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Introduction to AI and neural networks

20d0ddc61e80bce04a63680da0160756?s=47 Aletheia
October 13, 2020

Introduction to AI and neural networks

Introduction to artificial intelligence and neural networks, demystifying core concepts. A brief and wide introduction of the CNN applications



October 13, 2020


  1. www.neosperience.com | blog.neosperience.com | info@neosperience.com Neosperience Empathy in Technology Introduction

    to IA and neural networks October, 15th 2020
  2. Luca Bianchi Who am I? github.com/aletheia https://it.linkedin.com/in/lucabianchipavia https://speakerdeck.com/aletheia Chief Technology

    Officer @ Neosperience Chief Technology Officer @ WizKey Serverless Meetup and ServerlessDays Italy co-organizer www.bianchiluca.com @bianchiluca
  3. Artificial Intelligence What is all this buzz about? Why now

    and not before (or after)?
  4. The Law of Accelerated Growth Why is happening now? An

    analysis of the history of technology shows that technological change is exponential, contrary to the common- sense “intuitive linear” view. Technology growth throughout history has been exponential, it is not gonna stop until reaches a point where innovation is happening at a seemingly-infinite pace. Kurzweil called this event singularity. After the singularity, something completely new will shape our world. Artificial Narrow Intelligence is evolving into Artificial General Intelligence, then into Artificial Super Intelligence.
  5. Why it can’t be stopped? Everyone wants to live forever

    An AGI would be to fix our world, since many illness can be thought as an Artificial Intelligence problem. Computational biology is fast moving towards self-learning medications, and these are just the beginning of adoption of nano-machines.
  6. Which AI? Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) The appropriately programmed computer

    with the right inputs and outputs would thereby have a mind in exactly the same sense human beings have minds. Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) An AGI capable of outsmarting human brains, performing thinking and learning tasks at unprecedented pace. Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) Artificial Intelligence constrained to a narrow task. (Siri, Google Search, Google Car, ESB, etc.).
  7. Different approaches How? Human intelligence relies on a powerful supercomputer

    - our brain - much more powerful than actual HPC servers and is capable of switching between many different “algorithms” to understand reality, each one of them is context-independent. • Filling gaps in Existing Knowledge • Understand and apply Knowledge • Semantically reduce uncertainty • Notice similarity between old/new The most powerful capability of our brain and the common denominator of all these features is the capability humans to learn from experience. Learning is the key.
  8. Artificial Intelligence “the theory and development of computer systems able

    to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.”
  9. AI is 70 years old

  10. Tribes of Artificial Intelligence for decades individual “tribes” of artificial

    intelligence researchers have vied one another for dominance. Is the time now for tribes to collaborate? They may be forced to, as collaboration and algorithm blending are the only ways to reach true AGI. What are the five Tribes? Symbolists Use symbols, rules, and logic to represent knowledge and draw logical inference Favored algorithm Rules and decision trees Bayesians Assess the likelihood of occurrence for probabilistic inference Favored algorithm Naive Bayes or Markov Connectionists Recognise and generalise patterns dynamically with matrices of probabilistic weighted neurons Favored algorithm Neural Networks Evolutionaries Generate variations and then assess the fitness of each for a given purpose Favored algorithm Genetic Programs Analogizers Optimize a function in light of constraints (“going as high as you can while staying on the road”) Favored algorithm Support vectors
  11. ehm… almost.. Are AI and Machine Learning the same thing?

    Machine Learning is the most promising field of Artificial Intelligence so, often, it is used in place of AI, even if the latter is broader, including knowledge generation algorithms such as path finding and solution discovery. Deep Learning is a subset of Machine Learning algorithms related to pattern recognition and reinforcement learning.
  12. Roadmap of Deep Learning

  13. Machine Learning What is exactly a machine that learns?

  14. Machine Learning The importance of Experience • Machine Learning (ML)

    algorithms have data as input, ‘cause data represents the Experience.
 This is a focal point of Machine Learning: large amount of data is needed to achieve good performances. • The Machine Learning equivalent of program in ML world is called ML model and improves over time as soon as more data is provided, with a process called training. • Data must be prepared (or filtered) to be suitable for training process. Generally input data must be collapsed into a n-dimensional array with every item representing a sample. • ML performances are measured in probabilistic terms, with metrics called accuracy or precision. An operational definition “A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P, improves with experience E”
  15. An operative definition Deterministic computing Machine Learning Computer algorithm data

    output Learner data output (e) algorithm Consider computing flow
  16. Machine Learning — Taxonomy Input-based taxonomy Types of Machine Learning

    Machine learning tasks are typically classified into three broad categories, depending on the nature of the learning "signal" or "feedback" available to a learning system. Output-based taxonomy • Supervised Learning • Unsupervised Learning • Reinforcement Learning • Regression • Classification • Clustering • Density estimation • Dimensionality reduction
  17. Deep Learning Learning is fun, why going deep?

  18. Deep Learning is a great phrase, it seems so deep

  19. Deep Learning How “deep” is your deep learning? • Deep

    Learning (DL) is based on non-linear structures that process information. The “deep” in name comes from the contrast with “traditional” ML algorithms that usually use only one layer. What is a layer? • A cost-function receiving data as input and outputting its function weights. • More complex is the data you want to learn from, more layers are usually needed to learn from. The number of layers is called depth of the DL algorithm. An operational definition “A class of machine learning techniques that exploit many layers of non-linear information processing for supervised or unsupervised feature extraction and transformation, and for pattern analysis and classification.”
  20. Neural Networks (ANN) An operational definition “computing systems inspired by

    the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains. Such systems learn (progressively improve performance) to do tasks by considering examples, generally without task-specific programming” An ANN is based on a collection of connected units called artificial neurons, (analogous to axons in a biological brain). Each connection (synapse) between neurons can transmit a signal to another neuron. The receiving (postsynaptic) neuron can process the signal(s) and then signal downstream neurons connected to it. Neurons may have state, generally represented by real numbers, typically between 0 and 1. Neurons and synapses may also have a weight that varies as learning proceeds, which can increase or decrease the strength of the signal that it sends downstream. Further, they may have a threshold such that only if the aggregate signal is below (or above) that level is the downstream signal sent. Typically, neurons are organized in layers. Different layers may perform different kinds of transformations on their inputs. Signals travel from the first (input), to the last (output) layer, possibly after traversing the layers multiple times.
  21. Convolutions are great matematical operations to exploit pixel correlations Convolutional

    Neural Network (CNN) 20 Image Vol o XC90 Image so rce: Uns per ised Learning of Hierarchical Represen a ions i h Con ol ional Deep Belief Ne orks ICML 2009 & Comm. ACM 2011. Honglak Lee, Roger Grosse, Rajesh Ranganath, and Andrew Ng. CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS
  22. Fields of application (examples) Customer behaviour patterns Leverage pattern recognition

    to understand common interests between customer belonging to different clusters and push personalized messages. Generate smart content Smart Agents such generate personalized wording depending on the profile of customer landing on their site, starting from a few words. Customer tracking in store Customers can be tracked down extracting their movements in store. This leads to exploiting their interests, identifying returning customers (through face recognition) and sentiment (through face analysis).
  23. Wrap Up So, are we close to the next revolution?

  24. None
  25. None
  26. AI Next Talking about AI is not differentiating anymore A

    lot of companies are moving into this space with specific focus on markets
  27. Empathy in Technology

  28. bit.ly/nsp-assi-ai

  29. www.neosperience.com | blog.neosperience.com | info@neosperience.com