Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …



bruce lawson

October 26, 2023

More Decks by bruce lawson

Other Decks in Technology


  1. @brucel The web must be for ALL • people with

    disabilities (whether permanent, temporary or situational • people on lower-powered devices, contained networks, expensive data plans.
  2. MEDIAN DESKTOP 2485.7 KB ▲397.1% MEDIAN MOBILE 2175.9 KB ▲1402.7%

    Web pages keep getting bigger https://httparchive.org/reports/state-of-the-web#bytesTotal
  3. Mind the gap the highest average cost is 30,000% more

    than the cheapest average price https://www.visualcapitalist.com/cost-of-mobile-data-worldwide/
  4. Android majority median UK speed is 28.51 Mbps, USA is

    54.99 Mbps, and Hong Kong is 112.32 Mbps Android %age Download speed (Mbps) Rwanda 80% 0.81 Cambodia 60% 1.29 India 96% 4.09 Indonesia 92% 1.88 Laos 83% 1.99 Philippines 87% 2.05 Thailand 74% 14.90 Vietnam 68% 16.39 Connection speed data: https://www.fastmetrics.com/internet-connection-speed-by-country.php Android stats: statcounter https://gs.statcounter.com/os-market-share/mobile/worldwide
  5. Downloading a typical app with 20 MB APK can take

    more than 30 minutes on a 2G network, and the download is likely to fail before completion, due to the flaky nature of the network. “ - How we built Facebook Lite for every Android phone and network Facebook Lite
  6. Twitter “Twitter Lite is network resilient. To reach every person

    on the planet, we need to reach people on slow and unreliable networks … Twitter Lite is interactive in under 5 seconds over 3G on most devices. Most of the world is using 2G or 3G networks; a fast initial experience is essential.” https://blog.twitter.com/engineering/en_us/topics/open-source/2017/how-we-built-twitter-lite.html
  7. React accessibility Nothing inherently inaccessible, if ▪ you choose the

    right components, eg one that produces <nav class=“nav”> rather than <div class=“nav”> ▪ you manually manage focus -all the time!- if making a Single Page Application
  8. Battery use is a safeguarding issue One fundamental problem that

    homeless and vulnerable people currently face is the issue of recharging their devices. Many homeless people put themselves in danger in order to access power for their devices, trespassing private property and using outdoor power sockets… This puts them at risk of altercations, violence, or even arrest. The potential for empowering homeless people through digital technology (Lemos&Crane 2013, PDF)
  9. From the vendor "we found that React Native APIs provide

    strong support for accessibility. However, we also found many core components do not yet fully utilize platform accessibility APIs and support is missing for some platform specific features." Facebook, March 2021 The Accessibility API for React and React Native enables you to make any React-powered experience usable by someone who may use assistive technology, like a screen reader for the blind and visually impaired. Facebook, November 2015
  10. Good HTML is foundational Start off with just good quality

    code. That’s by far and away the best thing you could do for accessibility, especially screen reader accessibility. Screen readers are absolutely dependent on plain old semantic HTML. Divs and spans are the absolute worst thing you can do to us because they’re meaningless. HTML5 introduced a whole bunch of elements nav, main, header, footer, aside and such. And from a screen reader user point of view these were one of the most amazing strides forward I can remember coming across. https://f-word.dev/episodes/19/ - Léonie Watson
  11. @brucel Accessibility is part of Usability “high conformance with web

    accessibility guidelines may provide bene fi ts to users without disabilities.”

  12. @brucel Schmutz, Sonderegger and Sauer 
 • Sixty-one participants without

    disabilities used one of three websites di ff ering in levels of accessibility • A high level of web accessibility led to better performance (i.e., task completion time and task completion rate) than low or very low accessibility. • Likewise, high web accessibility improved user ratings (i.e., perceived usability, aesthetics, workload and trustworthiness) compared to low or very low web accessibility. Department of Psychology, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0018720816640962
  13. @brucel Sir Uncle Timbo: The web is for everyone and

    collectively we hold the power to change it. It won’t be easy. But if we dream a little and work a lot, we can get the web we want. https://webfoundation.org/2019/03/web-birthday-30/
  14. @brucel What can you do? Learn the semantics of HTML.

    There are 120(ish) elements, that’s all!
  15. Keyboard <div class=btn role=button aria-pressed=false tabindex=0> Clicky click </div> wrapper.addEventListener("keydown",

    e => { if (e.key === " " || e.key === "Enter" || e.key === "Spacebar") { toggleBtn(e.target); } });
  16. <dialog> <dialog> <button autofocus>Close</button> <p>I’m a modal</p> </dialog> <button id=show>Show

    the dialog</button> const dialog = document.querySelector("dialog"); const showButton = document.querySelector("#show"); const closeButton = document.querySelector("dialog button"); // "Show the dialog" button opens the dialog modally showButton.addEventListener("click", () => { dialog.showModal(); }); // "Close" button closes the dialog closeButton.addEventListener("click", () => { dialog.close(); });
  17. HTML accordions <details name="accordian"> <summary>FAQ 1</summary> <p>This is the answer

    to Q1</p> </details> <details name="accordian"> <summary>FAQ 2</summary> <p>This is the answer to Q2</p> </details> <details name="accordian"> <summary>FAQ 3</summary> <p>This is the answer to Q3</p> </details> All browsers Speci fi cation stage
  18. @brucel Progressive Web Apps • Web sites ++ • Can

    save to home screen, open full-screen • Can work o ff l ine (using Service Workers) • Much smaller initial install, instant updates but only the changes • Twitter, Wordle, Farmbound web.dev/learn/pwa/
  19. @brucel Rule 2.5.6 Apps that browse the web must use

    the appropriate WebKit framework and WebKit Javascript. https://developer.apple.com/app-store/review/guidelines/#software-requirements
  20. @brucel For your comfort and security. • The researchers have

    successfully leveraged iLeakage to recover YouTube viewing history, the content of a Gmail inbox—when a target is logged in—and a password as it’s being auto fi lled by a credential manager. • While iLeakage works against Macs only when running Safari, iPhones and iPads can be attacked when running any browser because they’re all based on Apple’s WebKit browser engine.
  21. @brucel Browsers are powered by an ‘engine,’ which is fundamental

    to browser performance.… Apple bans alternatives to its own browser engine on its mobile devices; a restriction that is unique to Apple. This restriction also seriously inhibits the capability of web apps – apps that run on a browser rather than having to be individually downloaded – depriving consumers and businesses of the full bene fi ts of this innovative technology. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/cma-plans-market-investigation-into-mobile-browsers-and-cloud-gaming
  22. @brucel Gatekeepers and core services Gatekeepers should therefore not use

    their position to require their dependent business users to use any of the services provided together with, or in support of, core platform services by the gatekeeper itself as part of the provision of services or products by those business users gatekeepers should also be prohibited from requiring end users to use such services
  23. @brucel Big teeth from March 2024 If a gatekeeper violates

    the rules laid down in the legislation, it risks a fi ne of up to 10% of its total worldwide turnover. For a repeat o ff ence, a fi ne of up to 20% of its worldwide turnover may be imposed.
  24. @brucel There is still a dif fi cult fi ght

    ahead Apple has a legal budget of over $1 billion USD annually. “work out how to get closer to a particular risk but be prepared to manage it it it does go nuclear, ... steer the ship as close as you can to that line because that's where the competitive advantage occurs. Apple had to pay a large fi ne, Tim [Cook]’s reaction was that's the right choice, don't let that scare you, I don't want you to stop pushing the envelope.’ Bruce Sewell - Former Apple General Council
  25. @brucel Consider making a Progressive Web App next time, for

    cross- device joy, tasty HTML semantic goodness (h1 - h6!) and accessibility. Until the Apple Browser Ban is ended, use something like Capacitor.js to get it into App Store. Follow and support Open Web Advocacy.