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Ethical Aspects & Habit-Forming Products

Ethical Aspects & Habit-Forming Products

This is a talk I've given as part of an HCI course at the University of Victoria, summer, 2017. I tried to explain the deeper psychology of what makes certain designs habit forming, and the responsibility we have when changing user behavior.

The talk is influenced and based on Nir Eyal's blog posts and book. Images used in these slides are used for educational purposes only and I claim no credit for any of the images. Images are copyright to its respectful owners.

Alexey Zagalsky

July 19, 2017
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  1. Ethical Aspects &
    Habit-Forming Products
    Alexey Zagalsky
    SENG 310, University of Victoria, Summer 2017
    Images used in these slides are used for educational purposes only and I claim no credit for any of the images.
    Images are copyright to its respectful owners.

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  2. Ethical Aspects
    in The Media

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  3. Uber’s “Upfront” Fare
    Source:
    https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2017/04/uber-said-to-use-sophisticated-software-to-defraud-drivers-passengers/
    “The software utilized in determining the upfront price is specifically designed to provide a route
    distance and time estimate based on traffic conditions and other variables but not to determine the
    shortest/quickest reasonable route based on those conditions.
    Meanwhile, the software utilized in the driver’s application, which navigates the drivers to the User’s
    destination, utilizes traffic conditions and other variables to provide the driver with a more efficient,
    shorter, or quicker route to the User’s destination, resulting in a lower fare payout to the driver.”

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  4. Massive-scale Emotional Experiment at Facebook
    Seeing positive posts
    influences people to post
    positive updates,
    seeing negative posts
    influences people to post
    negative updates,
    and that an absence of
    emotion on their News
    Feed leads them to post
    less overall.
    Source: http://www.pnas.org/content/111/24/8788.full

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  5. http://www.forbes.com/sites/kashmirhill/2014/06/28/facebook-manipulated-689003-users-emotions-for-science/#3778b1a5704d

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  6. Facebook and The Ethics of User Manipulation
    “Having written and designed this experiment myself, I can tell
    you that our goal was never to upset anyone. I can understand
    why some people have concerns about it, and my co-authors
    and I are very sorry for the way the paper described the
    research and any anxiety it caused.
    In hindsight, the research benefits of the paper may not have
    justified all of this anxiety.”
    source: https://www.facebook.com/akramer/posts/10152987150867796

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  7. http://www.theverge.com/2016/1/4/10708590/facebook-google-android-app-crash-tests

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  8. Source: https://techcrunch.com/2017/05/02/facebook-denies-it-sells-ad-targeting-based-on-users-emotions/
    Original:http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/media/digital/facebook-targets-insecure-young-people-to-sell-ads/n
    ews-story/a89949ad016eee7d7a61c3c30c909fa6
    By monitoring posts, pictures, interactions and internet activity
    in real-time, Facebook can work out when young people feel
    “stressed”, “defeated”, “overwhelmed”, “anxious”, “nervous”,
    “stupid”, “silly”, “useless”, and a “failure”, the document states.

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  9. How many of you used Facebook / Whatsapp / Instagram / Slack today?

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  10. How Technology is
    Hijacking Our Mind
    inspired by
    https://journal.thriveglobal.com/how-technology-hijacks-peoples-minds-from-a-magician-and-google-s-design-ethicist-56d62ef5edf3

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  11. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9imEN5nPNm8
    Social Approval

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  12. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9imEN5nPNm8
    Social Approval
    Through design choices like this, Facebook controls
    the multiplier for how often millions of people
    experience their social approval on the line.

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  13. Social Reciprocity

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  14. Fear of Missing Out (FOMO)

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  15. Billions of Slot Machines in Our Pockets
    a.k.a Variable Schedule of Rewards
    Bottomless bowls,
    Infinite Feeds,
    and Autoplay

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  17. https://www.nirandfar.com/2014/08/the-sneaky-trick-behind-the-explosive-growth-of-the-kardashian-game.html
    Viral Loops and Viral Oops

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  19. Instant Interruptions vs. “Respectful” delivery
    Companies know that messages that interrupt people immediately are more persuasive at
    getting people to respond than messages delivered asynchronously (like email or any
    deferred inbox).

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  20. Inconvenient Choices

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  21. Instead of viewing the world in terms of availability of choices,
    we should view the world in terms of friction required to enact choices.
    Forecasting Consequences

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  22. Instead of viewing the world in terms of availability of choices,
    we should view the world in terms of friction required to enact choices.
    TripAdvisor uses a “foot in the door” technique by asking for a single click review (“How
    many stars?”) while hiding the three page survey of questions behind the click.
    Forecasting Consequences

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  23. Habit-Forming Products

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  24. The Hooked Design Pattern
    Based on the book “Hooked: How to build Habit-forming Products” by Nir Eyal

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  25. The Hooked Design Pattern
    A trigger is what cues a habit.
    Whether in the form of an external trigger that tells users what to do next (such as a
    “click here” button) or an internal trigger (such as an emotion or routine), a trigger
    must be present for a habitual behavior to occur.

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  26. The Hooked Design Pattern
    A trigger is what cues a habit.
    Whether in the form of an external trigger that tells users what to do next (such as a
    “click here” button) or an internal trigger (such as an emotion or routine), a trigger
    must be present for a habitual behavior to occur.
    External Triggers

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  27. The Hooked Design Pattern
    A trigger is what cues a habit.
    Whether in the form of an external trigger that tells users what to do next (such as a
    “click here” button) or an internal trigger (such as an emotion or routine), a trigger
    must be present for a habitual behavior to occur.
    External Triggers Internal Triggers
    Places, Situation,
    People, Routines,
    Emotions

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  28. The Hooked Design Pattern
    An Action is the simplest behaviour in anticipation of a reward.

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  29. The Hooked Design Pattern
    An Action is the simplest behaviour in anticipation of a reward.

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  30. The Hooked Design Pattern
    An Action is the simplest behaviour in anticipation of a reward.
    Behavioural Model by Dr. BJ Fogg http://www.behaviormodel.org/

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  31. The Hooked Design Pattern
    The next step is the Reward, but the reward is not enough, there should be some
    variability.

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  32. The Hooked Design Pattern
    Variable Ratio of Reinforcement (Reward), proposed by BF Skinner
    in the 1950s.

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  33. The Hooked Design Pattern
    Variable Rewards can be divided into 3 types:
    Tribe
    Rewards of the
    The search for social
    rewards fueled by
    connectedness with
    other people

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  34. The Hooked Design Pattern
    Variable Rewards can be divided into 3 types:
    Tribe
    Hunt
    Rewards of the
    Rewards of the
    The search for social
    rewards fueled by
    connectedness with
    other people
    The search for
    material resources
    and information

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  35. The Hooked Design Pattern
    Variable Rewards can be divided into 3 types:
    Tribe
    Hunt Self
    Rewards of the
    Rewards of the
    Rewards of the
    The search for social
    rewards fueled by
    connectedness with
    other people
    The search for
    material resources
    and information
    The search for intrinsic
    rewards of mastery,
    competence, and
    completion

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  36. The Hooked Design Pattern
    The Investment phase is when the user puts something into the product in
    anticipation of a future benefit.
    The purpose is to increase the likelihood of the next pass through the hook, with
    loading the next trigger and stored value.

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  37. The Hooked Design Pattern
    The Investment phase is when the user puts something into the product in
    anticipation of a future benefit.
    The purpose is to increase the likelihood of the next pass through the hook, with
    loading the next trigger and stored value.
    Habit-forming products should appreciate with time by storing value.
    Data Friends / Followers Reputation

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  38. The Hooked Design Pattern
    with enough
    frequency a
    habit is formed

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  39. Should We Worry About
    Making The World More
    Addictive?

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  40. Designing Habit-Forming Products is a form of Manipulation

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  41. What Responsibility Do We Have
    When Changing User Behaviour?
    The Hook pattern is intended to help product designers build healthy habits
    in their users. By understanding the deeper psychology of what makes us
    click by knowing what makes us tick, we can build better products and
    ultimately live better lives.

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  42. Ethical Responsibility
    The first time in history, people who are making products that are potentially addictive
    can mitigate the harm. Addiction is nothing new, but now the maker of an addictive
    product knows who the addicts are.
    For example, uncapped use apps can send a weekly usage report to the top 5-10% of
    users
    Uncapped use apps should include self-regulation tools

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  43. Recommended Reading
    https://www.nirandfar.com
    How Technology Tricks You Into Tipping More
    Tech Companies are Addicting People. Should They Stop?
    Should We Worry About The World Becoming More Addictive?
    “Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products” by Nir Eyal
    The UX of Pokémon GO : A Case Study
    Dan Ariely’s Essays on Motivation (essay 1, essay 2)

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  44. Design

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  45. Ethical Design

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  46. Thanks! Questions? @alexeyzagalsky

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