Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

Osaka University EE ES Talk series Part 1 of 3 26-JUN-2018

Osaka University EE ES Talk series Part 1 of 3 26-JUN-2018

A part of Electrical Engineering Lecture Series 2018 at School of Engineering Science, Osaka University / 大阪大学基礎工学部電気工学特別講義2018 1/3

Kenji Rikitake

June 26, 2018
Tweet

More Decks by Kenji Rikitake

Other Decks in Technology

Transcript

  1. oueees-201806 talks Part 1/3: Packet Switching Kenji Rikitake / oueees

    201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 1
  2. Kenji Rikitake 26-JUN-2018 School of Engineering Science Osaka University Toyonaka,

    Osaka, Japan @jj1bdx Copyright ©2018 Kenji Rikitake. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 2
  3. Lecture notes —https://github.com/jj1bdx/ oueees-201806-public/ —Check out the README.md file and

    the issues! Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 3
  4. Reporting —Keyword at the end of the talk —URL for

    submitting the report at the end of the talk Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 4
  5. Before starting the today's talk: the risk of being a

    professional and exposure to the public —You might be harassed, harmed, and attacked at any time —The attackers are anonymous while you are well-identified —Anyone can be a target —Stay low profile when you can —Stay vigilant Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 5
  6. Today's topic: communication fundamentals of the packet switching networks Kenji

    Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 6
  7. Communication: sharing a medium —Sharing a physical link between two

    or multiple parties —The physical layer —A medium could be: electric wires, optic fibers, radio airwaves, sound, flying birds like pigeons Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 7
  8. Connecting unconnected nodes There are many ways to connect the

    dots in this picture Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 8
  9. Simplest way: star/ centralized connection —Centralized connection was the easiest

    way to connect the nodes —Very much susceptible to network link failures —Links should stay connected during the connection Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 9
  10. The old Stockholm telephone tower in 1890 Kenji Rikitake /

    oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 10
  11. Fallen telephone lines by frost at Jönköping, Sweden, 1929 Kenji

    Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 11
  12. Tekniska museet in Stockholm (June 2018) Kenji Rikitake / oueees

    201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 12
  13. Multiplexing: sharing the same link by multiple nodes and communication

    devices Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 13
  14. Multiplexing enables decentralization —Some links carry shared traffics for many

    different nodes Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 14
  15. How to multiplex different types of information, and put them

    together for sharing a same medium? Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 15
  16. Signal characteristics used for multiplexing —Space division (multiple lines or

    multiple beam-formed antennas) —Time division —Frequency/wavelength division —Polarization division —Code division (multiple codes of very small cross-correlation) Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 16
  17. Packet switching What if you can split a stream into

    the packets and let them be delivered through different links for each packet? Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 17
  18. How to form a packet (1/2) —Split a stream into

    multiple pieces of data ABCDEFHIJ -> ABC DEF HIJ —Put a header on each piece ABC DEF HIJ -> P1-ABC P2-DEF P3-HIJ Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 18
  19. How to form a packet (2/2) —Add source and destination

    addresses to each packet P1-ABC P2-DEF P3-HIJ -> FromXtoY-P1-ABC FromXtoY-P2-DEF FromXtoY-P3-HIJ —Then send them on the network! Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 19
  20. Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 20

  21. Packet switching and the nodes —Each communication node must know

    how to assemble/disassemble information to/from the packets —Each communication node must know which link should be used to send a packet for the given destination —Packets can be lost; relaying nodes cannot detect a lost packet Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 21
  22. Packet (dis)assembly issues —The sequence of delivered packets may differ

    from that of the sender intents; holding the out-of-sequence packets are required —Retransmission is required to recover a lost packet for a reliable communication Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 22
  23. Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 23

  24. Packet switching enables —Changing the packet relay routes during the

    communication —Using multiple routes for a single communication link —Aggregating multiple communication links into a physical link —Connectionless and connection- oriented communication simultaneously Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 24
  25. Truly distributed networks are feasible by packet switching —No centralized

    nodes —Each link can be utilized by all nodes —A disconnection of the link will not be fatal so long as one link is connected to a node Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 25
  26. Disadvantages of packet switching —Each node must be able to

    form/ generate and decode/interpret a packet —Forming and decoding a packet takes time and the computing resources —Reliability and latency can be a trade-off —Relay nodes can be neutralized by denial-of-service attacks —Difficult to manage Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 26
  27. Topics on next talk —IP addresses —Routing and the information

    dissemination —Transport protocols (TCP, UDP, HTTP(/ 2), QUIC) Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 27
  28. Photo credits —All photos are modified and edited by Kenji

    Rikitake —Photos are from Unsplash.com unless otherwise noted —Title: Shane Rounce —Stockholm telephone tower: Tekniska museet, from Flickr, CC BY 2.0 —Jönköping telephone lines: Tekniska museet, from Flickr, CC BY 2.0 —Tekniska museet photo: Kenji Rikitake, CC BY 4.0 —Packet Switching animated GIF: By Oddbodz from Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0 —Internet packet switching: By Computer-blue.svg: OpenClipartderivative work: Pluke (Computer-blue.svg), via Wikimedia Commons, CC0 (Public Domain) Kenji Rikitake / oueees 201806 part 1 26-JUN-2018 28