.com