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Traps and Transport Resistance—The Next Frontier for Stable State-of-the-Art Non-Fullerene Acceptor Solar Cells

334f01a47399398d714386a72edb727a?s=47 Carsten
May 12, 2022

Traps and Transport Resistance—The Next Frontier for Stable State-of-the-Art Non-Fullerene Acceptor Solar Cells

presented by Carsten Deibel at the MRS Spring Meeting 2022 on 12th May at 10:30 AM in Mid-Pacific Conference Center, Nautilus 1 & 2

334f01a47399398d714386a72edb727a?s=128

Carsten

May 12, 2022
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  1. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM MRS Spring Meeting, Honolulu· 12. Mai 2022 · deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de

    Carsten Deibel Institut für Physik Technische Universität Chemnitz Traps and Transport Resistance: The Next Frontier for 
 Non-Fullerene Acceptor Solar Cells Optik und Photonik kondensierter Materie                  
  2. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de How Do Organic Solar Cells Work? Step 1:

    light absorption ➟ exciton generation Voltage Current           3
  3. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de How Do Organic Solar Cells Work? Step 2:

    exciton diffusion ➟ lost… but Voltage Current singlet losses           4          
  4. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de How Do Organic Solar Cells Work? Step 2:

    exciton diffusion ➟ mostly reaches acceptor interface Voltage Current singlet losses           5          
  5. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de How Do Organic Solar Cells Work? charge transfer:

    very fast and very ef fi cient Voltage Current singlet losses           6 Step 3: charge transfer ➟ charge transfer (CT) excitons
  6. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de How Do Organic Solar Cells Work? Step 4:

    CT dissociation ➟ charge separated state Voltage Current singlet losses geminate losses           7
  7. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de How Do Organic Solar Cells Work? Step 5:

    nongeminate recombination ➟ major loss of photocurrent Voltage Current singlet losses geminate losses nongeminate losses           8
  8. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de How Do Organic Solar Cells Work? Step 6:

    charge extraction ➟ voltage loss due to 
 transport resistance ∝ conductivity-1 Voltage Current singlet losses geminate losses voltage loss           9
  9. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM MRS Spring Meeting, Honolulu· 12. Mai 2022 · deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de

    Authors PM6 Y6 Eva M. Herzig Rod MacKenzie Natalie Banerji Dietrich Zahn Christoph Brabec & 
 Ning Li Yana Vaynzof Christopher Wöpke Maria Saladina Clemens Göhler 
 (on the move to
 Kemerink group, Heidelberg)
  10. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de Accelerated Aging 11 Devices Ag 150 nm MoOx

    10 nm PM6:Y6 100/200 nm resp. ZnO 50 nm ITO 180 nm glass I cooperative project I aim: ageing mechanism I electrical characterisation reg. energy and recombination Christoph Brabec & 
 Ning Li Devices made in the group of no encapsulation air&light N2&85°C In the following, I’ll focus on 
 the FF losses 
 by thermal degradation 
 (dark, nitrogen, 85°C)
  11. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de Impact of thermal degradation conditions: dark, nitrogen, 85°C

    for 24 or 96 h 0 h 96 h
  12. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de Suns-Voc for (series) resistance-free j(V) ideal diode equation

    <latexit sha1_base64="0VPUKM0VaOu+YHgSVC1zuu6pNUI=">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</latexit> j = j0 ✓ exp ✓ q(V jRs) nkT ◆ 1 ◆ V jRs Rp jgen „realistic“ with series and shunt resistance <latexit sha1_base64="fLvwCKYqfEdIfCF6DoZIGmLzEio=">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</latexit> 0 = j0 ✓ exp ✓ q(Voc 0Rs) nkT ◆ 1 ◆ Voc 0Rs Rp jgen At open circuit, V=Voc, the current j(Voc) = 0 → (series) resistance <latexit sha1_base64="Ip7sxoe6q4otU5MPVzrRZPrmC2c=">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</latexit> jgen = j0 ✓ exp ✓ qVoc nkT ◆ 1 ◆ Voc Rp With suns-Voc method, the (series) resistance-free j(V) is reconstructed; contains all recombination <latexit sha1_base64="DerUGmq0VTX6Raz0gmUKLYBjCz4=">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</latexit> j = j0 ✓ exp ✓ qV nkT ◆ 1 ◆ jgen
  13. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de Recombination to explain FF losses? conditions: dark, nitrogen,

    85°C for 24 or 96 h simulations by Rod MacKenzie
  14. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de Recombination to explain FF losses? pseudo-FF from suns-Voc

    contains recombination FF losses & is unchanged! N2&85°C – NO! simulations by Rod MacKenzie
  15. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de Drop between Applied and Internal Voltage! conditions: dark,

    nitrogen, 85°C for 24 or 96 h ΔV • thermal aging increases ΔV • voltage drop ΔV ∝ L 
 (active layer thickness) • we also measured devices with 
 L = 100 nm → ΔV ≈ 2x smaller <latexit sha1_base64="YCDt8vXo12vCh7YXzLaAYsisu3I=">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</latexit> V = Vapplied(j, 1 sun) Voc(jsc, light intensity)
  16. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de Voltage Loss by Transport Resistance <latexit sha1_base64="S6VAnbfI5YCUa/EeS4ACKFEat9A=">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</latexit> V

    = Vapplied Vinternal 17 Voltage Current voltage loss ΔV The poor scientist’s method to determine σ from ΔV(j) j(Vapplied)illum suns-Voc(Vinternal) Active layer - conductivity - thickness L - transport resistance Rtr <latexit sha1_base64="QkeeNlc3jgN/J0h4Zcd0FKbsdEM=">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</latexit> = eµn carrier mobility carrier concentration <latexit sha1_base64="v3qHnzwri7lKzn5nzBrO+eqF7gw=">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</latexit> = L 2Rtr = jL 2 V For background reading, see e.g. Würfel, Neher et al, Nature Comms (2015). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7951 <latexit sha1_base64="ODvEKGujMIkWMgAUVkQTBiZoFl8=">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</latexit> V = jL 2
  17. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de The internal voltage is not what you think

    it is <latexit sha1_base64="ODvEKGujMIkWMgAUVkQTBiZoFl8=">AAADU3icjVPLbhMxFD1JeLSFQkqX3YyIkFhFk6oCNkgVFNQFSEUiaaWmquypM5jMS7ZTVKIs+Bq27cew4FtgwbGZQUDFw5bH1/eee+6ZOx5ZZdq6OP7caneuXL12fWl55cbN1Vu3u2t3RracmUQNkzIrzYEUVmW6UEOnXaYOKqNELjO1L6dPfXz/VBmry+K1O6vUUS7SQk90Ihxdx92N8Y7KnIhGj8cTI5L52xeL+ebY6jQXi+NuL+7HYUSXjUFt9FCPvXKt1cUYJyiRYIYcCgUc7QwClvMQA8So6DvCnD5DS4e4wgIrzJ0RpYgQ9E75THk6rL0Fz57ThuyEVTIuw8wI97ieB0ZJtK+qaFvuX7neB1/6xwrzwOwVnnGXZFwOjC/pd3hDxL8y8xrZaPmfTMmsBi/D25zQSqlbcU5pN3p8zPL8jt3yrBE5m4yfMX/roMMEj0LnNHtRBY/vafJDww4jJlT2kQjPAjIlhwznU9YouA9Zz3/RhiEK3fXaRdhVYClqRkE+E3Rrr4d3avD7DbpsjDb7gwf9rVdbve0n9e1awgbu4j5v0ENsYxd71JHgAz7iHBftT+0vHf4l36HtVp2zjl9GZ/UbUsGskw==</latexit> V = jL 2 <latexit sha1_base64="QkeeNlc3jgN/J0h4Zcd0FKbsdEM=">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</latexit> = eµn <latexit sha1_base64="SjQqRhSzwFomZohRQeiA3eNlQzk=">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</latexit> j = f(n) artefact from ΔV 
 for j ≈ jsc <latexit sha1_base64="S6VAnbfI5YCUa/EeS4ACKFEat9A=">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</latexit> V = Vapplied Vint Vapplied Vint
  18. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de How does this loss „look“ like? (Band diagrams)

    simulations by Rod MacKenzie
  19. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de Estimate of intrinsic carrier concentration from σ <latexit

    sha1_base64="S6VAnbfI5YCUa/EeS4ACKFEat9A=">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</latexit> V = Vapplied Vinternal 20 Intrinsic carrier concentration ni increases with thermal aging: trap formation! rier density ni . n is obtained from the chemi- tance Cµ (V ) = C(V ) geometric capacitance, equation35,36 Voc ) = n (Vsat ) + 1 eL Z Voc Vsat Cµ (V ) dV . (3) voltage in the reverse-bias regime, where non- recombination is heavily suppressed. With e achieve an estimate for ni of the active layer ni = n (Voc ) exp ✓ eVoc 2kT ◆ . (4) ing intrinsic carrier concentration ni , shown in creases from 1·1015 m 3 for the fresh device to 015 m 3 after 96 h of aging (and ⇡ 1·1015 m 3 015 m 3 for the 100 nm device). We interpret ase of ni as an indication for an aging-induced leads to increased n port resistance loss performance by a re and fill factor. I Materials. PM larmer Materials In electronic Materials zhen, China) and u (N10) were received Solar Cell Dev PM6:Y6 material s chitecture of glass/ coated glass substr deionized water an tively. The ZnO na <latexit sha1_base64="3+YftZ/faZQECDawNdqG6ELyCaI=">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</latexit> = jL 2 V = enµ The origin of ΔV:  
  20. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de Evidence for Trap Formation 21 Eva M. Herzig

    Impact of thermal aging: - PM6 π–π stacking in blend shows increased paracrystallinity disorder - increase in the amount of lamellar stacking Interpretation: lamellar stacking is enhanced at the cost of the π–π-stacking quality → traps
  21. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de FF Loss in thermally aged PM6:Y6 solar cells…

    22 … is dominated by 
 voltage loss due to transport resistance! Also important loss in - fresh devices 
 - thin devices Origin: reduced conductivity 
 due to trap formation 
 in active layer preprint @ arXiv:2203.11905 
 (quasi-accepted at NC;-)          
  22. www.tu-chemnitz.de/physik/OPKM MRS Spring Meeting, Honolulu· 12. Mai 2022 · deibel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de

    Acknowledgements 23 Thanks for having me! Thanks to my group and our partners! Thank you @ MRS Spring!