Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

UBC STAT545 Split Apply Combine Intro

UBC STAT545 Split Apply Combine Intro

Lecture slides from UBC STAT545 2015.
Not a stand-alone document.
Introduction to split-apply-combine aka data aggregation.
http://stat545-ubc.github.io/index.html

0a4f62e90c976eeb44d33add75cca5af?s=128

Jennifer (Jenny) Bryan

October 13, 2015
Tweet

Transcript

  1. STAT 545A Split-Apply-Combine aka Data Aggregation

  2. Dr. Jennifer (Jenny) Bryan Department of Statistics and Michael Smith

    Laboratories University of British Columbia jenny@stat.ubc.ca https://github.com/jennybc http://www.stat.ubc.ca/~jenny/ @JennyBryan ← personal, professional Twitter https://github.com/STAT545-UBC http://stat545-ubc.github.io @STAT545 ← Twitter as lead instructor of this course
  3. These slides were an introduction to a long segment with

    hands-on coding. They aren’t meant to stand alone.
  4. What is data aggregation? Take some data Split it up

    into pieces Apply a computation to each piece Combine the results back together again
  5. What is data aggregation? Take some data Split it up

    into pieces Apply a computation to each piece Combine the results back together again
  6. The split-apply-combine strategy for data analysis. Hadley Wickham. Journal of

    Statistical Software, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 1–29, 2011. http://www.jstatsoft.org/v40/i01/paper JSS Journal of Statistical Software April 2011, Volume 40, Issue 1. http://www.jstatsoft.org/ The Split-Apply-Combine Strategy for Data Analysis Hadley Wickham Rice University Abstract Many data analysis problems involve the application of a split-apply-combine strategy, where you break up a big problem into manageable pieces, operate on each piece inde- pendently and then put all the pieces back together. This insight gives rise to a new R package that allows you to smoothly apply this strategy, without having to worry about the type of structure in which your data is stored. The paper includes two case studies showing how these insights make it easier to work with batting records for veteran baseball players and a large 3d array of spatio-temporal ozone measurements. Keywords: R , apply, split, data analysis.
  7. It turns out that these things matter: • how you

    specify the pieces to split the data into • how nicely the results are re-combined
  8. Base R has long had the capability to do data

    aggregation the “apply” functions but these functions are not well-harmonized re: how to specify the pieces nor do they return the results in a highly usable or predictable form
  9. Consequence of these shortcomings: many long-time useRs knew they should

    be using the “apply” functions but they did not actually do it because it’s kind of painful and annoying
  10. I will give you the Big Picture which includes these

    base R approaches But I highly recommend the dplyr and plyr packages for most of your data aggregation work • Better interface, better return values dplyr doesn’t completely replace plyr because you don’t always have data.frame … but keep your eye on purrr http://cran.rstudio.com/web/packages/plyr/ http://cran.rstudio.com/web/packages/dplyr/ http://cran.rstudio.com/web/packages/purrr/
  11. ♣ ♣ ♥ ♦ ♦ ♦ How do you want

    to split your data into pieces? rows or columns of a matrix or data.frame groups of observations induced by levels of ≥1 factor(s) elements of a list This determines how you will attack data aggregation.
  12. chunks are ... relevant functions rows, columns, etc. of matrix

    or array apply() components of a list (remember data.frames are lists and variables are components!) sapply(),lapply(), vapply() groups of observations induced by levels of ≥ 1 factor(s) aggregate() tapply() by() split() + [sl]apply() How to do <sthg> for various pieces of a dataset ... using only base R functions
  13. http://plyr.had.co.nz plyr is a more general predecessor of dplyr older,

    slower, but still useful
  14. The .progress argument controls display of a progress bar, and

    is described at the end of Section 4. Note that all arguments start with “.”. This prevents name clashes with the arguments of the processing function, and helps to visually delineate arguments that control the repetition XXXXXXXXXXX Input Output Array Data frame List Discarded Array aaply adply alply a_ply Data frame daply ddply dlply d_ply List laply ldply llply l_ply Table 2: The 12 key functions of plyr . Arrays include matrices and vectors as special cases. 3. Usage Table 2 lists the basic set of plyr functions. Each function is named according to th input it accepts and the type of output it produces: a = array, d = data frame, l = _ means the output is discarded. The input type determines how the big data st broken apart into small pieces, described in Section 3.1; and the output type determ the pieces are joined back together again, described in Section 3.2. The e↵ects of the input and outputs types are orthogonal, so instead of having to 12 functions individually, it is su cient to learn the three types of input and the f of output. For this reason, we use the notation d*ply for functions with common complete row of Table 2, and *dply for functions with common output, a column o The functions have either two or three main arguments, depending on the type of a*ply(.data, .margins, .fun, ..., .progress = "none") d*ply(.data, .variables, .fun, ..., .progress = "none") l*ply(.data, .fun, ..., .progress = "none") The first argument is the .data which will be split up, processed and recombined. T argument, .variables or .margins, describes how to split up the input into pieces. argument, .fun, is the processing function, and is applied to each piece in turn. A arguments are passed on to the processing function. If you omit .fun the individ will not be modified, but the entire data structure will be converted from one type to How to do <sthg> for various pieces of a dataset ... using plyr
  15. Note that all arguments start with “.”. This prevents name

    clashes with the arguments of the processing function, and helps to visually delineate arguments that control the repetition XXXXXXXXXXX Input Output Array Data frame List Discarded Array aaply adply alply a_ply Data frame daply ddply dlply d_ply List laply ldply llply l_ply Table 2: The 12 key functions of plyr . Arrays include matrices and vectors as special cases. a*ply(.data, .margins, .fun) something rectangular 1 㱺 pieces are rows 2 㱺 pieces are columns function to apply to each piece what you want back, i.e. a, d, l, nothing
  16. Note that all arguments start with “.”. This prevents name

    clashes with the arguments of the processing function, and helps to visually delineate arguments that control the repetition XXXXXXXXXXX Input Output Array Data frame List Discarded Array aaply adply alply a_ply Data frame daply ddply dlply d_ply List laply ldply llply l_ply Table 2: The 12 key functions of plyr . Arrays include matrices and vectors as special cases. d*ply(.data, .variables, .fun) data.frame split by levels of these factor(s) function to apply to each piece what you want back, i.e. a, d, l, nothing
  17. Note that all arguments start with “.”. This prevents name

    clashes with the arguments of the processing function, and helps to visually delineate arguments that control the repetition XXXXXXXXXXX Input Output Array Data frame List Discarded Array aaply adply alply a_ply Data frame daply ddply dlply d_ply List laply ldply llply l_ply Table 2: The 12 key functions of plyr . Arrays include matrices and vectors as special cases. l*ply(.data, .fun) list function to apply to each element what you want back, i.e. a, d, l, nothing
  18. The .progress argument controls display of a progress bar, and

    is described at the end of Section 4. Note that all arguments start with “.”. This prevents name clashes with the arguments of the processing function, and helps to visually delineate arguments that control the repetition XXXXXXXXXXX Input Output Array Data frame List Discarded Array aaply adply alply a_ply Data frame daply ddply dlply d_ply List laply ldply llply l_ply Table 2: The 12 key functions of plyr . Arrays include matrices and vectors as special cases. 3. Usage Table 2 lists the basic set of plyr functions. Each function is named according to th input it accepts and the type of output it produces: a = array, d = data frame, l = _ means the output is discarded. The input type determines how the big data st broken apart into small pieces, described in Section 3.1; and the output type determ the pieces are joined back together again, described in Section 3.2. The e↵ects of the input and outputs types are orthogonal, so instead of having to 12 functions individually, it is su cient to learn the three types of input and the f of output. For this reason, we use the notation d*ply for functions with common complete row of Table 2, and *dply for functions with common output, a column o The functions have either two or three main arguments, depending on the type of a*ply(.data, .margins, .fun, ..., .progress = "none") d*ply(.data, .variables, .fun, ..., .progress = "none") l*ply(.data, .fun, ..., .progress = "none") The first argument is the .data which will be split up, processed and recombined. T argument, .variables or .margins, describes how to split up the input into pieces. argument, .fun, is the processing function, and is applied to each piece in turn. A arguments are passed on to the processing function. If you omit .fun the individ will not be modified, but the entire data structure will be converted from one type to the most useful one!
  19. ddply(.data, .variables, .fun = NULL) apply this function to each

    piece ... Take this data.frame ... divide it into pieces, i.e. smaller data.frames, based on this factor and ... ... glue the results back together and return as a data.frame
  20. arguments are passed on to the processing function. If you

    omit .fun the individual pieces will not be modified, but the entire data structure will be converted from one type to another. The .progress argument controls display of a progress bar, and is described at the end of Section 4. Note that all arguments start with “.”. This prevents name clashes with the arguments of the processing function, and helps to visually delineate arguments that control the repetition XXXXXXXXXXX Input Output Array Data frame List Discarded Array aaply adply alply a_ply Data frame daply ddply dlply d_ply List laply ldply llply l_ply Table 2: The 12 key functions of plyr . Arrays include matrices and vectors as special cases. the most useful one! The existence of dplyr is, in part, due to just how damn useful ddply proved to be.
  21. ♣ ♣ ♥ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♣ ♥ ♦ df

    %>% group_by(suit) %>% summarize(…) ♣ ♣ ♥ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♣ ♣ ♥ ♦ ♦ ♦ df %>% group_by(suit) %>% <mutate or a window function, …> How to do <sthg> for various pieces of a dataset ... using dplyr ♣ ♣ ♥ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♣ ♥ ♦ df %>% group_by(suit) %>% do({…})
  22. ddply(gapminder, ~ country, le_lin_fit) gapminder %>% group_by(country) %>% do(le_lin_fit(.)) good?,

    2013, plyr solution better?, 2014, dplyr solution gapminder %>% group_by(country) %>% do(tidy(lm(lifeExp ~ year, data = .))) best? 2015, dplyr + broom solution
  23. gapminder %>% group_by(country) %>% do(le_lin_fit(.)) gapminder %>% group_by(country) %>% do(tidy(lm(lifeExp

    ~ year, data = .))) If you compute an unnamed data.frame inside do(), you get row- bound data.frame back, which I love. When possible, do that! broom can be a huge help. When not possible … consider purrr?