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Scalable Angular Applications

Scalable Angular Applications

Denis Kyashif

November 13, 2018
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  1. Scalable Angular
    Applications
    Denis Kyashif

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  2. @deniskyashif
    deniskyashif
    deniskyashif.github.io

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  3. Scalability
    •Dynamic Requirements

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  4. Scalability
    •Dynamic Requirements
    •Increasing load

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  5. Scalability
    •Dynamic Requirements
    •Increasing load
    •Growing complexity

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  6. Scalability
    •Dynamic Requirements
    •Increasing load
    •Growing complexity
    •Developer turnover / Increasing team size

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  7. Software Design

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  8. Source:
    https://martinfowler.com/bliki/DesignStaminaHypothesis.html
    The Design Stamina Hypothesis

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  9. End Goal
    •Modular application
    •Predictable state management
    •Async data flow handling
    •Increased load capacity
    •Easy to test

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  10. class Queue {
    constructor(private data: T[] = []) { }
    enqueue(item: T) {
    return this.data.push(item);
    }
    dequeue = () : T => this.data.shift()
    }
    const n: number = 5;
    const queue = new Queue();
    queue.enqueue(n);
    queue.enqueue('5'); // Error
    TypeScript

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  11. class Queue {
    constructor(private data: T[] = []) { }
    enqueue(item: T) {
    return this.data.push(item);
    }
    dequeue = () : T => this.data.shift()
    }
    const n: number = 5;
    const queue = new Queue();
    queue.enqueue(n);
    queue.enqueue('5'); // Error
    TypeScript

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  12. class Queue {
    constructor(private data: T[] = []) { }
    enqueue(item: T) {
    return this.data.push(item);
    }
    dequeue = () : T => this.data.shift()
    }
    const n: number = 5;
    const queue = new Queue();
    queue.enqueue(n);
    queue.enqueue('5'); // Error
    TypeScript

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  13. class Queue {
    constructor(private data: T[] = []) { }
    enqueue(item: T) {
    return this.data.push(item);
    }
    dequeue = () : T => this.data.shift();
    }
    const n: number = 5;
    const queue = new Queue();
    queue.enqueue(n);
    queue.enqueue('5'); // Error
    TypeScript

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  14. A set of libraries for composing asynchronous and
    event-based programs using observable
    sequences.

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  15. const numbers = Observable.create(observer => {
    observer.next(1);
    observer.next(2);
    observer.next(3);
    setTimeout(() => {
    observer.next(4); // happens asynchronously
    }, 1000);
    });
    numberEmitter.subscribe(console.log); // 1, 2, 3, ... 4
    Observables

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  16. const numbers = Observable.create(observer => {
    observer.next(1);
    observer.next(2);
    observer.next(3);
    setTimeout(() => {
    observer.next(4); // happens asynchronously
    }, 1000);
    });
    numberEmitter.subscribe(console.log); // 1, 2, 3, ... 4
    Observables

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  17. const numbers = Observable.create(observer => {
    observer.next(1);
    observer.next(2);
    observer.next(3);
    setTimeout(() => {
    observer.next(4); // happens asynchronously
    }, 1000);
    });
    numberEmitter.subscribe(console.log); // 1, 2, 3, ... 4
    Observables

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  18. Operators
    const squaresOfEvenNumbers = interval(10)
    .pipe(
    filter(x => x % 2 === 0),
    map(x => x * x)
    );
    squaresOfEvenNumbers.subscribe(console.log);
    // Output 0, 4, 16, 36...

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  19. Operators
    const squaresOfEvenNumbers = interval(10)
    .pipe(
    filter(x => x % 2 === 0),
    map(x => x * x)
    );
    squaresOfEvenNumbers.subscribe(console.log);
    // Output 0, 4, 16, 36...

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  20. Operators
    const squaresOfEvenNumbers = interval(10)
    .pipe(
    filter(x => x % 2 === 0),
    map(x => x * x)
    );
    squaresOfEvenNumbers.subscribe(console.log);
    // Output 0, 4, 16, 36...

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  21. Operators
    const squaresOfEvenNumbers = interval(10)
    .pipe(
    filter(x => x % 2 === 0),
    map(x => x * x)
    );
    squaresOfEvenNumbers.subscribe(console.log);
    // Output 0, 4, 16, 36...

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  22. Observable Promise
    Emits multiple values over a period of time Emits a single value at a time
    Can be lazy Not lazy
    Can be cancelled Cannot be cancelled

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  23. Sample Application

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  24. Source: git.io/fpqkN

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  25. Sample Architecture

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  26. UI Components
    Facade
    State
    Management
    Data
    Access

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  27. UI Components
    Facade
    State
    Management
    Data
    Access

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  28. Container
    • Passes data to the presentational
    component
    • Handles events raised by
    presentational components
    • Interacts with the business layer
    Presentational
    • Takes data only as an @Input()
    • Delegates the event handling to
    the container via @Output()
    Components

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  29. Container
    Component
    Facade
    Presentational
    Component
    @Output() @Input()
    Components
    Actions Data

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  30. Source: git.io/fpqkN

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  31. Course Board
    Course List
    Course 1
    Course 2
    Course Details

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  32. course-details.component.ts
    export class CourseDetailsComponent {
    @Input()
    course: Course;
    @Output()
    delete = new EventEmitter();
    constructor() { }
    onDeleteClick(course: Course) {
    this.delete.emit(course);
    }
    ...
    }

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  33. course-details.component.ts
    export class CourseDetailsComponent {
    @Input()
    course: Course;
    @Output()
    delete = new EventEmitter();
    constructor() { }
    onDeleteClick(course: Course) {
    this.delete.emit(course);
    }
    ...
    }

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  34. course-board.component.ts
    export class CourseBoardComponent implements OnInit {
    courses$: Observable;
    selectedCourse$: Observable;
    constructor(private courses: CoursesStateService) { }
    ngOnInit() {
    this.courses.load();
    this.courses$ = this.courses.getCourseList();
    this.selectedCourse$ = this.courses.getSelectedCourse();
    }
    delete(course: Course) {
    this.courses.delete(course);
    }
    ...
    }

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  35. course-board.component.html
    ...




    (delete)="delete($event)">


    ...

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  36. course-board.component.html
    ...




    (delete)="delete($event)">


    ...

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  37. UI Components
    Facade
    State
    Management
    Data
    Access

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  38. Facade
    A facade is an object that serves as a front-facing interface masking
    more complex underlying or structural code.

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  39. Client
    Classes
    Subsystem
    Classes

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  40. Client
    Classes
    Subsystem
    Classes
    Facade

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  41. courses.state.service.ts
    @Injectable({ providedIn: 'root' })
    export class CoursesStateService {
    constructor(private store: Store) { }
    load() {
    this.store.dispatch(new CourseActions.Load());
    }
    getCourseList(): Observable {
    return this.store.pipe(select(fromCourses.getCourseList));
    }
    getSelectedCourse(): any {
    return this.store.pipe(select(fromCourses.getSelectedCourse));
    }
    create(course: Course) {
    this.store.dispatch(new CourseActions.Create(course));
    }
    ...
    }

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  42. courses.state.service.ts
    @Injectable({ providedIn: 'root' })
    export class CoursesStateService {
    constructor(private store: Store) { }
    load() {
    this.store.dispatch(new CourseActions.Load());
    }
    getCourseList(): Observable {
    return this.store.pipe(select(fromCourses.getCourseList));
    }
    getSelectedCourse(): any {
    return this.store.pipe(select(fromCourses.getSelectedCourse));
    }
    create(course: Course) {
    this.store.dispatch(new CourseActions.Create(course));
    }
    ...
    }

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  43. courses.state.service.ts
    @Injectable({ providedIn: 'root' })
    export class CoursesStateService {
    constructor(private store: Store) { }
    load() {
    this.store.dispatch(new CourseActions.Load());
    }
    getCourseList(): Observable {
    return this.store.pipe(select(fromCourses.getCourseList));
    }
    getSelectedCourse(): any {
    return this.store.pipe(select(fromCourses.getSelectedCourse));
    }
    create(course: Course) {
    this.store.dispatch(new CourseActions.Create(course));
    }
    ...
    }

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  44. Predictable
    State Management

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  45. UI Components
    Facade
    State
    Management
    Data
    Access

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  46. Or how I stopped worrying and learned to love

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  47. Source: https://css-tricks.com/learning-react-redux/

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  48. Redux
    •Single Source of Truth
    •State is Read-Only
    •Changes are made with Pure Functions

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  49. State Management
    Store
    Reducers Effects
    Selectors Actions

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  50. Redux Terms
    State – an object that stores the state of the app
    Store – an immutable object that holds the state of the app
    View – a DOM representation of the state
    Action – an object describing an event. Used to send information to the store.
    Reducer – a pure function producing a new state out by given action and current state
    Selector – a function used to read from the store
    Effect – a middleware used to run side effects in isolation

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  51. Component
    Action
    Creator
    Store
    Reducer
    dispatch(action)
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    newState

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  52. Component
    Action
    Creator
    Store
    Reducer
    dispatch(action)
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    newState

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  53. Component
    Action
    Creator
    Store
    Reducer
    dispatch(action)
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    newState

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  54. Component
    Action
    Creator
    Store
    Reducer
    dispatch(action)
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    newState

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  55. Component
    Action
    Creator
    Store
    Reducer
    dispatch(action)
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    newState

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  56. Component
    State
    Service
    (Facade)
    Store
    Reducer
    select(course)
    dispatch(new SelectAction(course)))
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    New State

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  57. courses.state.ts
    export interface CoursesState {
    readonly courseList: Course[];
    readonly selectedCourse?: Course;
    }

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  58. course.actions.ts
    export enum CourseActionTypes {
    Load = '[COURSE] Load',
    Create = '[COURSE] Create'
    ...
    }
    export class Load implements Action {
    readonly type = CourseActionTypes.Load;
    constructor(public payload: string = '') { }
    }
    export class Create implements Action {
    readonly type = CourseActionTypes.Create;
    constructor(public payload: Course) { }
    }
    ...

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  59. course.actions.ts
    export enum CourseActionTypes {
    Load = '[COURSE] Load',
    Create = '[COURSE] Create'
    ...
    }
    export class Load implements Action {
    readonly type = CourseActionTypes.Load;
    constructor(public payload: string = '') { }
    }
    export class Create implements Action {
    readonly type = CourseActionTypes.Create;
    constructor(public payload: Course) { }
    }
    ...

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  60. courses.reducer.ts
    ...
    export function coursesReducer(
    state: CoursesState = initialState,
    action: CourseActionsUnion): CoursesState {
    switch (action.type) {
    case CourseActionTypes.LoadSuccess:
    return {
    ...state,
    courseList: action.payload
    }
    case CourseActionTypes.CreateSuccess:
    return {
    ...state,
    courseList: [...state.courseList, action.payload]
    };
    case CourseActionTypes.Select:
    return {
    ...state,
    selectedCourse: action.payload
    };
    default:
    return state;
    }
    }

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  61. courses.reducer.ts
    ...
    export function coursesReducer(
    state: CoursesState = initialState,
    action: CourseActionsUnion): CoursesState {
    switch (action.type) {
    case CourseActionTypes.LoadSuccess:
    return {
    ...state,
    courseList: action.payload
    }
    case CourseActionTypes.CreateSuccess:
    return {
    ...state,
    courseList: [...state.courseList, action.payload]
    };
    case CourseActionTypes.Select:
    return {
    ...state,
    selectedCourse: action.payload
    };
    default:
    return state;
    }
    }

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  62. courses.reducer.ts
    ...
    export function coursesReducer(
    state: CoursesState = initialState,
    action: CourseActionsUnion): CoursesState {
    switch (action.type) {
    case CourseActionTypes.LoadSuccess:
    return {
    ...state,
    courseList: action.payload
    }
    case CourseActionTypes.CreateSuccess:
    return {
    ...state,
    courseList: [...state.courseList, action.payload]
    };
    case CourseActionTypes.Select:
    return {
    ...state,
    selectedCourse: action.payload
    };
    default:
    return state;
    }
    }

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  63. course-board.component.ts
    export class CourseBoardComponent implements OnInit {
    ...
    selectedCourse$: Observable;
    constructor(private courses: CoursesStateService) { }
    ngOnInit() {
    ...
    this.selectedCourse$ = this.courses.getSelectedCourse();
    }
    ...
    }

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  64. course-board.component.ts
    export class CourseBoardComponent implements OnInit {
    ...
    selectedCourse$: Observable;
    constructor(private courses: CoursesStateService) { }
    ngOnInit() {
    ...
    this.selectedCourse$ = this.courses.getSelectedCourse();
    }
    ...
    }

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  65. course-board.component.html
    ...




    ...

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  66. course-board.component.html
    ...




    ...

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  67. Managing Side Effects

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  68. Component
    State
    Service
    (Facade)
    Store
    Reducer
    login(credentials)
    dispatch(new LoginAction(credentials))
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    New State
    Effect Auth API
    login(credentials)
    onSuccess(res)
    dispatch(new LoginSuccessAction(user))

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  69. Component
    State
    Service
    (Facade)
    Store
    Reducer
    login(credentials)
    dispatch(new LoginAction(credentials))
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    New State
    Effect Auth API
    login(credentials)
    onSuccess(res)
    dispatch(new LoginSuccessAction(user))

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  70. Component
    State
    Service
    (Facade)
    Store
    Reducer
    login(credentials)
    dispatch(new LoginAction(credentials))
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    New State
    Effect Auth API
    login(credentials)
    onSuccess(res)
    dispatch(new LoginSuccessAction(user))

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  71. Component
    State
    Service
    (Facade)
    Store
    Reducer
    login(credentials)
    dispatch(new LoginAction(credentials))
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    New State
    Effect Auth API
    login(credentials)
    onSuccess(res)
    dispatch(new LoginSuccessAction(user))

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  72. Component
    State
    Service
    (Facade)
    Store
    Reducer
    login(credentials)
    dispatch(new LoginAction(credentials))
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    New State
    Effect Auth API
    login(credentials)
    onSuccess(res)
    dispatch(new LoginSuccessAction(user))

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  73. Component
    State
    Service
    (Facade)
    Store
    Reducer
    login(credentials)
    dispatch(new LoginAction(credentials))
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    New State
    Effect Auth API
    login(credentials)
    onSuccess(res)
    dispatch(new LoginSuccessAction(user))

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  74. Component
    State
    Service
    (Facade)
    Store
    Reducer
    login(credentials)
    dispatch(new LoginAction(credentials))
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    New State
    Effect Auth API
    login(credentials)
    onSuccess(res)
    dispatch(new LoginSuccessAction(user))

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  75. Component
    State
    Service
    (Facade)
    Store
    Reducer
    login(credentials)
    dispatch(new LoginAction(credentials))
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    New State
    Effect Auth API
    login(credentials)
    onSuccess(res)
    dispatch(new LoginSuccessAction(user))

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  76. Component
    State
    Service
    (Facade)
    Store
    Reducer
    login(credentials)
    dispatch(new LoginAction(credentials))
    applyReducers(action, state)
    next(state)
    New State
    Effect Auth API
    login(credentials)
    onSuccess(res)
    dispatch(new LoginSuccessAction(user))

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  77. @Injectable()
    export class AuthEffects {
    @Effect()
    login$ = this.actions$.pipe(
    ofType(AuthActionTypes.Login),
    map(action => action.payload),
    exhaustMap((auth: Auth) =>
    this.authApi.login(auth).pipe(
    map(user => new LoginSuccess({ username: auth.username })))
    ));
    constructor(private actions$: Actions,
    private authApi: AuthApiService) { }
    }
    auth.effects.ts

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  78. @Injectable()
    export class AuthEffects {
    @Effect()
    login$ = this.actions$.pipe(
    ofType(AuthActionTypes.Login),
    map(action => action.payload),
    exhaustMap((auth: Auth) =>
    this.authApi.login(auth).pipe(
    map(user => new LoginSuccess({ username: auth.username })))
    ));
    constructor(private actions$: Actions,
    private authApi: AuthApiService) { }
    }
    auth.effects.ts

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  79. @Injectable()
    export class AuthEffects {
    @Effect()
    login$ = this.actions$.pipe(
    ofType(AuthActionTypes.Login),
    map(action => action.payload),
    exhaustMap((auth: Auth) =>
    this.authApi.login(auth).pipe(
    map(user => new LoginSuccess({ username: auth.username })))
    ));
    constructor(private actions$: Actions,
    private authApi: AuthApiService) { }
    }
    auth.effects.ts

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  80. @Injectable()
    export class AuthEffects {
    @Effect()
    login$ = this.actions$.pipe(
    ofType(AuthActionTypes.Login),
    map(action => action.payload),
    exhaustMap((auth: Auth) =>
    this.authApi.login(auth).pipe(
    map(user => new LoginSuccess({ username: auth.username })))
    ));
    constructor(private actions$: Actions,
    private authApi: AuthApiService) { }
    }
    auth.effects.ts

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  81. auth.reducer.ts
    export function authReducer(state: AuthState = initialState,
    action: AuthActionsUnion) {
    switch (action.type) {
    case AuthActionTypes.Login:
    return {
    ...state,
    loginPending: true,
    errorMessage: ''
    };
    case AuthActionTypes.LoginSuccess:
    return {
    isLoggedIn: true,
    currentUser: action.payload,
    loginPending: false,
    errorMessage: ''
    };
    ...
    }

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  82. UI Components
    Facade
    State
    Management
    Data
    Access

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  83. HTTP
    WebRTC
    WebSockets
    JSON
    XML
    Text
    Payloads
    Gateways
    Data Access

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  84. courses.api.service.ts
    @Injectable({ providedIn: 'root' })
    export class CoursesApiService {
    private baseUrl = '/api/courses';
    constructor(private http: HttpClient) { }
    get() : Observable {
    return this.http.get(this.baseUrl);
    }
    getById(id: string) : Observable {
    return this.http.get(`this.baseUrl/${id}`);
    }
    }

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  85. courses.api.service.ts
    @Injectable({ providedIn: 'root' })
    export class CoursesApiService {
    private baseUrl = '/api/courses';
    constructor(private http: HttpClient) { }
    get() : Observable {
    return this.http.get(this.baseUrl);
    }
    getById(id: string) : Observable {
    return this.http.get(`this.baseUrl/${id}`);
    }
    }

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  86. Redux DevTools

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  87. Change Detection

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  88. By default the change detection goes through every node of
    the component tree to see if it changed, and it does it on
    every browser event.
    Change Detection
    Rerefence: https://vsavkin.com/change-detection-in-angular-2-4f216b855d4c

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  89. App_ChangeDetector
    CourseBoard_ChangeDetector
    CourseList_ChangeDetector CourseDetails_ChangeDetector

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  90. App_ChangeDetector
    CourseBoard_ChangeDetector
    CourseList_ChangeDetector CourseDetails_ChangeDetector

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  91. App_ChangeDetector
    CourseBoard_ChangeDetector
    CourseList_ChangeDetector CourseDetails_ChangeDetector

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  92. App_ChangeDetector
    CourseBoard_ChangeDetector
    CourseList_ChangeDetector CourseDetails_ChangeDetector

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  93. App_ChangeDetector
    CourseBoard_ChangeDetector
    CourseList_ChangeDetector CourseDetails_ChangeDetector

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  94. Immutable Objects
    If a component depends only on its input properties, and they are
    immutable, then this component can change if and only if one of
    its input properties changes.
    Rerefence: https://vsavkin.com/change-detection-in-angular-2-4f216b855d4c

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  95. course-details.component.ts
    @Component({
    ...
    changeDetection: ChangeDetectionStrategy.OnPush
    })
    export class CourseDetailsComponent {
    @Input()
    course: Course;
    @Output()
    delete = new EventEmitter();
    constructor() { }
    onDeleteClick(course: Course) {
    this.delete.emit(course);
    }
    ...
    }

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  96. course-details.component.ts
    @Component({
    ...
    changeDetection: ChangeDetectionStrategy.OnPush
    })
    export class CourseDetailsComponent {
    @Input()
    course: Course;
    @Output()
    delete = new EventEmitter();
    constructor() { }
    onDeleteClick(course: Course) {
    this.delete.emit(course);
    }
    ...
    }

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  97. App_ChangeDetector
    CourseBoard_ChangeDetector
    CourseList_ChangeDetector CourseDetails_ChangeDetector

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  98. App_ChangeDetector
    CourseBoard_ChangeDetector
    CourseList_ChangeDetector CourseDetails_ChangeDetector

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  99. Core Module App Module
    Feature A
    Module
    Feature B
    Module
    Shared Module

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  100. Lazy Loading

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  101. Core Module App Module
    Feature A
    Module
    Feature B
    Module
    Feature C
    Module
    Shared Module Shared Module
    App Injector
    Lazy Module Injector

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  102. Properties
    • Modular project (Feature modules and lazy loading)

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  103. Properties
    • Modular project (Feature modules and lazy loading)
    • Predictable state management (Redux)

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  104. Properties
    • Modular project (Feature modules and lazy loading)
    • Predictable state management (Redux)
    • Increased load capacity (immutability, detect changes on push)

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  105. Properties
    • Modular project (Feature modules and lazy loading)
    • Predictable state management (Redux)
    • Increased load capacity (immutability, detect changes on push)
    • Async data flow handling (RxJS)

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  106. Properties
    • Modular project (Feature modules and lazy loading)
    • Predictable state management (Redux)
    • Increased load capacity (immutability, detect changes on push)
    • Async data flow handling (RxJS)
    • Easy to test (DI and easy to mock service layer)

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  107. Sample Tech Stack
    •TypeScript
    •RxJS
    •ngrx/store
    •ngrx/effects
    •ImmutableJS

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  108. This does not replace
    common sense!

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  109. Reims Cathedral, France

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  110. It is better to have a system omit certain anomalous
    features and improvements, but to reflect one set of
    design ideas, than to have one that contains many good
    but independent and uncoordinated ideas.
    Frederick P. Brooks, “The Mythical Man-Month”
    Conceptual Integrity

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  111. References
    • Redux Docs https://redux.js.org/introduction
    • @ngrx docs https://ngrx.github.io/
    • Managing State in Angular Applications
    https://blog.nrwl.io/managing-state-in-angular-applications-22b75ef5625f
    • Change Detection in Angular
    https://vsavkin.com/change-detection-in-angular-2-4f216b855d4c
    • On Push Change Detection and Immutability
    https://blog.mgechev.com/2017/11/11/faster-angular-applications-onpush-change-detection-immutable-
    part-1/
    • Making Architecture Matter by Martin Fowler https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DngAZyWMGR0

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  112. @deniskyashif
    deniskyashif
    deniskyashif.github.io
    Thank You!

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