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Ideality factor (vs CT state)
 in organic solar cells

Carsten
June 21, 2018

Ideality factor (vs CT state)
 in organic solar cells

Which information can be gained from the ideality factor in organic solar cells (here, model system P3HT:PCBM) and measurement of the charge transfer states by sensitive external quantum efficiency; both vs temperature. In short, many open questions remain...

Carsten

June 21, 2018
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  1. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM E-MRS Spring Meeting · 21st June 2018 · [email protected]

    Clemens Göhler and Carsten Deibel Optik und Photonik kondensierter Materie Institut für Physik Technische Universität Chemnitz Ideality factor (vs CT state)
 in organic solar cells
  2. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] Outline ideality factor connection… charge transfer state

  3. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] What makes a solar cell „real“? • real

    solar cell • additional resistors • described by a modified Shockley equation:
  4. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] Extracting ideality from dark j(V) • exponential slope

    of ideal Shockley equation • P3HT:PCBM (1:0.8) 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 current density [mA/cm2 ] -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 voltage [V] 175 K 200 K 225 K 250 K 275 K 298 K j(V ) = j0 exp ✓ eV nidkT ◆ <latexit sha1_base64="VWEMfaqUJbAGzB75xgBCpyLZOiM=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="VWEMfaqUJbAGzB75xgBCpyLZOiM=">AAADa3icjVLbbtNAEJ3EQC/cUvoGPKyIKqUvkQ1I5QWp4iZekIrUpJWaKtp1Ju42jm2tN4Vi5UP4Gl7hE/gI/oAHzi42Aioua613dubMmePxqCLVpQ3Dz612cOnylZXVtfWr167fuNnZuDUs84WJeRDnaW4OlSw51RkPrLYpHxaG5VylfKBmT1384IxNqfNs354XfDyXSaanOpYWrnHnwWlvuC0ei9NxFS7FiN8Wo5SntidGUyPjiofLKhtXerKc7SNsdHJit8edbtgP/RIXjag2ulSvvXyj1aERTSinmBY0J6aMLOyUJJV4jiiikAr4jqmCz8DSPs60pHXkLoBiICS8M7wT3I5qb4a74yx9dowqKbZBpqAt7BeeUQHtqjLsEudX7Hfel/yxQuWZncJznAqMa57xFfyWToD4V+a8RjZa/idTIavBK/81E1gJdDOeGexGj4uVuL9BtxyrAGeT8TPmbx20NKVHvnMavSi8x/U0/qHhGSLGV3YRQc89MgGH8vcz1MhwDlDP/dGGQfjuOu3Sn+xZsppRgs943drpwUxFv0/QRWN4vx+F/ej1w+7uk3q6VukO3aMeJmiHdukl7UFHTO/pA32kT+0vwWZwO7j7Hdpu1Tmb9MsKtr4B1wS0kw==</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="VWEMfaqUJbAGzB75xgBCpyLZOiM=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="VWEMfaqUJbAGzB75xgBCpyLZOiM=">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</latexit>
  5. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] Extracting ideality from dark j(V) • exponential slope

    of ideal Shockley equation 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 current density [mA/cm2 ] -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 voltage [V] 175 K 200 K 225 K 250 K 275 K 298 K 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 ideality factor 300 275 250 225 200 175 temperature [K] from exponential slope 
 • Did we forget to account for Rs?!
  6. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] • measure under open & short circuit conditions

    • or show Voc(light intensity) Avoid the series resistor 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 ideality factor 300 275 250 225 200 175 temperature [K] from exponential slope w/o series resistor - Voc (jsc ) w/o series resistor - Voc (G) Temperature independent nid of unity would mean Gaussian DOS
  7. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] Meyer-Neldel approach j0(V ) = j00 exp ✓

    EA nidkT ◆ <latexit sha1_base64="OOJZ/JnzPl7YmoPVfMFrPIGKy5E=">AAADcHicjVJLb9NAEJ7EPNrySssFiQMLEVKK1GiNkNoLUnkUcUEqUpNWaipr19m42zi2td4UipW/wq/hCnf+BmcOfLvYCKh4rLXe2Zlvvvk8HlmkurScf261gwsXL11eWl65cvXa9Rud1bVhmc9NrAZxnubmQIpSpTpTA6ttqg4Ko8RMpmpfTp+5+P6pMqXOsz17VqijmUgyPdGxsHBFna2TiPeG6+wxO4kqzhdspN4Wo1RNbI9tjCZGxNVO9GRRZVGlx4vpHgBGJ8d2Pep0eZ/7xc4bYW10qV67+WqrQyMaU04xzWlGijKysFMSVOI5pJA4FfAdUQWfgaV9XNGCVpA7B0oBIeCd4p3gdlh7M9wdZ+mzY1RJsQ0yGd3HfuEZJdCuqoJd4vyK/c77kj9WqDyzU3iGU4Jx2TO+gt/SMRD/ypzVyEbL/2RKZDV46b9mDCuBboVnCrvR42Il7m/QLcfKwNlk/Iz5WwctTWjLd06jF4X3uJ7GPzQ8R8T4yi7CaMcjE3BIfz9FjQznAPXcH20YmO+u0y78qTxLVjMK8BmvWzs9mKnw9wk6bwwf9kPeD18/6m4/radriW7TPephgjZpm17SLnTE9J4+0Ef61P4S3AruBHe/Q9utOucm/bKCB98A7eO12w==</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="OOJZ/JnzPl7YmoPVfMFrPIGKy5E=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="OOJZ/JnzPl7YmoPVfMFrPIGKy5E=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="OOJZ/JnzPl7YmoPVfMFrPIGKy5E=">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</latexit> j(V ) = j0 exp ✓ eV nidkT ◆ <latexit sha1_base64="VWEMfaqUJbAGzB75xgBCpyLZOiM=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="VWEMfaqUJbAGzB75xgBCpyLZOiM=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="VWEMfaqUJbAGzB75xgBCpyLZOiM=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="VWEMfaqUJbAGzB75xgBCpyLZOiM=">AAADa3icjVLbbtNAEJ3EQC/cUvoGPKyIKqUvkQ1I5QWp4iZekIrUpJWaKtp1Ju42jm2tN4Vi5UP4Gl7hE/gI/oAHzi42Aioua613dubMmePxqCLVpQ3Dz612cOnylZXVtfWr167fuNnZuDUs84WJeRDnaW4OlSw51RkPrLYpHxaG5VylfKBmT1384IxNqfNs354XfDyXSaanOpYWrnHnwWlvuC0ei9NxFS7FiN8Wo5SntidGUyPjiofLKhtXerKc7SNsdHJit8edbtgP/RIXjag2ulSvvXyj1aERTSinmBY0J6aMLOyUJJV4jiiikAr4jqmCz8DSPs60pHXkLoBiICS8M7wT3I5qb4a74yx9dowqKbZBpqAt7BeeUQHtqjLsEudX7Hfel/yxQuWZncJznAqMa57xFfyWToD4V+a8RjZa/idTIavBK/81E1gJdDOeGexGj4uVuL9BtxyrAGeT8TPmbx20NKVHvnMavSi8x/U0/qHhGSLGV3YRQc89MgGH8vcz1MhwDlDP/dGGQfjuOu3Sn+xZsppRgs943drpwUxFv0/QRWN4vx+F/ej1w+7uk3q6VukO3aMeJmiHdukl7UFHTO/pA32kT+0vwWZwO7j7Hdpu1Tmb9MsKtr4B1wS0kw==</latexit> where c.f. K. Tvingstedt & CD, AEM 6 ,1502230 (2016) • here, nid is assumed to be 
 temperature independent • effective bandgap 0.85 eV (T → 0 K)
  8. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] Outline ideality factor connection… charge transfer state

  9. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] • from excitation • CT energy from EQE

    only CT state characteristics EQE / exp ⇣ (Ect+ E)2 4 kT ⌘ E p 4 kT <latexit sha1_base64="aAQkJl9adIjhXuYdX+tW3S0oUNs=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="aAQkJl9adIjhXuYdX+tW3S0oUNs=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="aAQkJl9adIjhXuYdX+tW3S0oUNs=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="aAQkJl9adIjhXuYdX+tW3S0oUNs=">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</latexit> Vandewal et al., PRB 81, 12 (2010) A E λ λ C. Göhler et al, Adv. Electron. Mater. 1700505 (2018)
  10. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] • from excitation • CT energy from EQE

    only CT state characteristics EQE / exp ⇣ (Ect+ E)2 4 kT ⌘ E p 4 kT <latexit sha1_base64="aAQkJl9adIjhXuYdX+tW3S0oUNs=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="aAQkJl9adIjhXuYdX+tW3S0oUNs=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="aAQkJl9adIjhXuYdX+tW3S0oUNs=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="aAQkJl9adIjhXuYdX+tW3S0oUNs=">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</latexit> 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 Ect [eV] 300 275 250 225 200 175 temperature [K] 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 λ [eV] • effective bandgap 0.95 eV (T → 0 K)
  11. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] • from excitation • CT energy from EQE

    only CT state characteristics EQE / exp ⇣ (Ect+ E)2 2( 2+2 kT ) ⌘ E p 2 + 2 kT <latexit sha1_base64="a/any/zj7WDxtqlgB8yWVKS9gfs=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="a/any/zj7WDxtqlgB8yWVKS9gfs=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="a/any/zj7WDxtqlgB8yWVKS9gfs=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="a/any/zj7WDxtqlgB8yWVKS9gfs=">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</latexit> σ = 117 meV, λ = 56 meV Burke et al., AEM 1500123 (2015)
  12. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] • from excitation • CT energy from EQE

    only CT state characteristics EQE / exp ⇣ (Ect+ E)2 2( 2+2 kT ) ⌘ E p 2 + 2 kT <latexit sha1_base64="a/any/zj7WDxtqlgB8yWVKS9gfs=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="a/any/zj7WDxtqlgB8yWVKS9gfs=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="a/any/zj7WDxtqlgB8yWVKS9gfs=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="a/any/zj7WDxtqlgB8yWVKS9gfs=">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</latexit> σ = 117 meV, λ = 56 meV
  13. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] • from excitation • exponential (Urbach) tail
 


    
 
 
 EU = 30 meV The classical perspective / exp ✓ E EU ◆
  14. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] • from excitation • exponential Urbach tail
 EU

    = 30 meV • from ideality factor The classical perspective 1 nid = 1 2 + kT 2EU <latexit sha1_base64="+zKqFamn6p1wygNSryb8hdAD/jI=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="+zKqFamn6p1wygNSryb8hdAD/jI=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="+zKqFamn6p1wygNSryb8hdAD/jI=">AAADaHicjVJda9RAFD27qdrWr1QfRPoSugiCsCRF0BehqBVfhArdttCWZSY7mw6bTcIkW6khf8Nf46v9D/0L/gYfPDMmRS1+TJjMvefee+7Jzcgi1WUVhhe9vrd07fqN5ZXVm7du37nrr93bK/OFidUoztPcHEhRqlRnalTpKlUHhVFiLlO1L2evbHz/VJlS59ludVao47lIMj3VsagIjf3waGpEXEdNnY1rPWma4EVwCW02wZPWm+3S3R6PmrE/CIehW8FVI2qNAdq1k6/1fBxhghwxFphDIUNFO4VAyecQEUIUxI5REzO0tIsrNFhl7YJZihmC6IzvhN5hi2b0LWfpqmN2SbkNKwM84n7jGCWzbVdFu+T5jfujw5I/dqgds1V4xlOSccUxviNe4YQZ/6qct5mdlv+plKzq8qX7mgmthLoVnxntTo+NlfQ/cFqWNSBnV/Fzzt8mWGGK525ymrMoHGJnGl9qeM2IcZ1tJMC2y0zIIZ1/yh4ZzxH72T/aMQRuula7cKdyLFnLKMhnnG5t9fBORb/foKvG3uYwCofR+6eDrZft7VrGOjbwmDfoGbbwFjvUEeMTPuMLzvtfPd974D38kdrvtTX38cvyNr4DnMCz1w==</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="+zKqFamn6p1wygNSryb8hdAD/jI=">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</latexit> C. van Berkel et al, J Appl Phys 73, 10 (1993) K. Tvingstedt & CD, AEM 6 ,1502230 (2016) 40 35 30 25 20 15 EU [meV] 300 275 250 225 200 175 temperature [K] EU from nid EU from EQE
  15. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] • Thermally stimulated current measurements of P3HT:PCBM •

    exponential tail 
 ≈ 55 meV,
 a factor of two higher than CT & ideality By the way… 6 8 1020 2 4 6 8 1021 2 4 6 8 1022 trap density [m-3 ] 400 300 200 100 activation energy [meV] P3HT:PC61 BM PC61 BM P3HT exp. tail fit T3 T2 T1 A. Foertig et al, PRB 86, 115302 (2012) EU ~ 55meV
  16. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM [email protected] Connection… difficult CT characteristics • effective gap 0.95

    eV (T → 0 K) • Gaussian disorder σ ≈ 117 meV • reorganisation energy λ ≈ 56 meV • (or exponential tail of 30 meV…) ideality factor nid from jsc(Voc) between 1.1 & 1.2 • almost temperature independent • effective gap 0.85 eV (T → 0 K) • (exponential tail of 20…35 meV 
 ↯ TSC 55 meV)
  17. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM E-MRS Spring Meeting · 19th June 2018 · [email protected]

    Acknowledgments … and thank you! Kristofer Tvingstedt Clemens Göhler ↓