Future Reading — New Reading Spaces and Emerging Patterns for Information Architects

6c7f7286e12e6033947c021af2ee2980?s=47 Donovan Vandi
September 27, 2013

Future Reading — New Reading Spaces and Emerging Patterns for Information Architects

Grandin Donovan and Claudio Vandi talk at EuroIA 2013 in Edinburgh.

Although the end of the book has been long since been announced, the new reading spaces that may supplant or replace are in flowering development. Interaction designers and information architects will have a key role in creating these new spaces, in maximizing the new opportunities for experiencing text and media, and in defining new grammars of touch interaction with medium and long-form content.

6c7f7286e12e6033947c021af2ee2980?s=128

Donovan Vandi

September 27, 2013
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Transcript

  1. New Reading Spaces and Emerging Patterns for Information Architects @vandicla

    @grandin Claudio Vandi Grandin Donovan Flipbulbs Future Reading
  2. What we will talk about Today we’re going to talk

    to you about WHAT IS CHANGING in the SPACES where we read, particularly in TOUCH BASED applications for reading and enriched e-books. Along the way we'll have some RECOMMENDATIONS on what we think is useful, and what we consider could use IMPROVEMENT.
  3. I. What is reading The first question is, “what is

    reading?” It’s a diverse act...
  4. Reading as activity ...not limited to books...

  5. Reading as activity ...and magazines...

  6. Reading as activity ...or the web...

  7. Reading as activity ...but to dealing with day to day

    headaches...
  8. Reading as activity ...and just getting around.

  9. Reading as activity Users read about 20% of the text

    on the average page. http://www.nngroup.com/articles/how-little-do-users-read/ We know that when it comes to web people read only 20 - 28% of the content...
  10. So this is why we will concentrate on apps and

    devices that are dedicated to reading, because there is a difference of intention between reading on the web and reading for oneself.
  11. Reading as sense and technique What we have to remember

    about reading is that most of us consider it “natural”, as a banal way of getting information as seeing and hearing. But reading, which we do every day for any number of reasons, isn’t quite NATURAL. It’s ACQUIRED. It’s a TECHNIQUE that rests upon the technology of the written word - “seeing speech”, to a degree. Sounds magic, right? Reading is, in a very special way, learning how to use a tool. What’s the physiology of using this tool?
  12. Reading physiology Fixations: ~ 250 ms (silent) | 275 ms

    (reading aloud) Saccades: ~ 8 characters (silent) | 6 characters (aloud) ~ 20 ms CLAUDIO: To master this technique we develop automated behavior Eye movements: fixations and saccades Saccades are the fastest movement the human body can do. Strongly automated. Silent reading is quicker than reading aloud: that’s why it’s dumb to read slides.
  13. What you actually “read” IMAGE Reading Blur (dropbox) What you

    actually read are no more than 7-9 characters, what falls in the center of the eye, the fovea. So that if I make the text around these characters disappear you wouldn’t notice (this was actually an experiment).
  14. Kinesthetics & kinetics Feel of space and time Spatial coding

    (Kennedy, 82; Baccino, 94) Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 When we read we don’t simply collect words’ meaning but we have a spatio- temporal representation of what we read. Have you ever found yourself looking for something happened some 50 pages before, on the lower left corner of the right-hand page? That’s called spatial coding - the eyes know where they meet information so that we don’t need to memorize everything, but can find it when we need it. It’s both a spatial (top / bottom in the page, depth in book) and temporal (read 10 minutes ago) way of keeping track of thing. That’s why “scrolling” feels uncomfortable for non expert users: words move around the page. Reading needs STABILITY. That’s why the CODEX evolved to become a standard object with fixed line heights, pages for supporting NON EXPERT SILENT READING. >>> Reading also implies some strategies: skimming for a quick sense of the page, scanning for particular content, extensive reading for pleasure, intensive reading for memorisation.
  15. Kinesthetics & kinetics Feel of space and time Spatial coding

    (Kennedy, 82; Baccino, 94) Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 When we read we don’t simply collect words’ meaning but we have a spatio- temporal representation of what we read. Have you ever found yourself looking for something happened some 50 pages before, on the lower left corner of the right-hand page? That’s called spatial coding - the eyes know where they meet information so that we don’t need to memorize everything, but can find it when we need it. It’s both a spatial (top / bottom in the page, depth in book) and temporal (read 10 minutes ago) way of keeping track of thing. That’s why “scrolling” feels uncomfortable for non expert users: words move around the page. Reading needs STABILITY. That’s why the CODEX evolved to become a standard object with fixed line heights, pages for supporting NON EXPERT SILENT READING. >>> Reading also implies some strategies: skimming for a quick sense of the page, scanning for particular content, extensive reading for pleasure, intensive reading for memorisation.
  16. Digital Readability

  17. Digital Readability Pocket Bookmarklet Web and mobile reading spaces are

    increasingly optimized for the readability. We have content shifting services that move text...
  18. Digital Readability Pocket Desktop App ...where you want it.

  19. Digital Readability Safari Reader We have reading modes in our

    browsers.
  20. Digital Readability The Great Discontent And layouts increasingly inspired by

    Print
  21. What we gain And of course, lots of new potential

    with new technologies and standards.
  22. ...but back to books... So we could say there are

    trends to “bookify” the web. And as readers, that’s great. But getting back to books. In the real world, books as a container format aren’t “endangered” - at least we don’t think so. But there are things that we lose when we shift to digital reading spaces, and we shouldn’t forget them.
  23. What we lose Reliability velvetyne.fr We could go on about

    the SMELL of paper and old glue, the crackle of turning pages, the feel of old pulp. We won’t, but we don’t deny that the physicality of the books is important, and is certainly something that we’re losing. There are other things we lose that we haven’t yet resolved, for example:
  24. What we lose The cover question The Cover Question: Real

    objects, real edges, real closure: You don't pick up "a" book. You pick up "the" book that you are reading. Even if its only for a certain amount of time... until you are done, of course, and you see that back cover as you put it down on the table beside you, sure that it is "done".
  25. What we lose Thickness and Depth The z-dimension: Just as

    we can spatially code within a page, we retain a sense of “closer to the front” or “closer to the back” when remembering a favorite passage or quote. Thickness and depth are transparent evidence of a book’s length. Clear, absolute. Likewise, we handle more substantial books differently than we do trade paperbacks. There is a reverence for scale. Think of a big bible, or a big Taschen edition.
  26. What we lose The bookshelf effect The Bookshelf effect: Spines

    and shelfspace make books social signals. Not just to others, but to ourselves - for many readers, the home library represents an extension of themselves, their tastes, their knowledge, and their personal histories. Pulling out a book (that book!) you loved as a child, or a student, can be as evocative as Proust’s Madeleine. As a sidenote, all your books go on any shelf...this isn’t the case with the competing platforms today.
  27. The problem • Find new models for spatial organization that

    are coherent with both content and user expectation • Reintroduce, replace or re-invent what we lost • Find meaningful ways of integrating media • Be humble Our jobs will be to find new models for spatial organization that communicate structure, that are coherent with the content they represent, and which match a users expectation regarding content. We need to find solutions that replace some of what we have lost in moving to flat digital books from thick paper ones, without relying only on that old model for inspiration. So even if the web is getting easier to read, and e-ink books are increasingly stable, the new generation of ebooks is something of the wild west. Remember, the codex took a long time to stabilize, and we’re just at the beginning.
  28. II. The Page is Dead, Long Live the...? As physical

    boundaries between pages and chapters disappear, new ways of segmenting and organizing content appear. WHAT is a page, HOW do you move from PAGE to page, across chapters or through the text ? HOW DO YOU VISUALIZE POSITION when book thickness is no longer an indicator? The book had solved most of these questions as it evolved over centuries to fit our way of reading. The digital book is a flat object but with more potential dimensions that can be used to organize the book and guide the user in moving around and understanding the object’s spatial model.
  29. How do I move ?

  30. center fold card, as on flipboard Pages, the standard card

    stack, pages are turned or pushed to the left. This is what we have on Kindle, Readmill, iBooks, etc scscrollable card, with or without snap-to-page. Common on Adobe DPS flippable card, as on Citia How do I move ? What’s the unit You may remember the debate around “Card sharks” and “Holy Scrollers”. The jist was: for fixed layouts or longer unified texts, prefer cards; for shorter text and aggregate spaces, scroll. After years of scrolling on the web, Cards have come back with the rise of mobile reading. To a degree they improve stability and adopt paper book conventions, but they are less adaptable. Scroll is good when you need two dimensions (object within whole), but at the end of the day the whole question is a bit of a red herring, and you end up with scrolling cards...
  31. Seamless scroll Snap to cards How do I move ?

    Smooth vs snappy Page 1 Page 1 Page 2 Page 2 Page 3 Page 1 Page 1 One dimension to take into account when choosing your spatial model is the degree of control you want to have on the layout and the display within a frame. You can have smooth scrolling to facilitate scanning and discovery, or snappy breakpoints between fixed layouts to assist extensive reading.
  32. How do I move ? Snappy Time

  33. How do I move ? Smooth Le Monde journal tactile

  34. How do I move Across aggregates One dimension with or

    without item breaks Section A Section B Movement within unified texts remains straightforward and hasn’t evolved much since the Codex, but for AGGREGATE reading spaces (like periodicals, reference books, etc.) enriched ebooks offer new opportunities to spatialize the text over more dimensions that can correspond to section or article breaks, and thus guide the user terms of position and organization within the whole. One solution is to stick with the a uni-dimensional model, like the book (albeit vertical or horizontal) which mark breaks in sections.
  35. How do I move ? Continuous scroll Le Monde chose

    a visual solution representing article breaks as folds and sections by color. Everything is part of the same continuous scroll. No snap to pages, no breaks within sections. Pure decor, no haptics.
  36. Scroll Control How do I move ? Snappy scroll Inkling

    In Inkling you scroll through subchapters that are segmented in scrollbar. When you reach the end of each subsection you snap to the next one, when you reach the end of a section you have to push even harder (or click) to move to the next. This is something new. What we lose with the thickness of the book we get it back in visual reproduction and haptics.
  37. How do I move Across aggregates Two dimensions: sections and

    articles breaks Section A Section B Another solution is to use two dimensions, using one axis for reading articles and another for moving through articles or sections.
  38. Sections Articles How do I move Two dimensions New York

    Times A useful practice to convey the spatial model through navigation gestures is THE OLD NEWYORKTIMES. Vertical: Sections Horizontal: Articles Click - Overlay: images It provides a simple way of building the mental model through gestures. Within sections a long swipe on the last page of an article moves to the next, so the horizontality of the “section” subnav is maintained at two levels.
  39. Text Articles Wired (Also : New Yorker, Flipboard How do

    I move Two dimensions Here in Wired, with the Adobe DPS Model that you will find in other Condé Nast publications like The New Yorker.
  40. Design gestural navigation to reflect the spatial model of the

    text, and to reveal how its components are organized. Exploit touch-native affordances to go beyond what you can do with a codex, but only when you need to. How do I move Summary
  41. Where am I? To understand WHERE I AM (and “where

    can I go”, as we will see later), the reader needs to have a clear model of her POSITION WITHIN THE OBJECT.
  42. Cardo body text Where am i ? The flat book

    problem Paper books have both explicit ways of signaling position, like page numbering and running heads, and implicit ones like thickness, which lets the user “feel” their place within the whole. In a paper book we know not just "how long a book is", but where we are in it, by looking at it - the Z-axis of thickness we mentioned earlier. There is no relativising or thought necessary. We are either close to the beginning, or close to the end.
  43. Page Location Where am i ? Absolute Position 10 /

    240 740 / 3450 Page is what were habitutated to. It’s generally within a certain range 100-1000, but it becomes unreliable in reflowable texts. Location might be reliable, but its inscrutable - no one know’s what it refers to. How big is a location? So we see that, except for completely fixed layout formats, the page is no longer the ideal, and location, well - have you ever really tried to remember that?
  44. Absolute Position iBooks

  45. XI Space Where am i ? Relative Position Another option

    is using relative position in the scrollbar to give an idea of where you are in the text.
  46. Inkling Also: Color App ... Position In the structure We

    still haven’t found a really good solution for creating that “I am here” feeling, but sticky scrollbars help. In Inkling, we benefit from a variably- segmented scrollbar to show where we are in each section.
  47. 30 % Where am i ? Relative Progress Part of

    whole Another way to show position is to represent relative progress. This shows “how much I have read and how much I have left to read.” Percentage is one way of doing this, but even when the progress bar is sized to the book, percentage remains opaque and unreliable.
  48. t Progress How far I am ? I am at

    10% of Crime and Punishment At around 40% it starts getting better, you’ll see ... Here is a typical example of why book lovers hates e-readers. The Kindle’s 10% is a cold, technical way of showing where one is. It reminds us of more of a hung download than of reading. On a broader scale, we could say that dots reveal that Kindle was made with fiction books in mind. It’s friendlier than percentages insofar as we understand how much is left to read within a longer or shorter whole - an absolute representation - against the relative position of percentage, but it still leaves much to be desired in terms of clarity.
  49. Story Where am i ? Relative Position . . .

    . . Event Event Event Event Event Another, rarer option is using one’s position relative to the narrative. While this is certainly the most opaque regarding progress within the reading space, it can be instructive in fiction and non-fiction. It doesn’t always need to be visible, however...
  50. Atavist Position In the history Here in Atavist the sectional

    interactions don’t have a persistent access point in the chrome, but appear as contextual links as the action develops.
  51. Where am i ? Relative Progress Time 15 minutes left

    Word count and reading time are other ways to tell the reader how long he will have to read. They have been adopted as ways of dealing with mobile reading (snorkeling, quick bits of text) and with commuter- oriented time-based readers like ReadTime, which select content based on how much time you tell it you have.
  52. timereader.fr Progress Quantified reading Reading time is another unreliable, or

    at least non-transparent, way of indicating size and position: we don't know where they're cooking up this number. Is it for us or the other guys? With speed readers, it’s a little more mathematical (words-per-minute by time), but when apps or sites talk simply about reading time, it places the onus on the reader to decrypt or trust the duration they are presented with.
  53. A reliable solution for an intuitive feeling of place needs

    to be found. Different content and different use contexts require different levels of precision: the novel in bed vs the reference book at the library vs news in the subway. Exact location and how much is left are just options. Pages and page numbers are no longer hard constraint,s and could be used creatively. Where am i ? Summary It is not about needing an exact location at a given time, or how much is left, but about providing these indicators in a way that either doesn’t require the reader to work for it, or that is so appropriate to the content that they don’t really care. Knowing where you are in the linear axis of a reference book is essentially irrelevant - what you want is the content you have come for. Perhaps abandoning position indicators in an detective novel could be a way of elevating suspense?
  54. III. Beyond the Codex Spatial and organizational models “Where can

    I go?” The next question a reader asks is “Where can I go?” Since we deal with digital content the answer could be “ANYWHERE”. The Web is your oyster! However, we know that when reading, especially in spaces that are not oriented on story and that can be consulted non-linearly, guidance and wayfinding can be useful. Learning and memorizing are improved when you’re able to chunk and organize information. That’s what sections and chapters are about. Digital texts offer new ways of moving through the text either linearly or across multiple dimensions or axes.
  55. Where can I go Table of Contents II I III

    IV Classic model There is a difference between unified text and text collections or aggregates: in unified texts, knowing where to go isn’t problematic - you move forward, so “where can I go” is equal to “how do I move”; for aggregate and or non-linear text, this demands more complex models of the reading space. A TOC of a novel has chapters, but the progress is linear. The TOC of a linear text is a standalone object: a page that gives you access to the othesr. “Tables of Content” are a vestigial holdover from the codex. As with indices, we don’t have to use them. The text can be completely non-linear. A magazine editor could easily propose a graph based structure instead of the classic bound linear model.
  56. Unified texts Table of Contents Readmill (iBooks, ...)

  57. Where can I go Structural depth I 2 3 4

    5 Pages Chapters Simple structures One and Two level sub-nav Materializes the DEPTH in the digital book
  58. I 2 3 4 5 A B C D E

    Pages Chapters Sections I II III IV V Complex structures Where can I go Structural depth
  59. Colour (Inkling, ...) Ribbons 1 level

  60. 2 Dimensions You Mag Inkling Ribbons 2 levels Or here

    in Linking on 3 levels: Sections - chapters - pages
  61. Ribbons 2 levels Magic of Reality

  62. Where can I go Content specific Top level Middle level

    Bottom level Zooming User Interface Althoug ZUIs have a host of usability considerations, we think they could be useful when dealing with very specific types of hiearachically organized content, like fonts, or species, or even the bible. When done well they can convey a real sense of depth that really let you feel the parent-child relations of the content.
  63. Where can I go? ZUI Font Book

  64. Where can I go ? ZUI Glo Bible The Zooming

    User Interface model is the third one: You literally dive into content Works with IN/OUT or continuous zoom in one direction. Stops being good if levels contains heterogeneus content with multiple dimensions (Biblion, Glo bible)
  65. Geolocalized texts Where can I go Content specific Geolocalized texts

    offer a structure predicated on the reader situated in space, as opposed to his position within the body of the text.
  66. Where can I go? Geolocal pasoliniroma.com (Silenthistory, viaggioincalabria.it, ... We

    get a literal interpretation of “where” in content with an emphasized geographical dimension; we can navigate the book by navigating the map it’s based on (Pasolini Roma, Silent History).
  67. Where can I go? Summary Tables of content are good

    for linear text. There are other ways of navigating aggregate texts that are worth exploring. Use gestural navigation to visualize and communicate the document’s structure: pages, sections, chapters, volumes. Use content specific navigation to leverage the experience when appropriate. • Provide tools that match the organization of the object: sections / chapters / volumes. • Think of navigation as a way to show the spatial-logical model of the book. Direction should be linked to cognitive operations : read more, change section ... • Consider the reader’s reading history as a specific way of navigating a content • Use ad hoc navigation system if that can improve the content experience (isomorphism between content type and mode of access)
  68. IV. Through the Text We’re all familiar with text search,

    and it’s sure that one of the greatest advantages of digital reading spaces is their ability to become transparent. With search we are able to access, and even understand them, in ways that are onerous or impossible in paper books.
  69. 124 301 340 301 Text triggered search User input search

    Results Go to page Through Search Search can be of two kinds > User triggered: string input > Text triggered: tapping a word for finding references
  70. Through Characters Marvin Deep View Marvin Deep View allows you

    to find all the pages a character appears on, and proposes auto-extraction so you can build a collection of all the pages a particular character appears on.
  71. Through Concepts Kindle X-Ray Amazon’s X-ray reveals a text’s internal

    structure by showing instances of people, characters, key concepts, ideas or other topics distributed on the “timeline” of the book (though in this example we just have characters).
  72. Cardo body text Would put this closer to HOW DO

    I MOVE Through Big Corpus On an even higher level there is distant reading, which is remains a largely academic field but which permits machine-leveraged insights into a text, text corpus, or wider swathes of press and literature. Google’s N-Gram, for example, relies on the massive Google book scanning project to reveal changes in usage and vocabulary over time
  73. Cardo body text Would put this closer to HOW DO

    I MOVE Through Social social highlighting can provide another way of moving through text. It can either serve as signposting - social proof of what people find important - or as a way of rapidly accessing “the good stuff” without having to wade through the rest. On the one hand social implies chance, as in some instances its open and anonymous, but there are experiments with more active, closely linked reading communities, who can be more goal-oriented and selective. There’s a lot to watch in this space right now.
  74. V. Text and Media Ratios and Genres

  75. Text and Media, Ratios and Genre One of the most

    common complaints about enriched ebooks and the evolving forms of multimedia storytelling we find on the web is “just add video to it”. There is, of course, no need to add rich media to a text...except for when there is. Or when the story, or the article, or the instructions or whatever would be well served by it. So the question becomes: when is media useful? It’s a matter of content and context, but we’ll get to that shortly. First, we'd like to observe that the ratio between text and media lies across a spectrum, from all text to all media, with gradations between. So there’s the form, but what about the function? The function of a reading space is, in a way, it’s genre - the general nature of the content. So what content is best served, is frequently found in, and dare I say should be expressed using, each of these ratios?
  76. Full Text 1 To start with, you have full text,

    text which, ideally, speaks for itself. That's pretty straightforward. Full text can be everything anything, but we usually associate it with... traditional literary forms from poetry to short stories to genre fiction...academic texts such as history, philosophy and political science, and many breeds of long-form or narrative nonfiction.
  77. Literary genres Kindle For full-text we’re typically looking at traditional

    literary forms from poetry to short stories to genre fiction
  78. “Academic” texts Kindle ...academic texts such as history, philosophy and

    political science, and many breeds of long-form or narrative nonfiction.
  79. Full Text 1.Traditional literary genres 2.“Academic” writing So pretty straightforward

    - no mystery there. This is the kind of content that is easiest to consume on a typical e-reader. Aside from poetry, it’s generally reflowable and doesn’t stand to gain enormously from rich-media interactions.
  80. Text-centric, media-supported 1 1 Text-centric, media supported: Here we find

    many types of content...
  81. Pedagogy iBooks Here we’re looking at textbooks and other texts

    oriented on transferring knowledge...
  82. Non-fiction Skulls Non-fiction books...

  83. Periodicals Astronaut ...too everyday journalism and reportage.

  84. Reference Encyclopedia Britannica And of course, what would an encyclopedia

    or reference book be without a little bit of backup media?
  85. Text-centric, media-supported 1.Pedagogy 2.Non-fiction 3.Periodical 4.Reference books Generally speaking, they

    are oriented around learning, reporting, and better understanding something that still is best using text as the principal form of information, but where showing can really help with the telling.
  86. Media-centric, text-supported 1 Next we have reading spaces where media

    is primary and text is complementary text. The more media becomes central, the more the heterogenous the applications become. In media-centric reading spaces, you find a broad range from:
  87. Children’s Books Dr. Seuss ...children’s books...

  88. Photography Once ...photobooks and photoreportages...

  89. Instructional Marabout ...instructional genres like cookbooks and technical manuals, where

    we can see how something is done. This is where we often see lots of activity-oriented interactive features, like timers, or code samples, and various exercises depending upon the subject.
  90. Digital Collections Hopper, RMN ...and collections of digital objects, to

    facilitate access to digitized cultural holdings, whether art or artifact.
  91. Facsimiles Miniatures Flamandes facsimiles of manuscripts or rare books that

    can’t otherwise be handled (and may require degrees in paleography and medieval latin to understand). This book from the French National Library has spoken commentary for each page.
  92. Comics But this media-text ratio also implies comics (where as

    with marvel we really go after the filmic effect)...
  93. Interactive narrative and the rarer forms of interactive narrative like

    Mr. Morris, where the book is essentially transformed into a film.
  94. Media-centric, text-supported 1.Chidren’s Books 2.Photobooks 3.Instructional/Activity Oriented 4.Digital Object Collections

    5.Rare book facsimilies 6.Comics 7.Interactive narrative So media-centric reading spaces privilege showing, but back it up with telling.
  95. Getting in and out Now that we’ve seen what sort

    of genres tend to heavily employ media for appropriate reasons, lets look at how you get in and out of that media. Here we’ll principally be looking at summoning and dismissing visual media, which naturally takes up screen space, but there’s audio as well. The main assumption is that media is disruptive to reading as typically understood.
  96. Placement Contextual Links click to show media targets displayed media

    deployed First let’s look at where that media is placed, because placement has everything to do with getting in and out. Contextual links with modal detail is good for when you want to favor the text without losing underlying rich content.
  97. Atavist Atavist has a two step way of doing this,

    which is a bit fiddly, but demonstrates a strong design conviction about how its users will want to stay closer to the text.
  98. Activate thumbnail Detail view Media small Placement Inline Embeds There

    are inline embeds, where the media is on the page as a persistent corollary to the text content. This is what we see often in text-centric, media enriched content mixes.
  99. Placement Inline embeds

  100. Placement Inline embeds

  101. Text hidden below media Placement Inline Fullscreen The easiest way

    to get into it is to have it at the top. This model eschews modal access and puts the media front and center, with text in support. This is great for photo books.
  102. Placement Inline Fullscreen

  103. Placement Inline Fullscreen

  104. Media integrated in content column Placement Inline auto-play Media launches

    when centered A more recent approach has been to bring content to the front automatically, according to scroll position. This is used rather successfully in the BBC’s application “The Wonders of the Universe”. It is likewise used on the New York Times Jockey feature. Here, on the open web, the approach has more risks, especially when audio and video are concerned. Without “caveat lector”, this approach can be frustrating or annoying - image audio blaring out unexpectedly while you’re reading on your iPad in bed next to your spouse.
  105. Placement Inline autoplay

  106. Placement Inline autoplay

  107. Getting in Tap Double Tap Push into frame / Scroll

    to auto-play Spread There is a lot of variety on how content is invoked and dismissed. That’s good insofar as there’s always an alternative to clicking target, but it can be bad because to interaction grammar is too varied You need to choose if you use something as simple as, a tap or you make them work harder - with a two-finger gesture, for example - for a reason. How you decide to handle media invocation will have a broader implication within your overall gestural navigation, and can make certain interactions more or less complex.
  108. X Getting out Tap on cross Tap outside Swipe out

    Pinch Push out Let’s say you use horizontal swipes to manage multilevel navigation. When it comes to getting rid of a detail view what happens when you swipe on an object that can be also be swiped on itself - like a slideshow or a rotatable 3d model? What then? Keep in mind that choices you make on the larger structure can have impacts or limits further down the lines, or you’ll have gestures doing double-duty that end up conflicting with each other.
  109. Getting out Swipe out

  110. Getting out Swipe out

  111. A silent, text only pursuit, or... Something that should imply

    multiple formats of visual information, in addition to text ? What if tomorrow all “books” were multimedia and multimodal experiences? What if reading on the bus implied wearing headphones? So what is reading becoming?
  112. VI. Conclusions In trying to bring back what we lose

    we find solutions that reinterpret the classic ways of interacting with text, others that introduce new dimensions to reading.
  113. You lose the depth and thickness of the Codex but

    you gain three potential dimensions. Haptic feeling is lost but you can use new affordances like stickiness, friction, .... When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think beyond the Table of contents and footnotes. Moving around a Book is not just flipping pages, is moving around a story made of events, places, characters. Content-tailored navigation modes can bring back the book its individuality.
  114. While you lose the depth and thickness of the codex,

    you gain three potential dimensions. When Use them and use gestural navigation to materialize the spatial model of the text. You lose the depth and thickness of the Codex but you gain three potential dimensions. Haptic feeling is lost but you can use new affordances like stickiness, friction, .... When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think beyond the Table of contents and footnotes. Moving around a Book is not just flipping pages, is moving around a story made of events, places, characters. Content-tailored navigation modes can bring back the book its individuality.
  115. While you lose the depth and thickness of the codex,

    you gain three potential dimensions. When Use them and use gestural navigation to materialize the spatial model of the text. You lose the depth and thickness of the Codex but you gain three potential dimensions. Haptic feeling is lost but you can use new affordances like stickiness, friction, .... When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think beyond the Table of contents and footnotes. Moving around a Book is not just flipping pages, is moving around a story made of events, places, characters. Content-tailored navigation modes can bring back the book its individuality.
  116. While you lose the depth and thickness of the codex,

    you gain three potential dimensions. When Use them and use gestural navigation to materialize the spatial model of the text. Physical haptics are lost, but new virtual affordances like stickiness, friction, physics and acceleration can provide “body”. You lose the depth and thickness of the Codex but you gain three potential dimensions. Haptic feeling is lost but you can use new affordances like stickiness, friction, .... When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think beyond the Table of contents and footnotes. Moving around a Book is not just flipping pages, is moving around a story made of events, places, characters. Content-tailored navigation modes can bring back the book its individuality.
  117. While you lose the depth and thickness of the codex,

    you gain three potential dimensions. When Use them and use gestural navigation to materialize the spatial model of the text. Physical haptics are lost, but new virtual affordances like stickiness, friction, physics and acceleration can provide “body”. You lose the depth and thickness of the Codex but you gain three potential dimensions. Haptic feeling is lost but you can use new affordances like stickiness, friction, .... When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think beyond the Table of contents and footnotes. Moving around a Book is not just flipping pages, is moving around a story made of events, places, characters. Content-tailored navigation modes can bring back the book its individuality.
  118. While you lose the depth and thickness of the codex,

    you gain three potential dimensions. When Use them and use gestural navigation to materialize the spatial model of the text. Physical haptics are lost, but new virtual affordances like stickiness, friction, physics and acceleration can provide “body”. When you think "where" the reader can go, think beyond pages, tables of contents and endnotes. You lose the depth and thickness of the Codex but you gain three potential dimensions. Haptic feeling is lost but you can use new affordances like stickiness, friction, .... When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think beyond the Table of contents and footnotes. Moving around a Book is not just flipping pages, is moving around a story made of events, places, characters. Content-tailored navigation modes can bring back the book its individuality.
  119. While you lose the depth and thickness of the codex,

    you gain three potential dimensions. When Use them and use gestural navigation to materialize the spatial model of the text. Physical haptics are lost, but new virtual affordances like stickiness, friction, physics and acceleration can provide “body”. When you think "where" the reader can go, think beyond pages, tables of contents and endnotes. You lose the depth and thickness of the Codex but you gain three potential dimensions. Haptic feeling is lost but you can use new affordances like stickiness, friction, .... When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think beyond the Table of contents and footnotes. Moving around a Book is not just flipping pages, is moving around a story made of events, places, characters. Content-tailored navigation modes can bring back the book its individuality.
  120. While you lose the depth and thickness of the codex,

    you gain three potential dimensions. When Use them and use gestural navigation to materialize the spatial model of the text. Physical haptics are lost, but new virtual affordances like stickiness, friction, physics and acceleration can provide “body”. When you think "where" the reader can go, think beyond pages, tables of contents and endnotes. Moving around a books means engaging a space made of events, places, characters and ideas. Content-tailored navigation can bring individuality back to the book. You lose the depth and thickness of the Codex but you gain three potential dimensions. Haptic feeling is lost but you can use new affordances like stickiness, friction, .... When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think beyond the Table of contents and footnotes. Moving around a Book is not just flipping pages, is moving around a story made of events, places, characters. Content-tailored navigation modes can bring back the book its individuality.
  121. Try new ways of going through the content: characters, concepts,

    … you have all the power of the hypertext but in environments in which people are willing to read! Conceive for the reader and their context: where and when will he read, with whom. What other tools will he need? What wouldn’t he want? When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think outside the Table of contents and footnotes. Integrate media if its adds value, but aim for the appropriate balance between text and image. Consider "media gestures" as part of the book’s interaction grammar, and plan for it.
  122. Remember that you have all the power of the hypertext,

    but in an environment in which people are willing to read. Try new ways of going through the content: characters, concepts, … you have all the power of the hypertext but in environments in which people are willing to read! Conceive for the reader and their context: where and when will he read, with whom. What other tools will he need? What wouldn’t he want? When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think outside the Table of contents and footnotes. Integrate media if its adds value, but aim for the appropriate balance between text and image. Consider "media gestures" as part of the book’s interaction grammar, and plan for it.
  123. Remember that you have all the power of the hypertext,

    but in an environment in which people are willing to read. Try new ways of going through the content: characters, concepts, … you have all the power of the hypertext but in environments in which people are willing to read! Conceive for the reader and their context: where and when will he read, with whom. What other tools will he need? What wouldn’t he want? When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think outside the Table of contents and footnotes. Integrate media if its adds value, but aim for the appropriate balance between text and image. Consider "media gestures" as part of the book’s interaction grammar, and plan for it.
  124. Remember that you have all the power of the hypertext,

    but in an environment in which people are willing to read. Design for the reader and his context: where and when will he read, with whom? What other tools will he need? Try new ways of going through the content: characters, concepts, … you have all the power of the hypertext but in environments in which people are willing to read! Conceive for the reader and their context: where and when will he read, with whom. What other tools will he need? What wouldn’t he want? When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think outside the Table of contents and footnotes. Integrate media if its adds value, but aim for the appropriate balance between text and image. Consider "media gestures" as part of the book’s interaction grammar, and plan for it.
  125. Remember that you have all the power of the hypertext,

    but in an environment in which people are willing to read. Design for the reader and his context: where and when will he read, with whom? What other tools will he need? Try new ways of going through the content: characters, concepts, … you have all the power of the hypertext but in environments in which people are willing to read! Conceive for the reader and their context: where and when will he read, with whom. What other tools will he need? What wouldn’t he want? When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think outside the Table of contents and footnotes. Integrate media if its adds value, but aim for the appropriate balance between text and image. Consider "media gestures" as part of the book’s interaction grammar, and plan for it.
  126. Remember that you have all the power of the hypertext,

    but in an environment in which people are willing to read. Design for the reader and his context: where and when will he read, with whom? What other tools will he need? Integrate media as appropriate, but seek balance between content and reader expectation. Consider "media gestures" as part of the book’s interaction grammar and plan accordingly. Try new ways of going through the content: characters, concepts, … you have all the power of the hypertext but in environments in which people are willing to read! Conceive for the reader and their context: where and when will he read, with whom. What other tools will he need? What wouldn’t he want? When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think outside the Table of contents and footnotes. Integrate media if its adds value, but aim for the appropriate balance between text and image. Consider "media gestures" as part of the book’s interaction grammar, and plan for it.
  127. Remember that you have all the power of the hypertext,

    but in an environment in which people are willing to read. Design for the reader and his context: where and when will he read, with whom? What other tools will he need? Integrate media as appropriate, but seek balance between content and reader expectation. Consider "media gestures" as part of the book’s interaction grammar and plan accordingly. Try new ways of going through the content: characters, concepts, … you have all the power of the hypertext but in environments in which people are willing to read! Conceive for the reader and their context: where and when will he read, with whom. What other tools will he need? What wouldn’t he want? When you think "where" the reader can go, try to think outside the Table of contents and footnotes. Integrate media if its adds value, but aim for the appropriate balance between text and image. Consider "media gestures" as part of the book’s interaction grammar, and plan for it.
  128. New Reading Spaces and Emerging Patterns for Information Architects @vandicla

    @grandin Claudio Vandi Grandin Donovan Flipbulbs Future Reading