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2019 SB Gaia Sprint wrap-up

2019 SB Gaia Sprint wrap-up

Presented at the end of the 2019 Santa Barbara Gaia Sprint at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics

David W Hogg

March 29, 2019

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  1. Hans-Walter Rix (MPIA, Heidelberg) Learned many things, among them •

    the small-scale structure of phase-space -- abundance space is strong and detectable -- Kamdar, Coronado • the phase-space spiral twists, as it should -- Johnston • wide-binary twins are real (& probably very useful) -- El-Badry • GDR2 as a time-domain survey can and will be ``calibrated’’ -- Casey • Gaia preselection of close, eclipsing binaries works perfectly -- Schwab Homework: help Anthony Brown find X MEuro to “do the selection function”
  2. Ellianna Schwab Abrahams (UC Berkeley, CTDI) What Worked (Time Domain

    Gaia): What Didn’t Work (yet!): • Measurements of flux RMS detect variability! Pulled lightcurves out of TESS for candidate variables confirming close eclipsing binaries, RR Lyrae and CVs. (With Mowlavi, Rix and Brown) • Built a DSD neural net to predict RVs. RVs correlate enough with other features to predict within largest uncertainty (With Jamal, Hogg and Casey) • Need to add Bayesian framework to improve network Cand. CV in both TESS + Gaia Alerts Thanks Rix, Brown, Casey, Hogg, Price-Whelan, Rimoldini, Brandt, Gaensicke & Gaia DPAC!
  3. Alice Quillen (Rochester) I tried using current velocities and backwards

    orbits of moving groups, listed by Gagne+18 and with ages less than 60 Myr years, to see if the stars in them formed near spiral arms and find out where were the arms? Learned: Young moving groups seem associated with the “Local spur”. This arm may have wound up -- or two different armlets are required. Now 60 Myr ago Galactocentric Also Learned: -Ringing might have also been caused by a dwarf plunging through the center of the Galaxy. -VVV measuring proper motions in the bar’s X (resonant model for vertical heating?) Galactocentric angle degrees
  4. Joel C. Zinn Ohio State University 1. Responded to referee

    report on comparison of Gaia distances/radii to asteroseismic distances/radii! 2. Learned about many cool things in discussions with people, e.g.: a. Halo is not relaxed (Quillen) b. White dwarf merger rates are consistent with Q branch number density… no Kozai?! (Cheng) c. Halo stars have unexpected abundance patterns (Matsuno)
  5. Semyeong Oh (Cambridge) Linear velocity field of 40 m/s/pc may

    be detectable with astrometry + DR2 (statistical) noise + 30% RV (1 km/s uncertainty) for the Hyades cluster. Learned: • important systematic bias for proper motions of bright sources • T. Brandt’s Hipparcos-Gaia calibration removes this and reduces the precision by 5-10 for Hipparcos sources.
  6. Christina Eilers Max Planck Institute for Astronomy • blue and

    red patterns correspond to density fluctuations in the disk — spiral arms? • quadrupolar velocity structure is seen in multiple models of the Galactic bar. • vertical & radial velocity dispersions increase where we expect the bar to influence the stellar dynamics. Thanks to Sarah, Hogg, Ortwin, Chervin, Larry & Hans-Walter
  7. Sarah Pearson (Flatiron Institute, CCA) Compared the velocity tensor elements

    of Eilers’ & Hogg’s APOGEE/Gaia data to the velocity tensor elements of simulated bars I did this I learned SGR induced (C. Laporte) ….what we should expect to see in the various terms of the velocity tensor We see the bar in APOGEE/Gaia data and it looks similar to simulated bars [Will insert plots] Comparison to Eilers’ plots In situ (E. D’Onghia) with Eilers, Hogg, Laporte, D’Onghia, Rix and advise from Price-Whelan, Gerhard, Widrow
  8. David W Hogg (NYU) (MPIA) (Flatiron) The radial-velocity variations we

    see (with APOGEE & Gaia) in the Milky Way disk are going to provide evidence for density variations. (Eilers, Pearson, Laporte) Related to this, I formulated a method to use disk simulations to build an empirical-theoretical model of disk patches. (Widrow) If we are seeing the bar at the Galactic Center, it is at the wrong angle! (Gerhard, Widrow, Pearson, Laporte, Rix) We need to sharpen up a proposal to build a set of Gaia selection functions. (Brown, Fouesneau, Rix, Casey, Price-Whelan)
  9. Patrick LaChance (University of Wisconsin - Madison) What I did:

    Compare the contributions of different sectors of the U-V plot in different volumes to begin to disentangle moving groups from open clusters What I Learned: Getting to work on astronomy research all day is even better than I thought
  10. Cosmological galaxies are not in an inertial frame Robyn Sanderson

    UPenn/Flatiron What I learned this week: Velocity of disk COM relative to halo COM Acceleration of COM calculated different ways X Y Z So….where are we building our models again? ….even when there’s no LMC... Position of disk COM relative to halo COM
  11. theme of the week: diffuse disequilibrium (in science and life)

    Andrew Wetzel (UC Davis) • Reconstruct gravitational potentials of MW-like galaxies/halos using Latte simulations (Sanderson, Vasiliev) ◦ Initial analysis (see right) is a best case scenario: no M31, no LMC ◦ Milky Way is not an inertial frame • Use simulations to test effects of LMC on stellar halo (Cunningham, Sanderson) • Use simulations + synthetic Gaia surveys to reconstruct 3-D dust distribution (Anderson) • Public service notice: use cosmological Gaia mocks! (stolen from Sanderson)
  12. Siddharth Mishra-Sharma (NYU) Learned: - How to perform Gaussian process

    regression on a sphere (with lots of help and code from Tim Brandt and Hamish Silverwood). - Code at https://github.com/smsharma/GPSphere (with Tim). Did: - Constructed model of the Gaia DR2 quasar proper motion field with GP regression. - Can use to characterize measurement systematics? - But not yet to look for substructure! - Used this method to construct un(??)biased power spectrum estimator.
  13. Alexandra Borukhovetskaya(University of Wisconsin - Madison) undergraduate student working with

    Elena D’Onghia What I came to do: Learn Arcturus ages, metallicities, and clustering techniques. What I did: 1. Found ages and metallicities for known members of Arcturus. 2. Ran algorithm (SNN) with adjusted parameters to find several new candidate members. 3. Compared ages and metallicities of candidate members to those of known members What I plan to do in the future: Continue modifying and improving the algorithm to find new members and gain insight into the origin of Arcturus.
  14. Harshil Kamdar (Harvard) What I Did: finished writing up a

    paper on v wide (>10 pc) co-moving pairs due to disrupting star clusters in the disk, worked w/ Coronado & Rix on interpreting small-scale structure in combined chemodynamical space (Gaia+LAMOST). What I Learned: sampling points to follow a correlation function is hard
  15. Hamish Silverwood ICC University of Barcelona Failures: -Red Clump &

    Giants RVS samples corrected using cross match to 2MASS - thwarted at the last minute by a string encoding problem in Pandas. Successes: -GPflow & GPyTorch running in 2D with heteroskedastic noise (i.e. uncertainties - surprisingly non-trivial). -GPR on e.g. vRvR data (left) - needs work. -Derivatives of latent function f(x) with GPflow machinery (1D example above) - still quite rough, red line should match green line.
  16. Anthony Brown (Leiden Observatory) What I did • Struck gold!

    ◦ Python notebook with example on how to create a 6D ‘Gold’ sample from Gaia DR2 ◦ https://github.com/agabrown/gaiadr2-6dgold-example • Put my RUWE code on github ◦ https://github.com/agabrown/gaiadr2-ruwe-tools • Answered tons of questions on Gaia DR2 select source_id, ra, ra_error, dec, dec_error, parallax, parallax_error, parallax_over_error, pmra,pmra_error, pmdec, pmdec_error, ra_dec_corr, ra_parallax_corr, ra_pmra_corr, ra_pmdec_corr, dec_parallax_corr, dec_pmra_corr, dec_pmdec_corr, parallax_pmra_corr, parallax_pmdec_corr, pmra_pmdec_corr, radial_velocity, radial_velocity_error,phot_g_mean_mag, phot_bp_mean_mag, phot_rp_mean_mag, bp_rp, g_rp, bp_g, 2.5/log(10)*phot_g_mean_flux_over_error as phot_g_mean_mag_error, 2.5/log(10)*phot_bp_mean_flux_over_error as phot_bp_mean_mag_error, 2.5/log(10)*phot_rp_mean_flux_over_error as phot_rp_mean_mag_error, sqrt(astrometric_chi2_al/(astrometric_n_good_obs_al-5)) as uwe from gaiadr2.gaia_source where parallax_over_error>5 and radial_velocity is not null and astrometric_params_solved=31 and rv_nb_transits > 3 Do some radial velocity cleaning... What I learned • Phase spiral is not ‘just moving groups’ • Some of use do want to work on the selection function ◦ Look for funding • So many creative ways to use the Gaia data!
  17. Cecilia Mateu (UdelaR) What I Did+Learned: - Provided astropy reference

    frames for streams in galstreams library (+Adrian Price-Whelan) - Made galstreams Python 3 compliant - Many RR Lyrae in Pal5's tails - Many streams are (very) difficult to confirm, but many (some?) do show up in PS1 photometry (w. Nora Shipp, A. P-W, Sarah Pearson, Giuliano Iorio) - Learned many cool astropy tools Homework: - Gaia RR Lyrae Gold!
  18. Sukanya Chakrabarti (RIT) Worked on : what caused the disturbances

    in the outer HI disk of the Milky Way ? Sampling Gaia PMs
  19. Zhen Yuan (Shanghai Astronomical Observatory) [email protected] Did: • Got Member

    Probability of each star around Pal 5 from Photometry Sprint & Eugene Vasiliev (IoA, Cambridge) Thx for the advice from Nora, Adrian, David, and Giuliano ! Motivation and Future Plans: 1. Get tail members with 6D → Disruption Process 2. Hunting for UFD You will see magic happens after combining probabilities from photometry & astrometry in Eugene’s slide! Learned: 1. How to execute a project efficiently 2. I need another PhD in Astronomy • Happened to find Phase-Space Slices of Gaia Sausage using StarGO https://github.com/salamander14/StarGO Sprint & Tadafumi Matsuno (PhD student, NAOJ) and Kohei Hattori (U of Michigan) You will see what we can infer from the slices in Kohei’s slide!
  20. Eugene Vasiliev (Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge) Search for tidal tails

    around globular clusters with Gaia astrometry and DECam photometry With Zhen Yuan and valuable advice from Adrian, Ana, Sarah P., Jason H., Nora, Giuliano Pal 5 NGC 288 Learned Gaussian ProcessesⓇ, Matched FilteringTM. Developed the membership selection pipeline combining Gaussian Mixture for parallax+PM and Matched Filtering for CMD Re-discovered tails around Pal 5, NGC 288. Not found anything around NGC 5897, NGC 7089, … Plan to continue the search for other cluster tails...
  21. Kohei Hattori (U of Michigan) phase-space slice of the Gaia

    Sausage With Tadafumi Matsuno (PhD student, NAOJ) and Zhen Yuan (SHAO). StarGO package (by Zhen Yuan) is powerful in finding substructure. Red: Solar neighbor / Black: total sample
  22. Elena D’Onghia (work with Boquan Chen) We use SNN algorithm

    (Chen et al. 2018) to cluster in 5 dimension to rebuild Orion. Two clumps are newly discovered. This approach opens us the possibility to study how star formation occurs in Orion. This is an example of the superiority of SNN on DBSCAN. (1) Two clusters one dense one less dense (2)-(3) DBSCAN recoves one group (4) SNN recovers both groups
  23. Lorenzo Rimoldini (University of Geneva, CH) Classification of variable objects

    in all Gaia DR2 (without time series): > better than you might expect >> it can be useful before DR3 (SDSS-V, TESS, ...) >>> help in gathering rare variable classes >>>> millions of new variable candidates soon! Learned about streams, complementary data sets, interesting color-color plots combining optical, IR and radio, features of AGBs in the radio band, some details about Gaia as well :) Please email me by the end of April if you want to make sure your class of interest is included!
  24. Giuliano Iorio (Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge) • Pal 5: 2

    RRab, 4 RRc • Stream: 16 RRab, 6 RRc Membership likelihood for RRLs in Pal 5 stream Thanks to Cecilia, Adrian, Nora, Eugene, Elianna for advice and useful discussions What I did: Learned: Galstreams, what is a GP, a lot of interesting way to use Gaia Data. What I found: A lof of RRLs!! To do: Improve background model, analyse other streams, Pal5 stream model. No other variables
  25. Larry Widrow Queen’s University Productive discussions on phase space spirals

    with Kathryn, Chervin … radially plunging satellites with Heidi, and GP blah blah blah with Lauren and Hamish, to be continued in Gaia “brisk walk” during and after the conference Gauthier, Dubinski, LMW 2006 LMW, Chequers et al 2014 Spekkens & Sellwood 2007 With Hogg: Infer surface density from moments of the velocity field --- here, a linear model on pixels of simulation. Probably makes more sense to go after the FR , Fphi...learn rather than assume the Jeans/CBE (cf. Alice and Hamish) <Vz> <Vphi> <zVz> <Vz^2> Var(Vphi) <VRVphi> Density model residual
  26. Josh Simon Carnegie Observatories Thanks to: Lauren Anderson Anthony Brown

    Andy Casey Kohei Hattori Tadafumi Matsuno Zhen Yuan for helpful advice and questions Sample of 11475 metal-poor MSTO candidates; ~50% complete and ~89% pure RGB selection is still in progress, but will have lower completeness (~25%) and purity (~67%) I learned: (1) It works! (2) How to cross-match on the Gaia Archive (3) The memory limit of my laptop I did:
  27. Color code: amplitude of local corrections with respect to DR2.

    Some catalogs: no patterns Others: stripes along RA or Dec + large scale patterns. Banding due to old ground-based positions used to build proper motions. Larger scale patterns: reference system differences, or rotation. Ad e t in -bi g o as id r e r . TODO: apply to DR2 pm correction for rotation (Lindegren’s doc); check current results vs. astropy method for position propagation. Discovered this week: interesting intersections between dynamics in the Galaxy and the Solar System…. Ideas for an article! ….Sprinting ! It works!
  28. Juna Kollmeier (@ Doc right now unfortunately) GG Catalog Progress

    GG Brown Dwarfs: Faherty (Done) GG White Dwarfs: Gaensicke (Done) GG: CMD: Brown (Done) GG: 6D Phase Space: Brown (Done) Owners Needed: GG Globulars GG Spiral (Is there a spiral?) GG Local GG Red Clump (Hawkins?) GG RRL GG Low Z (Simon?) GG O/B Where to host these?
  29. I’m Andy Casey (Monash) and this week I self-calibrated and

    simulated the astrometric and radial motion jitter for single stars (w/ Rix and Price-Whelan) the “binary fraction” simulated AEN - p.d.f. Of a source being a single star given astrometric/radial jitter (and colours/.mags) - radial velocity semi-amplitude for binary systems
  30. Nora Shipp m-M = 14 - 18.5 [Fe/H] = -2

    Age = 12 Gyr Re-discovering & confirming stellar streams
  31. Alexa Villaume (University of California Santa Cruz) Observed color -

    Synthetic color Asked a lot of questions about sources of uncertainties and quality flags in DR2 (thank you Anthony and Morgan!) Learned: Quality flags are not always informative Learned: Apples-to-apples comparisons between synthetic and observed photometry is complicated and many corrections are needed
  32. Timothy Brandt, UCSB Kareem’s wide binaries can calibrate parallax uncertainties.

    Formal uncertainties are 20-30% underestimates? Only addresses spatially uncorrelated errors... Hints of magnitude-dependent zero-point offset (couple μas/mag)?
  33. Emily Cunningham (UCSC) 1. I worked with Sanderson and Wetzel

    on how we can quantify and measure the impact of an LMC-like interaction on the velocity field of a mostly accreted stellar halo. 2. I estimated the parameters of the velocity ellipsoid over different octants in the sky using RR Lyrae! In the Milky Way (Pan-STARRS) and the Ananke mocks for the Latte simulations. Milky Way m12m: Latte/Ananke
  34. w/ Cecilia Mateu: coordinate frames for stellar streams in galstreams

    → Next: we will clean up the library and provide other metadata for streams w/ Nora Shipp: what “known” streams in the north can be confirmed? → Next: compute significance for candidate rediscoveries, repeat with DECaLS? w/ Cecilia+Giuliano Iorio: RR Lyrae in the Pal 5 stream, >15 candidates → Next: fit stream models to new distance information, improve MSTO filter w/ Ana Bonaca: Improving models of the GD-1 stream 1) How to use new RV measurements to improve fit of “spur” 2) Better global models of the stream (Fail!) → Next: Figure out what is going on with the stream track?! Adrian Price-Whelan (Princeton) 2D density model
  35. P5. Astro Viz work! Thanks to Nora for data on

    Stream s! Movies forthcom ing
  36. Luis Quiroga-Nuñez (Leiden Observatory/JIVE) VLA SiO maser emission No Coincidences

    in Gaia Coincidences in Gaia+2MASS (~400, %100 MIRA!)
  37. David Mykytyn, New York University • Managed to learn a

    decent kernel density for the main sequence stars • Very close (alas not close enough yet) to be able to generate the “binary sequence” • Hopefully this will happen very soon? • Learnt KDE in PCA space, and transformed it backwards into the real CM space
  38. What I learned this week among other things • Estimating

    Gaia’s small field of view correlations • Wide-binary identical twins are real - good for parallax validation • Effort to have Gaia selection function(s) [but will be painful to build] Morgan Fouesneau (MPIA, Heidelberg) What I did this week • Dynamics of M31 HII regions using biased Gaia astrometry • (incomplete) Empirical star cluster model Actually stars! Not looking at stars - epic fail! No coherent rotation Consistent with random Strongly doubting Van der Marel et al. 2019 Something wrong with photometry pleiades
  39. Jatan Buch(Brown U.) > Discussed: - Analytic modeling of disequilibria

    using the continuity equation with Larry and Hamish: can’t resolve all degeneracies, yet. - Accelerations for Hipparcos-DR2 x-matched stars (courtesy T. Brandt), definitely worth exploring! - Great breakout on simulations and mock catalogs. Got a flavor of the diversity of philosophies and techniques, going into the available codes, and, most importantly, their scope depending on the scientific problem at hand. > Worked on: - Responded to referee report for a paper on estimating the local DM content in the solar neighborhood; mild evidence of ‘excess’ matter density (also verified by A. Widmark using an independent technique). - Will better disequilibria modeling only improve precision and rule out the excess? Can only answer on a case-by-case basis. - Baby step: started simulating effect of DM halo (final goal: NFW population) + test particle disk on a stellar distribution using galpy potentials (thank you J. Hunt). [Bummed couldn’t make at least 1 pretty plot! :(] - Implemented A. Brown’s RUWE cut and found no significant change in derived results!
  40. May Gade Pedersen (KU Leuven, Belgium) Johnston+2019 Recreated from Bastian+2018

    Cordoni+2018 Isochrone Cloud What I did: Constructed Gaia CMD of cluster with known eMSTO. Converted isochrone clouds to Gaia colours and ‘fit’ to observations. I learned Principles behind cluster membership verification. Use appropriate Gaia passbands for bolometric corrections. Cordoni+2018 Cordoni+2018
  41. Kareem El-Badry (UC Berkeley) Twinning: excess of equal-mass wide binaries

    is real! Made a catalog of 3000 hierarchical triples with RV-variable components Lots of other ideas: • Companions to massive white dwarfs with Sihao Cheng • Parallax error calibration with Timothy Brandt • Calibrating gyrochronology with Jackie Faherty • Kozai mechanism in triples with Juna Kollmeier Thanks for great discussions with Rix, Casey, Gaensicke, Oh, Hogg, Fouesneau, Brown, Kamdar ++ Still working on the math ¯\_(ツ)_/¯
  42. Jason Hunt (Dunlap/Toronto) Talked about: Non-axisymmetric structure, actions, galpy, phase

    space spirals, actual spirals, bars Worked on: Lots of little things, including paper draft from last sprint, and looked at models of different spiral structure Simulations from Alex Pettitt
  43. Ana Bonaca (Harvard) Found GD-1 models with relative radial velocity

    offsets between the stream and the spur comparable to the observed offset
  44. Lauren Anderson (Flatiron Institute): Worked on building a 3D dust

    map of the Milky Way Simulation: (Almost) reconstructed the “true” dust density in the Latte simulation, the foundation for Ananke. We have the right amplitudes and scales !! Data: Applied to 105 dust estimates from Gaia with good parallax estimates Hyper parameters: ℓ ~ 60 pc and σ ~ 80 M ☉ /pc3 (optimized from a more local sample)
  45. Sihao Cheng Johns Hopkins University • relation between the white

    dwarf Q branch and wide binary fraction with Kareem El-badry, supporting the idea of Q-branch WDs being WD-WD merger • extinction within 250 pc is still uncertain • tried to analyse proper motions of Sagittarius Stream bifurcation • learned a lot. Some new ideas for my next possible project. Thanks for discussions with Newberg, El-badry, Anderson, Casey, Gänsicke, Zinn, Hunt, etc.
  46. Kathryn V Johnston (Columbia) ?? PS-Spirals - where? when? what??

    with Chervin Laporte and Larry Widrow Did: orbits in axisymmetric MW potential Learned: Jphi (=Lz!) => groups with shared history dvz & dvR “hit” => z-vz spirals & R-vr sloshing ???? Towards the ORIGIN ????: “Rewind” spiral in Jphi bins test approach with N-body sims limitations: impulsive assumption; local view; moving groups red: rguide =9 kpc white: rguide =7kpc
  47. Chervin F. P. Laporte (UVic) PS-spirals (Larry, Kathryn, Anthony locally

    & Martin Cool Smith+Jason H+Jason S), finding the OLR with DR2 (Jason H), GP blablablah (Larry+Hamish), velocity field of MW (Eilers+Pearson+Hogg), Moving groups Arcturus (Elena D’Onghia) Did: checked some quick dirty solutions to my problems, didn’t work… but looking forward to next 3 weeks :). Made this movie of the PS-spiral in overdensity to help you hypnotise your guests back home. Learned: I might have to GP blablablah my way out of this with RC to do what I initially intended to do.