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How Deep is Deep Learning?

8ee9106f551806f5ecea96b9221e970e?s=47 Amar
July 09, 2017

How Deep is Deep Learning?

Undoubtedly Deep Learning is a recent significant step towards Artificial General Intelligence because of its sheer ability to learn most complex tasks. Deep Learning has been shown to achieve spectacular results in almost all domains. But as expected, there is always a price to pay for everything, especially for better things. And here the price is the interpretability and simplicity. Moreover, the amount of resources required by deep learning is huge, but that is not much of a concern in today’s era. With such huge promises, deep learning has become the panacea. Is it really true? How deep is Deep Learning? We explore such questions and will discuss some interesting findings and insights when deep learning is applied in education domain (Knowledge Tracing, to be precise).

8ee9106f551806f5ecea96b9221e970e?s=128

Amar

July 09, 2017
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  1. How Deep is Deep Learning? Amar Lalwani Lead Engineer, R

    & D, funtoot Ph.D. Candidate, IIIT-Bangalore
  2. In a Classroom ..

  3. Homogeneous Teaching

  4. Two Sigma Problem

  5. Two sigma problem

  6. Funtoot: Intelligent Tutoring System • Every child is unique •

    Personalised (One-on-One) Tutoring • Mastery Learning
  7. Funtoot: Journey so far ..

  8. Student Data 1. Q1 => solved 2. Q2 => unsolved

    3. Q3 => solved 4. Q1 => unsolved 5. Q3 => solved 6. Q4 => unsolved 7. Q1 => solved 8. Q2 => unsolved
  9. Student Data (Contd..) • How much does the student know?

    • Ask the student!
  10. Knowledge Tracing (KT) • For some skill K • Given

    student’s response sequence 1 to n, predict n+1 0 0 0 1 1 1 ? 1 ………..……… n n+1 Chronological response sequence for student Y [ 0 = Incorrect response 1 = Correct response]
  11. How do we approach this? • Modelling learner’s knowledge acquisition

    process • Fairly complex • Need a • General model • Flexible model • Powerful model
  12. Play the best card: Deep Learning

  13. Deep Knowledge Tracing (DKT) • Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs)

  14. Deep Knowledge Tracing (DKT) • RNN or LSTM Model 0.9,0.3,0.2

    0.8,0.2,0.1 0.8,0.5,0.3 Q1 Q2 Q3 …. Skill A Skill B Skill C 1.0,0.3,0.7 pCorrect(Skill A), pCorrect(Skill B), pCorrect(Skill C)
  15. Inter-skill Relationships

  16. Dataset • 6th Grade Math CBSE Curriculum • 22 topics,

    69 sub-topics, 119 sub-sub-topics • 442 skills (LGs), 1523 problems • 7780 students, 176 schools • 2.4 million problem attempts • 5.6 million data-points • 76% avoidances (positive class:1)
  17. Results: Accuracy 0.75 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

    0.7 0.8 Deep
  18. Results: Accuracy 0.75 0.65 0.6 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.7

    0.72 0.74 0.76 Deep Shallow
  19. Results: Accuracy

  20. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT) Learned (know) UnLearned (Does not know)

    Incorrect Correct P(L0 ) 1-P(L0 ) P(T) 1-P(G) 1-P(S) P(G) P(S)
  21. BKT: Parameters • BKT: 2-state Hidden Markov Model (HMM) •

    P(L0 ): Probability of Initial Knowledge • P(T): Probability of Learning • P(S): Probability of Slip • P(G): Probability of Guess
  22. Shallow* Vs Deep Shallow* Deep Shallow* = Deep Performance Parameters

    4 x # skills pInit, pLearn, pGuess, pSlip Few hundred thousand parameters Interpretability
  23. Deep Model: Advantages • Intelligent Curriculum Design • Finding best

    sequence of tasks • Discovery of structure • Instead of skill labels, question labels can be used as input • Complex representations and features
  24. is Deep Learning really DEEP?

  25. References • Knowledge Tracing: Modelling the acquisition of procedural knowledge

    (Corbett et. Al., 1995) • Bloom’s Two Sigma Problem (1984) • Deep Knowledge Tracing (Peich et. Al., 2015) • How deep is Knowledge Tracing? (Khajah et. Al., 2016) • Few hundred parameters outperform few hundred thousand? (Lalwani et. Al.), 2017
  26. Thank You! Questions??