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The Twelve-Factor App: Best Practices for Modern Web Applications

David Zuelke
November 08, 2014

The Twelve-Factor App: Best Practices for Modern Web Applications

Presented at True North PHP 2014 in Toronto, Canada.

David Zuelke

November 08, 2014
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  1. THE TWELVE-FACTOR APP
    Best Practices for Modern Web Applications

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  2. David Zuelke

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  3. “The Twelve-Factor App”

    !
    !
    !

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  4. “The Twelve-Factor App”

    is

    a manifesto,

    a methodology,

    a condensed collection of experiences.

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  5. Its goals are

    scalability,

    maintainability,

    portability.

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  6. 12factor.net

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  7. 4/12 MAIN FACTORS,

    CODE ACCORDINGLY
    I. Codebase

    From one codebase, perform many deploys to staging, prod, ...

    II. Dependencies

    Your application explicitly declares userland and platform deps.

    III. Configuration

    Read from $_ENV: API keys, database credentials, SMTP hosts, ...

    XI. Logging

    file_put_contents("php://stderr",  "Yay  log");

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  8. II. DEPENDENCIES
    Applications have explicitly declared dependencies.

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  9. II. DEPENDENCIES
    Applications have explicitly declared dependencies.
    $  cat  composer.json  
    {  
       "require":  {  
           "php":  ">=5.3.3",  
           "ext-­‐mcrypt":  "*",  
           "symfony/symfony":  "~2.4.6",  
           "twig/extensions":  "~1.0",  
           "symfony/monolog-­‐bundle":  "~2.4"  
       }  
    }
    $  cat  package.json  
    {  
       "dependencies":  {  
           "express":  "~4.9.x",  
           "cool-­‐ascii-­‐faces":  "~1.3.x"  
       },  
       "engines":  {  
           "node":  "0.10.x"  
       }  
    }

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  10. III. CONFIGURATION
    Store config in the environment.

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  11. III. CONFIGURATION
    Store config in the environment.
    Assumption:

    same code but different configuration per deployment target

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  12. III. CONFIGURATION
    Store config in the environment.
    $transport  =  Swift_SmtpTransport::newInstance(

           getenv('EMAIL_HOST'),  getenv('EMAIL_PORT')?:25

    )

           -­‐>setUsername(getenv('EMAIL_USERNAME'))

           -­‐>setPassword(getenv('EMAIL_PASSWORD'))

    ;
    Assumption:

    same code but different configuration per deployment target
    $  heroku  config:set  EMAIL_HOST=blah.com  EMAIL_PORT=827  
    EMAIL_USERNAME=joecool  EMAIL_PASSWORD=itwasadarkandstormynight

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  13. TIME FOR A DEPLOY!
    It's as easy as pie.

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  14. $  heroku  create  your-­‐php-­‐app  
    Creating  your-­‐php-­‐app...  done,  stack  is  cedar-­‐14  
    http://example.herokuapp.com/  |  [email protected]:example.git  
    $  git  push  heroku  master  
    -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐>  PHP  app  detected  
    -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐>  Setting  up  runtime  environment...  
                 -­‐  PHP  5.5.16  
                 -­‐  Apache  2.4.10  
                 -­‐  Nginx  1.6.0  
    -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐>  Installing  PHP  extensions:  
                 -­‐  opcache  (automatic;  bundled)  
                 -­‐  memcached  (composer.json;  downloaded)  
                 -­‐  intl  (composer.json;  bundled)  
    -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐>  Installing  dependencies...  
                 Composer  version  05d991  2014-­‐10-­‐28  12:36:19  
                 Loading  composer  repositories  with  package  information  
                 Installing  dependencies  from  lock  file  
                     -­‐  Installing  monolog/monolog  (1.9.1)  
                         Loading  from  cache            
                 Generating  optimized  autoload  files  
    -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐>  Discovering  process  types  
                 Procfile  declares  types  -­‐>  web  
    -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐>  Compressing...  done,  57.4MB  
    -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐>  Launching...  done,  v3  
                 http://your-­‐php-­‐app.herokuapp.com/  deployed  to  Heroku

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  15. how did that work?

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  16. V. BUILD, RELEASE, RUN
    A build step vendors dependencies, prepares assets, etc.

    A release step creates a package from build and config.

    A runtime step executes, without special knowledge.

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  17. V. BUILD, RELEASE, RUN
    A build step vendors dependencies, prepares assets, etc.

    A release step creates a package from build and config.

    A runtime step executes, without special knowledge.

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  18. X. DEV/PROD PARITY
    Keep dev, stage and prod envs as similar as possible.

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  19. X. DEV/PROD PARITY
    Keep dev, stage and prod envs as similar as possible.
    SQLite ≠ MySQL

    Apache ≠ Nginx

    File based sessions ≠ Redis based sessions

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  20. X. DEV/PROD PARITY
    Keep dev, stage and prod envs as similar as possible.
    SQLite ≠ MySQL

    Apache ≠ Nginx

    File based sessions ≠ Redis based sessions

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  21. X. DEV/PROD PARITY
    Keep dev, stage and prod envs as similar as possible.
    SQLite ≠ MySQL

    Apache ≠ Nginx

    File based sessions ≠ Redis based sessions
    If apt-­‐get or brew don't get the job done on your box:

    Vagrant is always your friend!

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  22. VI. PROCESSES

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  23. VI. PROCESSES
    Execute the app as one or more stateless processes.

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  24. VI. PROCESSES
    heroku-­‐python-­‐app  $  cat  Procfile  
    worker:  python  worker.py  
    web:  gunicorn  hello:app

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  25. VI. PROCESSES
    heroku-­‐node-­‐app  $  cat  Procfile  
    worker:  node  worker.js  
    web:  node  index.js

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  26. VI. PROCESSES
    heroku-­‐ruby-­‐app  $  cat  Procfile  
    worker:  env  TERM_CHILD=1  bundle  exec  rake  resque:work  
    web:  bundle  exec  unicorn  -­‐p  $PORT  -­‐c  ./config/unicorn.rb

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  27. VI. PROCESSES
    heroku-­‐java-­‐app  $  cat  Procfile  
    worker:  sh  worker/target/bin/worker  
    web:  java  $JAVA_OPTS  -­‐jar  target/dependency/jetty-­‐runner.jar  -­‐-­‐
    port  $PORT  target/*.war

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  28. VI. PROCESSES
    heroku-­‐php-­‐app  $  cat  Procfile  
    worker:  php  background.php  
    web:  php  -­‐S  0.0.0.0:$PORT

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  29. PHP needs a dedicated web server

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  30. VI. PROCESSES
    heroku-­‐php-­‐app  $  cat  Procfile  
    worker:  php  background.php  
    web:  vendor/bin/heroku-­‐php-­‐apache2  #  or  heroku-­‐php-­‐nginx
    automatically injected into the app during build

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  31. RUNNING PHP APPS LOCALLY
    heroku-­‐php  $  composer  require  -­‐-­‐dev  heroku/heroku-­‐buildpack-­‐php  
    ./composer.json  has  been  updated  
    Loading  composer  repositories  with  package  information  
    Updating  dependencies  (including  require-­‐dev)  
       -­‐  Installing  heroku/heroku-­‐buildpack-­‐php  (v43)  
           Loading  from  cache  
    !
    Writing  lock  file  
    Generating  autoload  files  
    !
    heroku-­‐php  $  foreman  start  
    14:30:45  web.1  |  started  with  pid  11175  
    14:30:46  web.1  |  Booting  on  port  5000...  
    14:30:46  web.1  |  Starting  php-­‐fpm...  
    14:30:46  web.1  |  Starting  nginx...

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  32. (or you use your good old VirtualHost setup)

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  33. VIII. CONCURRENCY

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  34. VIII. CONCURRENCY
    Scale out via the process model.

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  35. VIII. CONCURRENCY
    $  heroku  ps:scale  web=10  
    Scaling  dynos...  done,  now  running  web  at  10:1X.  
    !
    $  heroku  ps  
    ===  web  (1X):  `vendor/bin/heroku-­‐php-­‐apache2  web/`  
    web.1:  starting  2014/11/05  20:36:39  (~  4s  ago)  
    web.2:  starting  2014/11/05  20:36:39  (~  4s  ago)  
    web.3:  starting  2014/11/05  20:36:39  (~  4s  ago)  
    web.4:  starting  2014/11/05  20:36:38  (~  4s  ago)  
    web.5:  starting  2014/11/05  20:36:38  (~  4s  ago)  
    web.6:  starting  2014/11/05  20:36:39  (~  4s  ago)  
    web.7:  starting  2014/11/05  20:36:38  (~  4s  ago)  
    web.8:  starting  2014/11/05  20:36:39  (~  4s  ago)  
    web.9:  starting  2014/11/05  20:36:38  (~  4s  ago)  
    web.10:  starting  2014/11/05  20:36:39  (~  4s  ago)  
    !
    $  heroku  ps:scale  web=1  
    Scaling  dynos...  done,  now  running  web  at  1:1X.

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  36. XII. ADMIN PROCESSES

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  37. XII. ADMIN PROCESSES

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  38. XII. ADMIN PROCESSES
    Management tasks like DB migrations are one-off processes.

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  39. XII. ADMIN PROCESSES
    Management tasks like DB migrations are one-off processes.
    They run in isolation, just like all other "dynos".

    With the same release: same code, same config!

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  40. XII. ADMIN PROCESSES
    Management tasks like DB migrations are one-off processes.
    $  heroku  run  "php  app/console  doctrine:migrations:migrate"

    Running  `php  app/console…`  attached  to  terminal...  up,  run.4062  
    Migrating  up  to  20100416130452  from  0  
    !
       >>  migrating  20100416130452  
    !
             -­‐>  CREATE  TABLE  users  (username  VARCHAR(255)  NOT  NULL,  
                   password  VARCHAR(255)  NOT  NULL)  ENGINE  =  InnoDB  
    !
       >>  migrated
    They run in isolation, just like all other "dynos".

    With the same release: same code, same config!

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  41. IV. BACKING SERVICES

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  42. IV. BACKING SERVICES
    Treat backing services as attached resources.

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  43. $  heroku  addons:add  heroku-­‐postgresql  
    Adding  heroku-­‐postgresql  on  tnphptest...  done,  v6  (free)  
    Attached  as  HEROKU_POSTGRESQL_AQUA_URL  
    Use  `heroku  addons:docs  heroku-­‐postgresql`  to  view  documentati…  
    !
    $  heroku  addons:add  heroku-­‐postgresql  
    Adding  heroku-­‐postgresql  on  tnphptest...  done,  v7  (free)  
    Attached  as  HEROKU_POSTGRESQL_AMBER_URL  
    Use  `heroku  addons:docs  heroku-­‐postgresql`  to  view  documentati…  
    !
    $  heroku  addons:add  redistogo  
    Adding  redistogo  on  tnphptest...  done,  v8  (free)  
    Use  `heroku  addons:docs  redistogo`  to  view  documentation.  
    !
    $  heroku  addons:add  newrelic  
    Adding  newrelic  on  tnphptest...  done,  v9  (free)  
    Use  `heroku  addons:docs  newrelic`  to  view  documentation.  
    !
    $  heroku  config  
    ===  tnphptest  Config  Vars  
    DATABASE_URL:                                postgres://u:p@host12:5432/db18172  
    HEROKU_POSTGRESQL_AMBER_URL:  postgres://u:p@host42:5198/db24438  
    HEROKU_POSTGRESQL_AQUA_URL:    postgres://u:p@host12:5432/db18172  
    NEW_RELIC_LICENSE_KEY:              c9eecdcf9523862f981e  
    REDISTOGO_URL:                              redis://u:[email protected]:9092/

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  44. http://start.heroku.com/php

    &

    http://devcenter.heroku.com/categories/php

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  45. THE TWELVE-
    FACTOR APP
    Thanks for listening! Contact:
    @dzuelke & [email protected].
    rate my talk
    on joind.in!

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