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Beyond Gamification: IxD12 Version

D0403dd126bd853f79c8daaf25266bc8?s=47 Dustin DiTommaso
February 06, 2012

Beyond Gamification: IxD12 Version

Gamification is the process of applying game design elements to non-game contexts in order to drive user engagement, influence behavior and improve the user experience associated with digital products and services. Over the last year, the practice of gamification has exploded, fueled by marketing hype, media curiosity and spirited debate. While much of the discussion has revolved around extrinsic reward mechanisms as a panacea for customer loyalty and engagement, the most important and effective motivational dynamics of games have been left on the table.

In this presentation I’ll cut through the hype and draw from the fundamentals of game psychology, double-tapping into the techniques game designers use to motivate, engage and guide players through a game’s lifecycle. In doing so, I’ll lay out a model for architecting user engagement, directing behavior and satisfying the needs of both users and business alike.

D0403dd126bd853f79c8daaf25266bc8?s=128

Dustin DiTommaso

February 06, 2012
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Transcript

  1. None
  2. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12

  3. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 The Use of Game Design Elements in

    Non-Game Contexts. A DEFINITION “ ” GAMIFICATION - Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, Nacke http://goo.gl/25R4e
  4. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 A DEFINITION “ ” All that crap

    people are pushing because we have a generation of people who grew up on games. - JMSpool IxD12 2:15 GAMIFICATION
  5. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 POINTS THE USUAL SUSPECTS BADGES LEADERBOARDS REWARDS

  6. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 WHAT IS A GAME?

  7. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 WHAT IS A GAME? A voluntary, rules-bound

    experience of competitive strife towards discrete goals or outcomes.
  8. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 BUT WHERE’S THE FUN? http://www.mrtoledano.com

  9. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 FARMVILLE

  10. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 THE PROBLEM WITH FUN IT’S TOO DILUTED

    OF A CONCEPT It doesn’t distinguish the unique psychological experience of gameplay that leads to SUSTAINED ENGAGEMENT. See: Raph Koster – A Theory of Fun in Games Nicole Lazzaro – Four Keys to Fun Marc Leblanc – Eight Kinds of Fun
  11. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 TOO MUCH FOCUS ON SHALLOW, EXTRINSIC REWARDS

    – POINTS & BADGES – DOES NOT LEAD TO PLAYER SATISFACTION OR SUSTAINED ENGAGEMENT. MOTIVATION, ENGAGEMENT & PLEASURABLE INTERACTIONS
  12. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 ORGANISMIC-INTEGRATION THEORY

  13. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings

    seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if they promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs:
  14. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings

    seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if these promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs: SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY
  15. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings

    seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if these promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs: SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY
  16. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings

    seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if these promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs: SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY
  17. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings

    seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if these promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs: COMPETENCE: (MEANINGFUL GROWTH)
  18. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 COMPETENCE THE PATH TO MASTERY: + The

    “Path To Mastery” is an experience over time + Nested, short-term achievable goals that lead to success of the overarching long-term goal. + Wherever a player is on their quest there should be a next goal just around the corner. + Design appropriate challenges and rewards for all players along Player Experience Lifecycle. N00B –> Intermediate –> Master
  19. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 COMPETENCE: OBJECTIVE, GOALS, ACTIONS!

  20. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 COMPETENCE: ARF!

  21. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 COMPETENCE EXPERIENCE OF CHALLENGE + Keep core

    actions simple to engage players early + Accelerate the level of challenge as they gain mastery to keep them engaged + Optimal challenge stretches player ability but doesn’t overwhelm + Allow players to fail gracefully if it can provide an opportunity to learn and grow MAKE PROGRESS VISIBLE + Provide real-time granular, sustained and cumulative feedback on overall performance + Ensure that progress data is actionable and meaningful to player competence, during immediate play and long-term engagement + Plan milestone-markers of achievement and recognition along the way + Measure to measure the things that matter & reward for true accomplishment
  22. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 EXPRESSION OF MASTERY + After hard-earned victories,

    allow players to enjoy and express their dominance + Sustained engagement is more a function of continued success than feeling continually stretched + Ease-off dif culty for a short term – Let them Coast. + Provide social outlets for bragging & peacocking + Big “Juicy Feedback” for a job well done COMPETENCE
  23. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 COMPETENCE: JUICY FEEDBACK

  24. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 COMPETENCE: JUICY FEEDBACK

  25. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings

    seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if these promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs: AUTONOMY: (MEANINGFUL CHOICE)
  26. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 THE GAME BELONGS TO THE USER +

    Choice, control and personal preference lead players to deep engagement and loyalty + Provide the right feedback to guide players in making the best use of their autonomy + Experience pathways can be designed “on rails” to limit or give the illusion of freedom + Volitional Engagement: “I nd value in the Actions I am taking.” + “Want to.” vs. “Have to.” OPPORTUNITIES FOR ACTION! + Create “What If?” moments: “What if I did X instead of Y?” + Provide a variety of ways to engage + Provide a sense of increasing opportunities of action that motivate sustained interest: (Unlocks, privileges, new modes of play, wider social network, more challenges) + Design multiple pathways leading to the desired end-state AUTONOMY
  27. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 AUTONOMY: MULTIPLE PATHWAYS

  28. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings

    seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if these promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs: RELATEDNESS: (MUTUAL DEPENDENCE)
  29. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 THE SPARK OF CONNECTION + We are

    intrinsically motivated to seek meaningful connections with others + Data shows that allowing players to connect with others and build relationships energizes, and sustains ongoing engagement + Focus on social mechanics that allow players to both give and receive support of their goals + Design for “Moments of Relevance,” allowing players to positively impact each other or the system BEYOND OTHER PLAYERS + Provide value to your audience beyond the mechanics that run your system. + Tap into content that people are passionate about (Health, Wealth, Career, Arts, Pro-Social) + Provide recognition for actions that matter to your players not just to the business + Check out the CSCW movement (Computer Supported Cooperative Work) + Allow users to inject their own long & short term goals into the system RELATEDNESS
  30. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 RELATEDNESS: MINT.COM CASE STUDY

  31. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 RELATEDNESS: BEYOND HUMAN

  32. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 RELATEDNESS: VOICE AND TONE.COM

  33. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 A FRAMEWORK FOR SUCCESS

  34. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 A FRAMEWORK FOR SUCCESS

  35. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 STEP 1: WHY GAMIFY? CRITICAL STAKEHOLDER QUESTIONS:

    1. What is the main reason for Gamifying your product / service? 2. How does the game bene t the user? 3. Will they enjoy it? What are the goals of the business? What actions do you want your players to take to support those goals? What are the risks if it back res? BUSINESS QUESTIONS: What are the goals of the people using the product? What kind of experience are you looking to deliver to your customers? PLAYER QUESTIONS:
  36. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 STEP 2: KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE Who are

    your players? Why are they playing? What are their motivations, expectations and desired outcomes? How does the game address each of these? What is their Primary Play Style? Who do they want to play with and against? What Social Actions do they nd enjoyable – and why? What metrics do they care about? RESEARCH INSPIRES DESIGN
  37. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 STEP 3: GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

  38. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 STEP 3: GOALS AND OBJECTIVES The Long

    Term Goal must be compelling & fairly dif cult to achieve. Can be Mastery of New Skill, A New Habit, An Achievement, A Title or any other pinnacle of personal growth. THE HERO’S QUEST… What must players accomplish in order to reach the ultimate objective? How can you break the journey up into discrete and satisfying challenges that push your players and help them improve? ONE STEP AT A TIME Figure out a way to make long-term and short-term goals as exciting and aspirational as possible. Go for the Glory. DESIRE TO INSPIRE
  39. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 STEP 4: SKILLS & ACTIONS What skills

    does your target audience already have? What skill level are they at? Consider what other abilities are necessary to succeed in the game. Physical Skills: walking, running, typing, nunchacku skills, bow hunting skills Mental Skills: pattern recognition, spatial logic, organization, computer hacking skills Social Skills: presentation, conversation, persuasion, meeting new people How can you best balance your game for your players’ abilities? GIRLS ONLY WANT BOYFRIENDS WHO HAVE GREAT SKILLS Choose skills that have long learning curves and can be developed over time. Break longer mastery arcs into smaller nested skill-chains Are the skills you are considering measurable? How might you make them measurable? (monitoring/technology dependent?) TRACK AND MEASURE
  40. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 STEP 5: ESTABLISH RESISTANCE EXPLORE NEW PERSPECTIVES

    THROUGH LENSES OF INTEREST COMPETITION TYPES: Player v Player, Player v System, Self-Directed TIME PRESSURE: Relaxed explorative play or brash tactics get things done play. SCARCITY: Scarcity can add a level of challenge and strategic gameplay. PUZZLES: Problems that promise the existence of a solution. NOVELTY: Change presents a new set of challenges and patterns to Master LEVELS: Telegraph progress, ability and access & Provide Roadmap of Progress SOCIAL PRESSURE/PROOF: The herd must be right TEAMWORK: Can also be resistance when we need to work with others CURRENCY: Anything that can be exchanged for something of value will be sought RENEWALS & POWER-UPS: ‘Unstick’ player & redirect from dead-ends.
  41. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 STEP 6: DETERMINE OUTCOMES The Epic Win

    may take weeks, months, years to achieve but along the way, players need to see and feel incremental successes and failures Outcomes can be contingent or scheduled. Players can trigger an outcome based on speci c action they take or based on a time frame within the game Outcomes can be positive - moving up a level OR negative - starting a challenge over FEEDBACK, REWARDS & RECOGNITION ALONG THE WAY How does the player “Win” the game? How long does the game take to resolve? EPIC WINS! Allow for (some) failure by design. Uncertainty of win condition keeps player’s interested Missed goals and setbacks within the game should be highlighted as learnable moments GRACEFUL FAILURES
  42. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 STEP 7: PLAY-TEST & POLISH!

  43. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 STEP 7: PLAY-TEST & POLISH! What's working

    / What isn't? What have you not considered? Is the dif culty balanced enough for different skill levels? Is the game personal enough for your players? Do they feel that it's tailored to their own unique personality and desires? Are you tapping into Player Experience needs of Competence, Autonomy, & Mastery? What is going to keep it interesting in 10 weeks time? In 8 months time? When player reach the Epic Win! it's time to go back to the drawing board. PLATFORMS ARE NEVER DONE
  44. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 EVOLUTION Games are motivation engines. Opportunities are

    ripe to evolve “gami cation” past operant conditioning tactics and towards a more motivationally balanced “gameful design.” Consumers are demanding a level of pleasure in the tools and services they are using. Since video games are designed with the primary purpose of entertainment, shouldn’t they be able to make other non-game products more enjoyable as well? IN CONCLUSION
  45. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 PLEASURABLE PRODUCTS FOR THE WIN!

  46. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 Dustin DiTommaso Experience Design Director dustin@madpow.net |

    @DU5TB1N Portsmouth | Boston | Louisville We deliver research-inspired design aimed at improving the experiences people have with technology, organizations, and each other.
  47. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 REFERENCES: A PATH TO MASTERY Nic Kelman,

    “Yes, but is it a game?” from Games : Required essay from a not so required book. Raph Koster, A Theory of Fun for Game Design : Fun arises from Learning & Mastery James Paul Gee, What Video Games Have to Teach Us about Learning & Literacy : Pairs nicely with Koster’s book Mihály Csikszentmihályi, Flow – The Psychology of Optimal Experience : Many implications for creating engagement architectures Johan Huizinga, Homo Ludens, A Study of the Play Element in Culture : “All play means something.” Ryan, Deci, The Handbook of Self-Determination Research : Games satisfy intrinsic psychological needs GAME THINKER
  48. @DU5TB1N | #IxD12 Jesse Schell, The Art of Game Design

    – A Book of Lenses : Tactical and practical Tracy Fullerton, Game Design Workshop : Techniques for Of ine Prototyping and Testing Hunicke, Leblanc, Zubek, MDA a Formal Process of Game Design : Origin of the Mechanics, Dynamics, Aesthetics framework Bateman, Boon, 21st Century Game Design : Pragmatic approach to Game Design GAME MAKER James Paul Gee, On Video Games & Situated Learning [VIDEO] : http://bit.ly/jpgee The Pac-Man Dossier – A detailed study of every mechanic: http://bit.ly/vzI2QC A mathematical analysis of Candy Land: http://bit.ly/zeos34 BONUS PLAY REFERENCES: A PATH TO MASTERY