Echoes from Eta

2a1046385e6cf8e4d07d590f9821ece5?s=47 federica
January 01, 2014

Echoes from Eta

A talk on Eta Carinae's light echoes discovery and interpretation

2a1046385e6cf8e4d07d590f9821ece5?s=128

federica

January 01, 2014
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  1. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco REPLAY: Tuesday, January

    6, 15
  2. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco REPLAY: Armin Rest,

    STScI J. L. Prieto, Carnegie Observatories N. Smith, Steward Observatory N. R. Walborn, STScI H. E. Bond, STScI R. Chornock, Harvard-Smithsonian CfA R. J. Foley, Harvard-Smithsonian CfA W. Fong, Harvard-Smithsonian CfA D. L. Welch, McMaster University B. Sinnott, McMaster University M. E. Huber, Johns Hopkins University R. C. Smith, CTIO I. Toledo, ALMA D. Minniti, Pontifica Uni. Catolica K. Mandel, Imperial College E. Hsiao, LCO S. Owocki University of Delaware J.D.Hiller University of Pittsburg Tuesday, January 6, 15
  3. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco Tuesday, January 6,

    15
  4. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco Introduction Ƞ-Carinae fact

    sheet LBVs and S Doradus variables Tuesday, January 6, 15
  5. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco Introduction Ƞ-Carinae fact

    sheet LBVs and S Doradus variables Ƞ-Carinae great eruption historical records the Homunculus nebula Tuesday, January 6, 15
  6. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco Introduction Ƞ-Carinae fact

    sheet LBVs and S Doradus variables Ƞ-Carinae great eruption historical records the Homunculus nebula Light Echoes what are LEs the LEs of Ƞ-Carinae Tuesday, January 6, 15
  7. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco Introduction Ƞ-Carinae fact

    sheet LBVs and S Doradus variables Ƞ-Carinae great eruption historical records the Homunculus nebula Light Echoes what are LEs the LEs of Ƞ-Carinae What was the great eruption? a new view of Ƞ-Carinae’s great eruption alternative models future work Tuesday, January 6, 15
  8. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco S introduction Tuesday, January 6, 15
  9. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Tuesday, January 6, 15
  10. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae you are here light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae only 2.3 kpc away... introduction Great Eruption Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Tuesday, January 6, 15
  11. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae you are here Carina light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae only 2.3 kpc away... introduction Great Eruption Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Tuesday, January 6, 15
  12. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Ƞ-Car fact sheet federica b. bianco D ~ 2.3 kpc L ~ 4x107 Lsun Mbol ~ -12 mag Tuesday, January 6, 15
  13. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Ƞ-Car fact sheet federica b. bianco D ~ 2.3 kpc L ~ 4x107 Lsun Mbol ~ -12 mag 2 (or more) star system (2005 N.N Jone & B Stelgrnold) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  14. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Ƞ-Car fact sheet federica b. bianco D ~ 2.3 kpc L ~ 4x107 Lsun Mbol ~ -12 mag 2 (or more) star system (2005 N.N Jone & B Stelgrnold) M~100 Msun closest SN or HN candidate Tuesday, January 6, 15
  15. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Ƞ-Car fact sheet federica b. bianco Giant eruption 1837-1857 that made it the second brightest star in the sky prototype of Luminous Blue Variable -- Ƞ-Car eruptions D ~ 2.3 kpc L ~ 4x107 Lsun Mbol ~ -12 mag 2 (or more) star system (2005 N.N Jone & B Stelgrnold) M~100 Msun closest SN or HN candidate Tuesday, January 6, 15
  16. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work It is somewhere between a Nova and a Supernova... probably a pretty good Nova The Scientist Magazine Tuesday, January 6, 15
  17. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work star formation: provide most of luminosity in star forming galaxies trace star formation trigger star formation the first stars were very massive mass loss: enrich the ISM give rise to SN and GRBs massive stars Modjaz 2011 Smith+ 2014 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  18. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Modjaz 2011 Understanding stellar explosions: Core Collapse SuperNovae Modjaz+ 2014 Bianco+ 2014 (ApJ submitted) Bianco+ 2014 (in prep) Liu+ 2014 (in prep) massive stars Tuesday, January 6, 15
  19. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Modjaz 2011 Understanding stellar explosions: Core Collapse SuperNovae Modjaz 2011 what is the link between eruptions and explosions? Margutti+ 2013 Graham+ 2014 SN 2009ip: a SN impostor turned SN Smith+ 2013 massive stars Tuesday, January 6, 15
  20. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Modjaz 2011 Understanding stellar explosions: Core Collapse SuperNovae mass loss mechanism may or may not depend on metallicity: these eruptions may provide a mode of mass loss for the first generations of stars - JWST (Smith & Owocki 2006) Modjaz 2011 what is the link between eruptions and explosions? massive stars Tuesday, January 6, 15
  21. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Luminous Blue Variables LBVs, also known as S Dor-like variables, or Ƞ-Car-like variables, a diverse group of massive stars that are photometrically and spectroscopically variable. they brighten at optical wavelengths (∆V ≃ 1–2 magnitudes) as a result of a shift in the bolometric flux from the UV to the optical (Smith,Vink, Koter 04) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  22. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work temperature: • quiescence: Teff = 30,000 K - 15,000 K • burst: Teff > 7,000 K variability: • time scale ~1 year to decades •ΔM~1-2 mag (S-Dor) ΔM>3 mag (Ƞ-Car) LBVs, also known as S Dor-like variables, or Ƞ-Car-like variables, a diverse group of massive stars that are photometrically and spectroscopically variable. Luminous Blue Variables Tuesday, January 6, 15
  23. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco • quiescence: Teff = 30,000 K - 15,000 K • burst: Teff > 7,000 K transition in the HR diagram: Smith+ 2004 Davidson 1997 Vick 1997 Vick 2009 Smith 2014 ARAA LBVs, also known as S Dor-like variables, or Ƞ-Car-like variables, a diverse group of massive stars that are photometrically and spectroscopically variable. Luminous Blue Variables Tuesday, January 6, 15
  24. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco • quiescence: Teff = 30,000 K - 15,000 K • burst: Teff > 7,000 K transition in the HR diagram: Smith+ 2004 Davidson 1997 Vick 1997 Vick 2009 Smith 2014 ARAA LBVs, also known as S Dor-like variables, or Ƞ-Car-like variables, a diverse group of massive stars that are photometrically and spectroscopically variable. Luminous Blue Variables Tuesday, January 6, 15
  25. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco • quiescence: Teff = 30,000 K - 15,000 K • burst: Teff > 7,000 K transition in the HR diagram: Smith+ 2004 Davidson 1997 Vick 1997 Vick 2009 Smith 2014 ARAA LBVs, also known as S Dor-like variables, or Ƞ-Car-like variables, a diverse group of massive stars that are photometrically and spectroscopically variable. Luminous Blue Variables Tuesday, January 6, 15
  26. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work luminosity: • Mbol ~ -8 to -11 • near Eddington limit LBVs, also known as S Dor-like variables, or Ƞ-Car-like variables, a diverse group of massive stars that are photometrically and spectroscopically variable. Luminous Blue Variables is the opacity of the stellar material mp σT Tuesday, January 6, 15
  27. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work luminosity: • Mbol ~ -8 to -11 • near Eddington limit mp σT is the opacity of the stellar material L T Luminous Blue Variables LBVs, also known as S Dor-like variables, or Ƞ-Car-like variables, a diverse group of massive stars that are photometrically and spectroscopically variable. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  28. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work luminosity: • Mbol ~ -8 to -11 • near Eddington limit mp σT is the opacity of the stellar material L/M = (L/M)Edd L T T Luminous Blue Variables LBVs, also known as S Dor-like variables, or Ƞ-Car-like variables, a diverse group of massive stars that are photometrically and spectroscopically variable. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  29. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work S Dor-like η Car-like 3. Smith+ 2004 Davidson 1997 federica b. bianco Vick 1997 Vick 2009 1.star evolve redward (unexplained) 2.Humphreys-Davidson Limit - line-driven wind HARD LIMIT T>=7000-9000K A-F-type Smith 2014 ARAA Luminous Blue Variables 1.increase in radiative output (x5) (unexplained) 2.super-Eddington wind - continuum-driven wind / electron scattering 3.optically thick pseudo-photosphere forms at larger radius than hydrostatic stellar surface 4.mass loss in quasi-steady state (Owocki+04), decrease in effective temp 5.pseudo-photosphere moves out (no expansion of star) HARD LIMIT T>=7000K, F-type spectrum Tuesday, January 6, 15
  30. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work S Dor-like η Car-like 3. federica b. bianco Vick 2009 “We emphasize however that neither η-Car type nor S-Dor type variations are understood.” Luminous Blue Variables 1.increase in radiative output (x5) (unexplained) 2.super-Eddington wind - continuum-driven wind / electron scattering 3.optically thick pseudo-photosphere forms at larger radius than hydrostatic stellar surface 4.mass loss in quasi-steady state (Owocki+04), decrease in effective temp 5.pseudo-photosphere moves out (no expansion of star) HARD LIMIT T>=7000K, F-type spectrum 1.star evolve redward (unexplained) 2.Humphreys-Davidson Limit - line-driven wind HARD LIMIT T>=7000-9000K A-F-type Tuesday, January 6, 15
  31. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work S Dor-like η Car-like 3. federica b. bianco Davidson 1987 7000K log dM/dt v-1 L-0.7 Luminous Blue Variables “We emphasize however that neither η-Car type nor S-Dor type variations are understood.” 1.increase in radiative output (x5) (unexplained) 2.super-Eddington wind - continuum-driven wind / electron scattering 3.optically thick pseudo-photosphere forms at larger radius than hydrostatic stellar surface 4.mass loss in quasi-steady state (Owocki+04), decrease in effective temp 5.pseudo-photosphere moves out (no expansion of star) HARD LIMIT T>=7000K, F-type spectrum 1.star evolve redward (unexplained) 2.Humphreys-Davidson Limit - line-driven wind HARD LIMIT T>=7000-9000K A-F-type Tuesday, January 6, 15
  32. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work The Great Eruption Tuesday, January 6, 15
  33. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco historical records John Morieson, Alex Cherney, Terrastro light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco The night sky according to the Boorong people of Lake Tyrell Tuesday, January 6, 15
  34. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco John Morieson, Alex Cherney, Terrastro light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco The night sky according to the Boorong people of Lake Tyrell Tuesday, January 6, 15
  35. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco The Boorong people of Lake Tyrell appear to have woven the event into their oral traditions as the character 'Collowgullouric War', the wife of the crow called 'War', who is identified as the star Canopus. War was described as the first being to bring fire from above and give it to the Aboriginal people. Reported by William Edward Stanbridge in 1857 (Hamache & Frew, 2010). Duane Hamache & Frew, 2010 Morieson, 2010 historical records Tuesday, January 6, 15
  36. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco The Boorong people of Lake Tyrell appear to have woven the event into their oral traditions as the character 'Collowgullouric War', the wife of the crow called 'War', who is identified as the star Canopus. War was described as the first being to bring fire from above and give it to the Aboriginal people. Reported by William Edward Stanbridge in 1857 (Hamache & Frew, 2010). Duane Hamache & Frew, 2010 Morieson, 2010 historical records Tuesday, January 6, 15
  37. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco historical records Julia Margaret Cameron, Sir John Herschel with Cap, 1867. Sir John Herschel noticed it in the southern sky while conducting a survey from Cape Town, South Africa and described its ‘sudden flashes and relapses’... this star is ... ‘fitfully variable to an astonishing extent’ (Herschel 1847). Tuesday, January 6, 15
  38. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco Sir John Herschel noticed it in the southern sky while conducting a survey from Cape Town, South Africa and described its ‘sudden flashes and relapses’... this star is ... ‘fitfully variable to an astonishing extent’ (Herschel 1847). • first recorded in 1667 mag=4 (Edmond Halley) • 1843 mag=-0.8 • 1844 Giant Eruption • 1890 lesser burst mag = 3 • 1940 mag=8 • 1998-9 mag=5 historical records Tuesday, January 6, 15
  39. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco historical records Tuesday, January 6, 15
  40. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Frew 2004, Smith & Frew 2011 historical lightcurve of Ƞ-Car federica b. bianco historical records Tuesday, January 6, 15
  41. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Frew 2004, Smith & Frew 2011 historical lightcurve of Ƞ-Car federica b. bianco historical records Tuesday, January 6, 15
  42. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco Sir John Herschel noticed it in the southern sky while conducting a survey from Cape Town, South Africa and described its ‘sudden flashes and relapses’... this star is ... ‘fitfully variable to an astonishing extent’ (Herschel 1847). • first recorded in 1667 mag=4 (Edmond Halley) • 1843 mag=-0.8 • 1844 Giant Eruption • 1890 lesser burst mag = 3 • 1940 mag=8 • 1998-9 mag=5 historical records Tuesday, January 6, 15
  43. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco Sir John Herschel noticed it in the southern sky while conducting a survey from Cape Town, South Africa and described its ‘sudden flashes and relapses’... this star is ... ‘fitfully variable to an astonishing extent’ (Herschel 1847). • first recorded in 1667 mag=4 (Edmond Halley) • 1843 mag=-0.8 • 1844 Giant Eruption • 1890 lesser burst mag = 3 • 1940 mag=8 • 1998-9 mag=5 historical records Tuesday, January 6, 15
  44. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco Sir John Herschel noticed it in the southern sky while conducting a survey from Cape Town, South Africa and described its ‘sudden flashes and relapses’... this star is ... ‘fitfully variable to an astonishing extent’ (Herschel 1847). • first recorded in 1667 mag=4 (Edmond Halley) • 1843 mag=-0.8 • 1844 Giant Eruption • 1890 lesser burst mag = 3 • 1940 mag=8 • 1998-9 mag=5 historical records Tuesday, January 6, 15
  45. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco Sir John Herschel noticed it in the southern sky while conducting a survey from Cape Town, South Africa and described its ‘sudden flashes and relapses’... this star is ... ‘fitfully variable to an astonishing extent’ (Herschel 1847). • first recorded in 1667 mag=4 (Edmond Halley) • 1843 mag=-0.8 • 1844 Giant Eruption • 1890 lesser burst mag = 3 • 1940 mag=8 • 1998-9 mag=5 historical records Humphrey+08 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  46. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco The Homunculus nebula surrounding η Car is a prototypical bipolar nebula. N. Smith, NASA, HST The hourglass shape is due to two huge lobes of gas expanding outward, a product of the mid-1800s Great Eruption. the Homunculus nebula Tuesday, January 6, 15
  47. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco N. Smith, NASA, HST 20,000 AU the Homunculus nebula (Smith+ 2002, 2006, 2011) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  48. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco N. Smith, NASA, HST 20,000 AU the Homunculus nebula • proper motion studies (Smith+ 2002, 2006, 2011) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  49. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco N. Smith, NASA, HST 20,000 AU the Homunculus nebula • proper motion studies • IR studies: ~ 0.125 M⊙ of dust -> >12.5 M⊙ of ejecta in the lobes (Smith+ 2002, 2006, 2011) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  50. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco N. Smith, NASA, HST 20,000 AU the Homunculus nebula • proper motion studies • IR studies: ~ 0.125 M⊙ of dust -> >12.5 M⊙ of ejecta in the lobes • spectroscopy -> shape, structure & mass distribution (Smith+ 2002, 2006, 2011) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  51. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco N. Smith, NASA, HST 20,000 AU the Homunculus nebula • proper motion studies • IR studies: ~ 0.125 M⊙ of dust -> >12.5 M⊙ of ejecta in the lobes • spectroscopy -> shape, structure & mass distribution mass+speed+distribution => EK kinetic energy: 1049 - 1050 ergs (Smith+ 2002, 2006, 2011) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  52. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco N. Smith, NASA, HST 20,000 AU the Homunculus nebula • proper motion studies • IR studies: ~ 0.125 M⊙ of dust -> >12.5 M⊙ of ejecta in the lobes • spectroscopy -> shape, structure & mass distribution mass+speed+distribution => EK kinetic energy: 1049 - 1050 ergs total radiated energy: ERad : = 10 49.3 ergs (Smith+ 2002, 2006, 2011) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  53. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco N. Smith, NASA, HST 20,000 AU the Homunculus nebula dM/dt > M⊙ yr-1 EK/ERad > 1 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  54. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco N. Smith, NASA, HST 20,000 AU the Homunculus nebula dM/dt > M⊙ yr-1 Owocki et al. 2004; van Marle et al. 2008, 2009; Smith 2012 EK/ERad > 1 can only be achieved with a continuum driven wind that suffers from photon tiring where > 2/3 available radiation energy is used to accelerate mass => Lmin = dM/dt (V2 inf-V2 esc) => Lrad << Ltot Tuesday, January 6, 15
  55. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco N. Smith, NASA, HST 20,000 AU the Homunculus nebula dM/dt > M⊙ yr-1 thin shell lobes ? some fast ~5000km/s material around the nebula ? EK/ERad > 1 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  56. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Light Echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  57. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco 3D view Rest+ 2012 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  58. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work light from an astrophysical transient bounces off dust and reaches earth at a delay from when the original event was observable federica b. bianco what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  59. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work light from an astrophysical transient bounces off dust and reaches earth at a delay from when the original event was observable federica b. bianco what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  60. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work LEs give us the chance to take spectra of events occurred before spectra were invented and classify ancient astronomical transients Tycho SN (1572) Cas A (1680) Krause+ 2008 Rest+ 2011 why study light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  61. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work 22 year light echoes 20 year light echoes Light echoes of rapid bursts: SuperNovae Xu, Crotts, & Kunkel (1995) SN 1987A, difference image, 2003-2001 what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  62. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work what are light echoes? light echoes are detectable in “differenced” images. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  63. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work - what are light echoes? light echoes are detectable in “differenced” images. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  64. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work - what are light echoes? light echoes are detectable in “differenced” images. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  65. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work - = what are light echoes? light echoes are detectable in “differenced” images. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  66. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work - = what are light echoes? light echoes are detectable in “differenced” images. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  67. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work - = what are light echoes? light echoes are detectable in “differenced” images. old echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  68. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work - = what are light echoes? light echoes are detectable in “differenced” images. old echoes new echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  69. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Spitzer Image: dust Difference Image black: light echo in 2003 white: light echo in 2011 the size of the dust sheet illuminated tells the duration of the event Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  70. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Spitzer Image: dust Difference Image black: light echo in 2003 white: light echo in 2011 the size of the dust sheet illuminated tells the duration of the event Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  71. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Spitzer Image: dust Difference Image black: light echo in 2003 white: light echo in 2011 the size of the dust sheet illuminated tells the duration of the event Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  72. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Spitzer Image: dust Difference Image black: light echo in 2003 white: light echo in 2011 the size of the dust sheet illuminated tells the duration of the event Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  73. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Spitzer Image: dust Difference Image black: light echo in 2003 white: light echo in 2011 the size of the dust sheet illuminated tells the duration of the event Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  74. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Spitzer Image: dust Difference Image black: light echo in 2003 white: light echo in 2011 8’ the size of the dust sheet illuminated tells the duration of the event Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  75. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Spitzer Image: dust Difference Image black: light echo in 2003 white: light echo in 2011 8’ the size of the dust sheet illuminated tells the duration of the event Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  76. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Spitzer Image: dust Difference Image black: light echo in 2003 white: light echo in 2011 8’ the size of the dust sheet illuminated tells the duration of the event Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  77. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Spitzer Image: dust Difference Image black: light echo in 2003 white: light echo in 2011 8’ the size of the dust sheet illuminated tells the duration of the event Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  78. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Spitzer Image: dust Difference Image black: light echo in 2003 white: light echo in 2011 8’ the size of the dust sheet illuminated tells the duration of the event Light echoes of Great Eruption (1837-1857) Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  79. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco Full extent of light echoes only visible with separation of 7 years The event duration is ~ 7 years Duration + directional analysis we conclude Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Rest+ 2012 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  80. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco Full extent of light echoes only visible with separation of 7 years The event duration is ~ 7 years Duration + directional analysis we conclude Light echoes of Great Eruption (1837-1857) Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Rest+ 2012 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  81. We keep you in the dark federica b. bianco Tuesday,

    January 6, 15
  82. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work 1 historical epochs 3 Blanco epochs 4 FTS epochs federica b. bianco Reconstruction of the Great Eruption Light Curve Rest+2011 Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  83. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  84. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  85. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco η Car light echoes roughly perpendicular to equator of Homunculus nebula Ƞ-Carinae’s light echoes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  86. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work A new view of Ƞ-Carinae’s great eruption Tuesday, January 6, 15
  87. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Spectral analysis of the Great Eruption IMACS + DuPont spectra Tuesday, January 6, 15
  88. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work • similar late G-type, not F or earlier, too cool for S-Dor or Ƞ-Car like-LBV • temperature ~5000K: inconsistent with opaque wind model correlation with UVES star libraries Tuesday, January 6, 15
  89. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work • similar late G-type, not F or earlier, too cool for S-Dor or Ƞ-Car like-LBV • temperature ~5000K: inconsistent with opaque wind model correlation with UVES star libraries Tuesday, January 6, 15
  90. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work • similar late G-type, not F or earlier, too cool for S-Dor or Ƞ-Car like-LBV • temperature ~5000K: inconsistent with opaque wind model correlation with UVES star libraries hydrodynamic explosion mechanism that the star survives! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  91. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work η Car giant eruption is too cold to be produced by the same mechanisms that power S Doradus or ... η Car-like eruptions turns out η Car giant eruption isn’t ... η Car-like at all! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  92. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work η Car giant eruption is too cold to be produced by the same mechanisms that power S Doradus or ... η Car-like eruptions turns out η Car giant eruption isn’t ... η Car-like at all! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  93. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae Tuesday, January 6, 15
  94. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco reconstructing the lightcurve Bianco+ in prep Tuesday, January 6, 15
  95. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work reconstructing the lightcurve Tuesday, January 6, 15
  96. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work but which peak?? reconstructing the lightcurve Tuesday, January 6, 15
  97. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work spectral time series Prieto+ 2014 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  98. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work • at early times: absorption spectrum • evolves to P-Cygni profile in 8 months • late: completely dominated by emission lines (Ca II IR triplet, Halpha, [Ca II] doublet) the spectra evolve to even colder temperatures! spectral time series spectral time series Prieto+ 2014 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  99. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work • at early times: absorption spectrum • evolves to P-Cygni profile in 8 months • late: completely dominated by emission lines (Ca II IR triplet, Halpha, [Ca II] doublet) • formation of CN the spectra evolve to even colder temperatures! spectral time series Prieto+ 2014 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  100. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work evolution to colder T is trouble for the wind driven mass loss. alternative models foer giant eruptions: blast wave? interaction with the companion? CSM interaction? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  101. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Smith 2012 CSM Interaction Like a Scaled-Down Type IIn Supernova Tuesday, January 6, 15
  102. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work N. Smith, NASA, HST CSM-interaction solves the Homunculus complex structure puzzle: RT instability forms the structure observed in the Homunculus CSM-interaction solves the EK/ERad > 1 problem. the efficiency of converting EK -> ERad depends on DV & DM MCSM ≥ Mej VCSM << Vej, efficiency ~ 100% MCSM ~ Mej VCSM < Vej, efficiency ~ 1-50% Tuesday, January 6, 15
  103. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work no bolometric correction T>7000 K dust Smith 2012 CSM vs CDSE model observables CDSE (Davison+87) • apparent mag drops as the star brightens: confirm color and temp of great eruption • speed wind= speed Homunculus => PCyg absorption speed in LE spectra should match the speed of the nebula as a function of latitude speed wind= speed Homunculus CSM (Smith2012) • pre-eruption spectra slow speed (~200km/s) • eruption spectra similar to SN IIn, radiative shock, fast ejecta Tuesday, January 6, 15
  104. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae Tuesday, January 6, 15
  105. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work 3D spectroscopy 4D spectroscopy (spectral time series) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  106. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Red: equator. Blueshift ~200 km/s Blue: lobe. Blueshift ~500-600 km/s 3D spectroscopy Tuesday, January 6, 15
  107. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Red: equator. Blueshift ~200 km/s Blue: lobe. Blueshift ~500-600 km/s 3D spectroscopy Tuesday, January 6, 15
  108. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Red: equator. Blueshift ~200 km/s Blue: lobe. Blueshift ~500-600 km/s 3D spectroscopy Tuesday, January 6, 15
  109. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Red: equator. Blueshift ~200 km/s Blue: lobe. Blueshift ~500-600 km/s 3D spectroscopy Tuesday, January 6, 15
  110. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work no bolometric correction T>7000 K dust Smith 2012 CSM vs CDSE model observables CDSE (Davison+87) • apparent mag drops as the star brightens: confirm color and temp of great eruption • speed wind= speed Homunculus => PCyg absorption speed in LE spectra should match the speed of the nebula as a function of latitude speed wind= speed Homunculus CSM (Smith2012) • pre-eruption spectra slow speed (~200km/s) • eruption spectra similar to SN IIn, radiative shock, fast ejecta Tuesday, January 6, 15
  111. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco thank you! Armin

    Rest, STScI J. L. Prieto, Carnegie Observatories N. Smith, Steward Observatory N. R. Walborn, STScI H. E. Bond, STScI R. Chornock, Harvard-Smithsonian CfA R. J. Foley, Harvard-Smithsonian CfA W. Fong, Harvard-Smithsonian CfA D. L. Welch, McMaster University B. Sinnott, McMaster University M. E. Huber, Johns Hopkins University R. C. Smith, CTIO I. Toledo, ALMA D. Minniti, Pontifica Uni. Catolica K. Mandel, Imperial College E. Hsiao, LCO S. Owocki University of Delaware J.D.Hiller University of Pittsburg Tuesday, January 6, 15
  112. Parameter Distance Total Luminosity (measured from thermal infrared) Zero Age

    Main Sequence Mass from IR Luminosity Current Mass Expected Main Sequence Lifetime Current Mass Loss Rate Surface Temperature Radius Dynamical Timescale Thermal Timescale Ejected Composition Evolutionary State Accepted Value 2.2 to 2.3 Kpc ~ 5x106 Lsun MBol~ -12mag ~ 1049 ergs >150 Msun ~120 Msun ~ 3 million years 10-3 Msun/year 15000 to 30000 K 0.4 to 0.9 AU ~2 weeks 5-500 years depending on mass fraction considered He & N rich near or past end of core H burning Reference Allen & Hillier 1993, Davidson & Humphreys 1997,Meaburn 1999, Davidson et al 2001 Westphal and Neugebauer 1969, Cox et al 1995 Cox et al 1995, Davidson et al 1995, Hillier et al 2001 Hillier et al 2001 Davidson et al 1982, 1986, Dufour 1989, Dufour et al 1999 http://etacar.umn.edu/ Tuesday, January 6, 15
  113. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work luminosity: • Mbol ~ -8 to -11 • near Eddington limit Eddington luminosity: maximum luminosity where radiation force balances gravitational force gravity radiation mp σT is the opacity of the stellar material LEdd ~ LEdd (M,T) star in hydrostatic equilibrium Luminous Blue Variables Tuesday, January 6, 15
  114. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work luminosity: • Mbol ~ -8 to -11 • near Eddington limit Eddington luminosity: maximum luminosity where radiation force balances gravitational force Lobel+ 2008 mp σT is the opacity of the stellar material LEdd ~ LEdd (M,T) Luminous Blue Variables Tuesday, January 6, 15
  115. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Tuesday, January 6, 15
  116. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work sneak peak: 1837 burst… Difference Image black: light echo in 2010 white: light echo in 2011 Bianco+ in preparation was the 1837 eruption a standard LBV burst? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  117. Tuesday, January 6, 15

  118. ...commercial interruption... Tuesday, January 6, 15

  119. We keep you in the dark Las Cumbres Observatory Global

    Telescope network federica b. bianco Tuesday, January 6, 15
  120. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Smith 2012 CSM vs CDSE model observables Tuesday, January 6, 15
  121. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work no bolometric correction Smith 2012 CSM vs CDSE model observables Tuesday, January 6, 15
  122. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work no bolometric correction T>7000 K Smith 2012 CSM vs CDSE model observables Tuesday, January 6, 15
  123. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work no bolometric correction T>7000 K dust Smith 2012 CSM vs CDSE model observables Tuesday, January 6, 15
  124. Building a network of 40 robotic telescopes, 2 m, 1

    m, and 40 cm aperture, in two rings in both hemispheres. This will ultimate deliver continuous monitoring of the entire night sky We keep you in the dark federica b. bianco Tuesday, January 6, 15
  125. Building a network of 40 robotic telescopes, 2 m, 1

    m, and 40 cm aperture, in two rings in both hemispheres. This will ultimate deliver continuous monitoring of the entire night sky ...the sun never rises on the LCOGT astronomical empire We keep you in the dark federica b. bianco Tuesday, January 6, 15
  126. LCOGT operates the 2m Faulkes telescopes north and south (FTN

    and FTS) 12 x 1m telescopes 20 x 40cm telescopes We keep you in the dark federica b. bianco 1 x 80cm telescopes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  127. We keep you in the dark federica b. bianco Tuesday,

    January 6, 15
  128. We keep you in the dark federica b. bianco LCOGT

    is a robotic follow up facility entering its operational phase RIGHT NOW! got transients? we’ve got telescopes! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  129. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco Light echo geometry: the arrival time ellipsoid what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  130. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco dust sheet dust sheet Light echo geometry: the arrival time ellipsoid what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  131. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco dust sheet dust sheet Light echo geometry: the arrival time ellipsoid what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  132. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco dust sheet dust sheet d=10 light years delay: 20 years Light echo geometry: the arrival time ellipsoid what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  133. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco 20 year light echoes Light echo geometry: the arrival time ellipsoid what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  134. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco 20 year light echoes Light echo geometry: the arrival time ellipsoid what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  135. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco 20 year light echoes Light echo geometry: the arrival time ellipsoid what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  136. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco 40 year light echoes 20 year light echoes Light echo geometry: the arrival time ellipsoid what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  137. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco 40 year light echoes 20 year light echoes Light echo geometry: the arrival time ellipsoid what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  138. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco 60 year light echoes 40 year light echoes 20 year light echoes Light echo geometry: the arrival time ellipsoid what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  139. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco 80 year light echoes 60 year light echoes 40 year light echoes 20 year light echoes Light echo geometry: the arrival time ellipsoid what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  140. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work federica b. bianco 80 year light echoes 60 year light echoes 40 year light echoes 20 year light echoes . . . . Light echo geometry: the arrival time ellipsoid what are light echoes? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  141. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Argo Navis (the ship Argo) was one of Ptolemy's 48 constellations - since split into the modern constellations Vela (the sails), Puppis (the stern) and Carina (the keel). Around the 1840's, Eta Carinae (red arrow) might have been classified as a star of the Robur Carolinum constellation - but is now considered part of the Carina constellation. Canopus (or Alpha Carinae) is the large, bright star to the right of the drawing of the ship's rudder. Credit: Johannes Hevelius' star catalogue Firmamentum, circa 1690 - as sourced from Hamacher and Frew. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  142. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work Argo Navis (the ship Argo) was one of Ptolemy's 48 constellations - since split into the modern constellations Vela (the sails), Puppis (the stern) and Carina (the keel). Around the 1840's, Eta Carinae (red arrow) might have been classified as a star of the Robur Carolinum constellation - but is now considered part of the Carina constellation. Canopus (or Alpha Carinae) is the large, bright star to the right of the drawing of the ship's rudder. Credit: Johannes Hevelius' star catalogue Firmamentum, circa 1690 - as sourced from Hamacher and Frew. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  143. Tuesday, January 6, 15

  144. ...commercial interruption... Tuesday, January 6, 15

  145. We keep you in the dark Las Cumbres Observatory Global

    Telescope network federica b. bianco Tuesday, January 6, 15
  146. Building a network of 40 robotic telescopes, 2 m, 1

    m, and 40 cm aperture, in two rings in both hemispheres. This will ultimate deliver continuous monitoring of the entire night sky We keep you in the dark federica b. bianco Tuesday, January 6, 15
  147. Building a network of 40 robotic telescopes, 2 m, 1

    m, and 40 cm aperture, in two rings in both hemispheres. This will ultimate deliver continuous monitoring of the entire night sky ...the sun never rises on the LCOGT astronomical empire We keep you in the dark federica b. bianco Tuesday, January 6, 15
  148. LCOGT operates the 2m Faulkes telescopes north and south (FTN

    and FTS) 12 x 1m telescopes 20 x 40cm telescopes We keep you in the dark federica b. bianco 1 x 80cm telescopes Tuesday, January 6, 15
  149. We keep you in the dark federica b. bianco LCOGT

    is a robotic follow up facility entering its operational phase RIGHT NOW! got transients? we’ve got telescopes! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  150. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work S Dor-like η Car-like 3. 1.increase in radiative output (x5) (unexplained) 2.super-Eddington wind 3.optically thick pseudo-photosphere forms at larger radius than hydrostatic stellar surface 4.mass loss in quasi-steady state (Owocki+04), decrease in effective temp 5.pseudo-photosphere moves out (no expansion of star) HARD LIMIT T>=7000K, F-type spectrum Smith+ 2004 Davidson 1997 federica b. bianco Vick 1997 Vick 2009 1.massive star attempts to evolve redward (unexplained) 2.encounters the Humphreys-Davidson Limit beyond which no stable stars are observed HARD LIMIT T>=7000-9000K A-F-type Luminous Blue Variables evolution of M>Msun star after MS: 1) constant L expansion L/M = (L/M)Edd L T Tuesday, January 6, 15
  151. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work S Dor-like η Car-like 3. Smith+ 2004 Davidson 1997 federica b. bianco Vick 1997 Vick 2009 Luminous Blue Variables evolution of M>Msun star after MS: 2) mass loss L/M1 = (L/M)Edd new L T 1.increase in radiative output (x5) (unexplained) 2.super-Eddington wind 3.optically thick pseudo-photosphere forms at larger radius than hydrostatic stellar surface 4.mass loss in quasi-steady state (Owocki+04), decrease in effective temp 5.pseudo-photosphere moves out (no expansion of star) HARD LIMIT T>=7000K, F-type spectrum 1.massive star attempts to evolve redward (unexplained) 2.encounters the Humphreys-Davidson Limit beyond which no stable stars are observed HARD LIMIT T>=7000-9000K A-F-type Tuesday, January 6, 15
  152. light echoes of Ƞ-Carinae federica b. bianco introduction Great Eruption

    Light Echoes Great Eruption revisited future work S Dor-like η Car-like 3. Smith+ 2004 Davidson 1997 federica b. bianco Vick 1997 Vick 2009 “We emphasize however that neither η-Car type nor S-Dor type variations are understood.” Luminous Blue Variables evolution of M>Msun star after MS: 2) mass loss L/M1 = (L/M)Edd new L T 1.increase in radiative output (x5) (unexplained) 2.super-Eddington wind 3.optically thick pseudo-photosphere forms at larger radius than hydrostatic stellar surface 4.mass loss in quasi-steady state (Owocki+04), decrease in effective temp 5.pseudo-photosphere moves out (no expansion of star) HARD LIMIT T>=7000K, F-type spectrum 1.massive star attempts to evolve redward (unexplained) 2.encounters the Humphreys-Davidson Limit beyond which no stable stars are observed HARD LIMIT T>=7000-9000K A-F-type Tuesday, January 6, 15