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Human Computer Interaction and Safety Critical Systems

Human Computer Interaction and Safety Critical Systems

HCI, SCS, Human Errors, Human Factors, Don Norman, Swiss Cheese Model, Schneiderman, Nielsen, Reason's Action Stages, Error Analysis, Complex Systems

Aleksandrs Cudars

November 03, 2014

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  1. Introduction • Safety Critical System • Normal Accident Theory •

    Human Factors and HCI • Human Errors • Reason’s “Swiss Cheese” • HFACS • Norman’s “Action Stages” • HCI in Health Care
  2. Safety Critical System • complex system • system failure could

    result in loss of life, damage to property or harm environment
  3. Human Factors • Human  Skills  Motivation  Experience

     Fatigue • Human – Human  Collaboration  Communication  Coordination • Human – Environment  Efficiency & Effectiveness  Memorability & Learnability
  4. Human Computer Interaction (HCI) • study, planning, design and uses

    of the interaction between people (users) and computers • Usability  Effectiveness  Efficiency  Satisfaction  Nielsen’s Heuristics  Schneiderman’s Golden Rules
  5. Asking the relevant questions… • How to design? • How

    to evaluate? • How to help? • How to prevent?
  6. Seven Stages of Action Norman, Donald A. "Cognitive engineering." User

    centered system design(1986): 31-61. goals execution perception interpretation action specific evaluation intention
  7. Case: Problems in Health Care • Medical errors caused by

    medical device • ~50% of medical devices are poorly designed (hardware and software) • Interface Design, Usability Testing, UCD • Use errors > device failures • Human factors engineering  User Analysis + Functional Analysis + Task Analysis + Representational Analysis • Heuristic Evaluation  Limited, yet practical • Systems before humans
  8. Summary • Safety Critical System • Normal Accident Theory •

    Human Factors and HCI • Human Errors • Reason’s “Swiss Cheese” • HFACS • Norman’s “Action Stages” • HCI in Healthcare
  9. References • M. Grabowski, S. D. Sanborn, “Human performance and

    embedded intelligent technology in safety-critical systems”. International journal of human-computer studies, 2003, 58(6), pp. 637-670. • A. Dix, et. al. “Human-Computer Interaction”. Third Edition, Prentice Hall/Pearson Publishing, 2004. • J. C. Knight, “Safety critical systems: challenges and directions”. Proceedings of the 24rd International Conference, 2002, pp. 547-550. • G. Johannsen, et. al. “Human system interface concerns in support system design”. Automatica, 1983,19(6), pp. 595-603. • D. J. Pumfrey, “The principled design of computer system safety analyses”. Doctoral dissertation, University of York,1999. • J. Reason, Human error. Cambridge University Press, 1990. • D. Norman, “Cognitive engineering“. User Centered System Design, 1986, pp. 31-61. • R. Bridger, “A Guide to Understanding Human Factors and Human Behaviour in Safety Management and Accident Investigation”. Crown Copyright, 2012. • C. Power, J. Fox, “Comparing the comprehensiveness of three expert inspection methodologies for detecting errors in interactive systems”. Safety Science, Vol. 62, 2013, pp. 286-294. • S.A. Shappell, and D.A. Wiegmann, “The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS”, National Technical Information Service, 2000. • R. L. Wears and N. G. Leveson. "Safeware”: safety-critical computing and healthcare information technology." Advances in patient safety: new directions and alternative approaches 4, 2008, pp. 1-10. • R. Cook, and M. O’Connor. "Thinking about accidents and systems." Medication safety: A guide for healthcare facilities. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health Systems Pharmacists, 2005, pp.73-88. • Zhang, Jiajie, et al. "Using usability heuristics to evaluate patient safety of medical devices." Journal of biomedical informatics 36.1 (2003): 23-30. • “Human Factors in Healthcare A Concordat from the National Quality Board”. Available online: http://www.england.nhs.uk/wp- content/uploads/2013/11/nqb-hum-fact-concord.pdf