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Modern application through vision organizations and ubiquitous language

Kim Kao
April 14, 2021

Modern application through vision organizations and ubiquitous language

This talk reference a lot content from AWS Enterprise strategics team - Phil Lebrun's session in AWS re:Invent 2020. Kim combined his experience in software architecture and organization management opinions, mentioned the best way to achieve business goal is to well integrate vision, organizations and using ubiquitous language in problem domain.

Kim Kao

April 14, 2021
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  1. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Cornerstone of Modern
    Application Development
    Kim Kao
    Senior Solutions Architect
    AWS

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  2. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    “In today’s era of volatility, there is no other
    way but to reinvent. The only sustainable
    advantage you can have over others is agility.
    That’s it. Nothing else is sustainable; everything
    else you create, somebody else will replicate”
    Jeff P. Bezos
    Founder and CEO, Amazon.com, Inc.

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  3. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Digital transformation is not a technology;
    it is a way of thinking and operating
    -- Drive business grows with modern application

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  4. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    70%
    of digital
    transformation
    efforts do not reach
    their goal
    !

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  5. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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  6. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    “Those who do not learn history are
    doomed to repeat it”
    George Santayana
    Philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist

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  7. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    “Culture eats strategy for breakfast
    (and lunch and dinner)”
    Attributed to Peter Drucker
    Author and management consultant

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  8. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    CXOs need a different execution model
    to survive customer expectations

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  9. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    CXOs need a different
    execution model to survive
    customer expectations
    Mindset Skillset
    Toolset

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  10. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Vision
    Clarity of vision
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

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  11. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    To be Earth’s most customer-centric company
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

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  12. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Change Banking for Good
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

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  13. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Declare principles
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

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  14. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    • Customer obsession
    • Ownership
    • Invent and simplify
    • Are right, a lot
    • Hire and develop the
    best
    • Insist on the highest
    standards
    • Think big
    • Bias for action
    • Frugality
    Culture
    • Learn and be curious
    • Earn trust of others
    • Dive deep
    • Have backbone;
    disagree and commit
    • Deliver results
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

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  15. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    1. Values are what we value
    2. High performance
    3. Freedom and responsibility
    4. Context, not control
    5. Highly aligned, loosely coupled
    6. Pay top of market
    7. Promotions and development
    Culture

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  16. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Increase EBITDA
    Improve ROIIC
    by 3%
    ?
    ?
    ?
    ?
    ?
    20,000 restaurants with
    mobile by year end
    Close 8 data
    centers by 2020
    Outcome measures
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

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  17. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Start
    End
    Requirements
    The false comfort of linear planning . . .
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

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  18. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Outcome
    Start
    . . . or agilely experimenting and adapting
    against an outcome?
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations
    Ubiquitous Language lead to the same understanding

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  19. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    CEO
    Marketing Technology Finance
    Programmer
    Autonomy and speed of decision making
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations
    Form up Ubiquitous Language through engagement in bounded context

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  20. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    “ . . . the bureaucracies we encounter every
    day are, in fact, frustrating [and] soul-
    destroying. That’s because they aren’t lean,
    learning, and enabling, the three
    characteristics of good, not evil,
    bureaucracy.”
    Mark Schwartz
    AWS Enterprise Strategist and Author
    Former CIO of US Citizenship and Immigration Services

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  21. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    CEO
    Marketing Technology Finance
    Programmer
    Autonomy and speed of decision making
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

    View full-size slide

  22. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    CEO
    Autonomy and speed of decision making
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

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  23. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Bureaucracy Agility
    Implement guardrails
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

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  24. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Bureaucracy Agility
    Organizational guardrails
    Your principles
    One- / two-way-door decisions
    Innovation mechanisms
    Planning process
    Key Performance Indicators / R&R
    Financial controls
    Single-threaded leader
    Implement guardrails
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

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  25. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Bureaucracy Agility
    Organizational guardrails
    Your principles
    One- /two-way-door decisions
    Innovation mechanisms
    Planning process
    Key Performance Indicators / R&R
    Financial controls
    Single-threaded leader
    Technical guardrails
    APIs
    Services
    Balanced preventative and detective controls
    Run less software
    Implement guardrails
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

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  26. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    CXOs need a different
    execution model to survive
    customer expectations
    Mindset Skillset
    Toolset
    Resistance is not futile

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  27. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Acceptance
    Resignation
    Satisfaction -
    Energy -
    Satisfaction +
    Bargaining
    Anger
    Denial
    Shock Event
    Energy +
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%BCbler-Ross_model
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

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  28. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    “To motivate employees . . . [they need]
    Autonomy, Mastery, and Purpose”
    Daniel Pink
    Author, “Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us”

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  29. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Servant leadership Digital age IQ
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

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  30. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    HiPPO Agile leader
    Directs Coaches
    Builds silos Builds communities
    Hires for today’s skills Hires for tomorrow’s needs and cultural fit
    Known for intellectual prowess Exhibits emotional intelligence
    Talks Listens
    Skillset Toolset
    Mindset
    CXOs need a different
    execution model
    to survive customer
    expectations

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  31. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    CEO? CIO? An external event?
    Who is leading your transformation?

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  32. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Pace of Digitalization

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  33. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    1
    Break up
    the work
    Monolith to
    microservices
    Invest in your
    workforce
    And put them closer
    to your customers
    2
    Automate your
    bureaucracy
    To start
    finishing
    3
    Build it in,
    don’t bolt it on
    Assume failure
    4

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  34. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Anti-patterns for solution delivery
    From To
    Premature optimization Shrink and refactor over time
    Work that starts and ends Continuously improving and refactoring
    Changes resulting in complexity Using change to intentionally simplify
    Contention and wait states Independent and autonomous
    Long delivery cycles Constant change and learning

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  35. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Monolith vs. microservice
    Base complexity
    Productivity
    Monolith
    Microservice
    https://martinfowler.com/bliki/MicroservicePremium.html
    The sweet spot

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  36. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Learn along the way The sweet spot
    Identify common data
    and functional areas
    and their relationships
    Boundaries
    Monitor usage and
    identify inequalities
    Usage Change
    Monitor rate of
    change over time
    and the elapsed time
    between changes

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  37. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Transformation approach

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  38. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Monolith vs. microservice
    The sweet spot
    Base complexity
    Productivity
    Monolith
    Microservice
    https://martinfowler.com/bliki/MicroservicePremium.html
    The pivot point
    The decline
    of productivity

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  39. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Patterns for decomposition
    Domain-driven design
    Event decoupling Strangler pattern

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  40. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Events as decouplers
    Prepare order
    Prepare fries
    Cook fries
    3
    Package
    fries
    7
    Package
    order
    10
    Deliver
    order
    11
    Prepare burger
    Cook burger
    Package
    burger
    9
    Prepare drink
    +Top
    +Straw
    5
    Fill drink
    4
    Take
    order
    1
    Cook side 2
    6
    Cook side 1
    2
    +Cheese
    8
    TIME

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  41. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Events as decouplers
    Order station
    Order
    delivered
    Subscriber | Order station
    Package
    order
    Deliver
    order
    Subscriber | Grill station
    Cheeseburger
    ordered
    Subscriber | Fries station
    Large fry
    ordered
    Subscriber | Drink station
    Lemonade
    ordered
    Event
    Burger ready
    Event
    Fries ready
    Event
    Drink ready
    Event
    Order
    placed
    Joe orders burger,
    fries and drink

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  42. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Moving monolithic applications
    to microservices by gradually
    creating events and APIs for
    various components of the
    legacy application
    The strangler pattern
    https://martinfowler.com/bliki/StranglerFigApplication.html

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  43. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Bounded contexts are
    used to simplify
    complex models and
    teams; multiple
    bounded contexts
    results in smaller,
    easier-to-manage
    components
    Domain-driven design
    Opportunity
    Pipeline
    Salesperson
    Product
    Customer
    Territory
    Sales context
    Ticket
    Defect
    Product
    version
    Product
    Customer
    Support context

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  44. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Many possibilities to configure your car
    1
    2
    3
    4
    1
    2
    3
    4
    1
    2
    3
    4
    1
    2
    3
    4
    1
    2
    3
    4
    1
    2
    3
    4
    1
    2
    3
    4

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  45. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Base complexity
    Productivity
    Monolith
    Microservice
    1
    2
    3
    4
    https://martinfowler.com/bliki/MicroservicePremium.html
    The software was divided into
    small self-contained and
    independent ”microservices”
    4
    1
    Initial development was fast
    and focused on the MVP
    2
    Over time high dependencies
    developed and the overall
    complexity increased
    3
    Development speed became
    slower and slower; minor
    changes led to large refactorings
    Complexity drives change

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  46. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    • Understand the domain
    • Cut microservices
    Identify bounded context
    1
    • Business object model
    for each microservice
    • Learned from the details
    • Verified / reshaped
    decision from step 1
    Identify business objects
    2
    • Each business object leads to
    one or more REST resources
    • Business object attributes
    became part of the
    JSON payload
    • Followed REST best practices
    Define API-first
    3

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  47. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Amazon Elastic
    Container Service
    AWS Batch
    Amazon
    CloudWatch
    AWS Lambda
    Triggers
    Triggers tasks
    to job queue
    Starts docker container
    to process batch task
    Retrieves data
    VPC
    Application
    Load Balancer
    Subnet A/B
    Amazon EC2
    Subnet A/B
    AWS Elastic container
    Amazon RDS
    Subnet A/B

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  48. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Vision
    Take away

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  49. © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Thank you!
    © 2021, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Senior Solutions Architect
    linkedin.com/in/kimkao
    twitter.com/YiKaiKao
    facebook.com/kimkao.solid
    Kim Kao

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