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Understanding the Energy Cultures of Tongan Households: Implications for Effective Energy Efficiency Policy

7bbeac78b5e6700946b5b6fd8aa1a58a?s=47 Ben Anderson
November 22, 2019

Understanding the Energy Cultures of Tongan Households: Implications for Effective Energy Efficiency Policy

Kakau Foliaki, Janet Stephenson, Ben Anderson, and Patrick Vakaoti. ‘Understanding the Energy Cultures of Tongan Households: Implications for Effective Energy Efficiency Policy’. In 13th OERC and OCCNET Energy & Climate Change Symposium. Dunedin, New Zealand.

7bbeac78b5e6700946b5b6fd8aa1a58a?s=128

Ben Anderson

November 22, 2019
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  1. UNDERSTANDING THE ENERGY CULTURES OF TONGAN HOUSEHOLDS: IMPLICATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE

    ENERGY EFFICIENCY POLICY Kakau Foliaki Centre for Sustainability | University of Otago Supervisors: Janet Stephenson, Ben Anderson, Patrick Vakaoti
  2. Research aim: To explore and understand the energy related behaviours

    of Tongan households to improve energy efficiency in their homes Photo: Yosuke Yamada
  3. Ngofonua Mo'ungatapu Mata'aho Talakite Kanatea Nukunukumotu Oneata Manima Pangaimotu 'Euaiki

    Makaha'a Monuafe Onevao Fukave Motutapu Nuku Polo'a Fafa Alakipeau Onevai Velitoa Hahake Velitoa Hihifo Tufaka Tongatapu Toketoke Ata Atata Malinoa Tau Funga- Fele'ave Queen Salote Wharf Ha'atafu (218) Kanokupolu (307) Ha'avakatolo (259) Te'ekiu (552) Lakepa (365) Fatai (312) Matahau (628) Kala'au (122) Ha'utu (187) Masilamea (243) Ha'alalo (472) Havelu (3424) Ma'ufanga (7419) Folaha (896) Longoteme (622) Holonga (582) Nakolo (463) Lavengatonga (396) Fatumu (449) Haveluliku (174) Talasiu (287) Hoi (450) Talafo'ou (386) Navutoka (789) Niutoua (740) Pea (2054) Pangaimotu (2) Nukumotu (28) 'Atata (186) Fafaa 'Eueiki (87) 'Ataa (0) 'Ahau (391) Kolovai (607) NUkunuku (1781) Matafonua (171) Vaotu'u (453) Fahefa (406) Fo'ui (564) Houma (2111) Ha'akame (735) 'Utulau (680) Tokomololo (1209) Ha'ateiho (2555) Veitongo (1294) Vaini (3127) Tofoa (3338) Sia'atoutai (534) Puke (731) Hofoa (977) Kolomotu'a (7787) Kolofo'ou (8584) Tukutonga (578) Popua (1936) Nukuhetulu (358) Malapo (641) Pelehake (777) Tatakamotonga (1761) Lapaha (2075) Nukuleka (266) Makaunga (390) Manuka (338) Kolonga (1168) Afa (401) Ha'asini (843) Fua'amotu (1660) Lee Teng Hui Road Taufa'ahau Road Halatuituia Road 'Isipite Road Taupi Road Hihifo Road Tangikina Road Lomu Road Liku Road Liku Road Tuku`aho Road Lee Teng Hui Road Vimahi Road Tavatu'utolu R oad Hufangalupe Road Motu'apuaka Road Halatono Road Vuna Road Vaha'a Tofi'a Road Loto Road Tapuvao Road Late Road Vuna R oad Siu'ilikutapu R oad Hufangalupe Road Vaea Road Tu'ivakano Road Matalafa Road Fakanonga R oad Ha'ahio Road Kofe Road Fua'amotu International Airport 175°0'0"W 175°0'0"W 175°5'0"W 175°5'0"W 175°10'0"W 175°10'0"W 175°15'0"W 175°15'0"W 175°20'0"W 175°20'0"W 21°5'0"S 21°5'0"S 21°10'0"S 21°10'0"S 21°15'0"S 21°15'0"S Creation date: 16 Feb 2016 Sources: Tonga NEMO, Tonga Department of Statistics, Tonga Department of Lands, OCHA The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. 0 1 2 Kilometers 0 1 2 0.5 Miles Legend Health Facilities Education Facilities Captial Airports Wharfs Reef Tracks Roads Villages (2011 Census Population) Islands 'EUA DIVISION Population: 5,016 HA'APAI DIVISION Population: 6,616 ONGO NIUA DIVISION Population: 1,282 TONGATAPU DIVISION Population: 75,416 VAVA'U DIVISION Population: 14,922 Nuku'alofa 172°0'0"W 172°0'0"W 174°0'0"W 174°0'0"W 176°0'0"W 176°0'0"W 16°0'0"S 16°0'0"S 18°0'0"S 18°0'0"S 20°0'0"S 20°0'0"S 22°0'0"S 22°0'0"S 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 January 17 February 17 March 17 April 17 May 17 June 17 July 17 August 17 September 17 October 17 November 17 December 17 Seasons Temp(°c) Rainfall(mm) Range: 23 - 32 °c Range: 22 - 28 °c Range: 18 - 26 °c 74% 14% 6% 5% 1% Population cover by island (100,745) Tongatapu Vava'u Ha'apai 'Eua Niuas 35% 19% 14% 12% 2% Religious Denominations FWC LDS RC FCOT COT AOG SDA OPD TOK Research Area: Tongatapu (main island of Tonga)
  4. Methodology 1. Interview: (Norms) - Open-ended and semi structured interviews

    to collect data on the household perceptions of energy efficiency in their homes. 2. Survey: (Material Culture) - To collect data on the type of appliances in the household. 3. Time use diary: (Practices) - To collect data on the activities that individuals conduct within 30min intervals for 24 hours. Respondents were asked to compete 2 days (1 weekday and 1 weekend day). Photo: Kakau Foliaki
  5. Research sample Data skewed towards 25 – 30 yrs for

    both genders Data skewed toward government employee around mid 20-30s Sample reflects the population coverage of Tonga
  6. Preliminary Findings Photo: Yosuke Yamada

  7. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 3:00…

    4:00… 5:00… 6:00… 7:00… 8:00… 9:00… 10:00… 11:00… 12:00… 1:00… 2:00… 3:00… 4:00… 5:00… 6:00… 7:00… 8:00… 9:00… 10:00… 11:00… 12:00… 1:00… 2:00… Count Saturday Diaries (n=69) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 3:00 AM 4:00 AM 5:00 AM 6:00 AM 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 1:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM 10:00 PM 11:00 PM 12:00 AM 1:00 AM 2:00 AM Count Weekday diaries (n= 87) Influence of church on Sunday TIME USE DIARY Trend represents all the activities minus “sleeping” and when respondents are away from home 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3:00 AM 4:00 AM 5:00 AM 6:00 AM 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 1:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM 10:00 PM 11:00 PM 12:00 AM 1:00 AM 2:00 AM COUNT Sunday Diaries (n=18) Breakfast Dinner Family time Going out Homework Ironing Away from home (work, plantation, school) Majority spend most of their time cleaning Key findings: 1. Majority are working people (n=69), hence the big clean up on Saturday. 2. A sample that has significant number of farmers or ”stay at home mums” would have a different trends for Weekdays and Saturdays 3. Sunday is still observed as a holy day in Tonga, hence, most spend their time in church (despite their employment status) 4. It is crucial to understand the social life and lifestyle of people which influences their daily energy consumption
  8. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 3:00 AM 4:00

    AM 5:00 AM 6:00 AM 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 1:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM 10:00 PM 11:00 PM 12:00 AM 1:00 AM 2:00 AM Count Weekdays: Mode of Transportation (n=87) Gym Work/school/farm Catering/produce Church Pick up kids Home Choir practice, night school Kava 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 3:00 AM 4:00 AM 5:00 AM 6:00 AM 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 1:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM 10:00 PM 11:00 PM 12:00 AM 1:00 AM 2:00 AM Count Sunday: Mode of Transportation (n=18) FWC service FWC service FWC service Sunday School LDS,SDA Services Choir practice/relatives Kava 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 3:00 AM 4:00 AM 5:00 AM 6:00 AM 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 1:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM 10:00 PM 11:00 PM 12:00 AM 1:00 AM 2:00 AM Count Saturday: Mode of Transportation (n=69) Kava Church Gym Groceries/farm/sports Groceries/Church TIME USE DIARY Trend represents preferred mode of transportation for respondents Key findings: 1. Most respondents prefer driving in the weekdays. Very few walk or take public transport. 2. Very few commute on Saturdays as most respondents spend time at home cleaning. 3. Different patterns on Sunday reflects different religions that respondents belong to. 4. It is crucial to see the relationships between the commute patterns of households and their lifestyles which influences their energy consumption.
  9. Analysis of Household 47 (most electricity intense household) • Age

    41 • Martial status Single • Religion Wesleyan • Household members 5 (4 adults and 1 child) • Household income(fortnight) $1500 • Average monthly electricity consumption 363 kwh • kwh/person 2.92 kwh Photo: Yosuke Yamada
  10. Understanding of Energy: - Thinks energy is consumed when appliances

    run simultaneously - Understanding of energy is low Norms Material Culture Practice - CRT TV * - Twin tub machine* - Old refrigerator* - Electric Water pump - Electric Water - Gas Stove - ‘Umu pit - Energy is a waste of time - Church and safety are priorities - Easy and comfortable and energy intense life style - Always cook on a gas stove and use ’Umu on Sunday and for big occasions - Does laundry based on color not load size - Exterior lights are turned on all night Remittance: - Power bill paid by brother in NZ - Church offering paid by family overseas Church obligations: - Uike lotu - Church conference Energy Cost - NZ$0.60/kwh - NZ$2.60/l (petrol) Lack of policy: - Allow cheap quality appliances to flood the market Cultural obligations - Kings birthday - State funeral Energy Culture Framework (Stephenson et. Al 2010) External Factors
  11. “I only service my car if it fails its WOF”

    “Energy is important but if we do not provide enough food for the guests, my family will be talked about until the second coming of Christ” “Blessing is important to my family, so we need to prepare the best table for the church conference, even if it is costly” “I never buy new appliances as they are cheap quality, I buy those second-hand ones from New Zealand” External Factors Norms Practice Material Culture
  12. “I only service my car only if it fails its

    WOF” “Energy is important but if we do not provide enough food for the guests, my family will be talked about until the second coming of Christ” “Blessing is important to my family, so we need to prepare the best table for the church conference, even if it is costly” “I never buy new appliances as they are cheap quality, I buy those second hand one from New Zealand” External Factors Norms Practice Material Culture Churches Perception Behaviour Aspiration Improve Energy efficiency
  13. Malo ‘Aupito Thank you