Faster Than Light?

79ba9d4ea5663bf43883d317bf23a267?s=47 Daniel Scully
December 07, 2011

Faster Than Light?

In response to the exciting news from an experiment at CERN that neutrinos may be travelling faster than the speed of light, I presented a Christmas Lecture for a general audience in The University of Warwick's Department of Physics.

It begins by introducing Particle Physics: what it's about and where our current knowledge is. Then we focused in on neutrinos, the particles believed to be travelling fast-than-light, before looking at how the OPERA experiment went about measuring their speed. The final few slides were dedicated to discussing the consequences this has for our current understanding of physics, and some of the places it might lead us in the future.

You can watch the video here: http://vimeo.com/33665154

79ba9d4ea5663bf43883d317bf23a267?s=128

Daniel Scully

December 07, 2011
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Transcript

  1. Daniel Scully University of Warwick

  2. Material World

  3. Periodic Table

  4. The Atom proton neutron electron

  5. Radioactive Decay proton neutron electron (neutrino)

  6. Quarks u u d

  7. Standard Model

  8. Anti-Matter Standard Model

  9. Standard Model Matter Anti-Matter

  10. Standard Model Gravity Electro-Magnetism Strong Force Weak Force

  11. Gravity Standard Model Electro-Magnetism Strong Force Weak Force

  12. Neutrinos ν e ν μ ν τ ν e ν

    μ ν τ
  13. 100 billion

  14. None
  15. Supernova 1987a

  16. None
  17. J-PARC p + C →π / K →ν μ

  18. The Big Bang

  19. None
  20. Neutrino Oscillations Source Flavours Solar ν e → ν e

    Atmospheric ν μ → ν τ MINOS ν μ → ν μ Reactor ν e → ν e OPERA ν μ → ν τ T2K ν μ → ν e NOvA ν μ → ν e
  21. CERN

  22. None
  23. Switzerland Geneva CERN Italy Abruzzo Gran Sasso 730km

  24. None
  25. OPERA

  26. How To Measure Speed Speed = Distance Time

  27. CERN Gran Sasso GPS 730km 20 000 km Ionosphere ±2cm

  28. None
  29. CERN Gran Sasso GPS 730km 20 000 km Ionosphere ±2cm

  30. None
  31. OPERA GPS 1 GPS 2 10km Position of OPERA ±20cm

  32. Distance 731278.0m ± 0.2m

  33. CERN Gran Sasso GPS 730km 20 000 km Ionosphere ±100ns

    500km
  34. 50ns GPS – Caesium Correction

  35. None
  36. Time Synchronisation ± 2ns ± 0.000 000 002 s

  37. Beam Timing CERN Gran Sasso 10.5μs

  38. Beam Timing CERN Gran Sasso

  39. Beam Timing CERN Gran Sasso

  40. Before Fit After Fit

  41. The Result Arrived 60.7ns ± 10.1ns Early 0.0025% Faster

  42. CERN Beam Timing Target Decay Tube ν μ Protons Focusing

    Magnet Time
  43. CERN Beam Timing Target Decay Tube ν μ Protons Focusing

    Magnet Time
  44. Beam Timing CERN Gran Sasso 3ns

  45. None
  46. The Result Arrived 60.7ns ± 10.1ns Early 0.0025% Faster

  47. None
  48. Special Relativity Physics is the same for all observers, regardless

    of their relative speeds The speed of light is the same for all observers E = mc2 Nothing can go faster than the speed of light
  49. Special Relativity Quantum Mechanics Physics

  50. Special Relativity Quantum Mechanics Relativistic Quantum Mechanics Particle Physics Physics

  51. Special Relativity Quantum Mechanics Relativistic Quantum Mechanics Particle Physics General

    Relativity Physics
  52. Special Relativity Quantum Mechanics Relativistic Quantum Mechanics Particle Physics General

    Relativity Astrophysics Cosmology Physics
  53. Physics

  54. Supernova 1987a Neutrinos arrived 3hours early If OPERA is right,

    the neutrinos would have arrived 4years early
  55. 295km T2K 810km NOvA 730km OPERA 735km MINOS Long Baseline

    Neutrino Oscillation Experiments
  56. Extra Dimensions 5, 6, 7, 8... But if... then how?

  57. String Theory But if... then how?

  58. Sterile Neutrinos ν e ν μ ν τ ν S

    But if... then how?
  59. Rare Particles Left over from Big Bang Need to be

    ~10m Only affects neutrinos But if... then how?
  60. But if... then how? Your Theory Here

  61. But if... then how? 12m of Cable

  62. Daniel Scully University of Warwick

  63. Image Credits 1, 62. Sandbox Studio 14. CERN Bulletin http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1345733

    15, 54. http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/star/supernova/pr1999004e/ 16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chooz_-_Centrale_nucléaire_-1.jpg 18. WMAP 19. T2K 21, 22. CERN 24. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gran_sasso_italia.jpg 25. INFN 30. http://www.flickr.com/photos/paperfa/2457059915 47. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Einstein_1921_portrait2.jpg 53. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Demolition_Bacinol_2009.JPG