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Mobile: More than just an app

Mobile: More than just an app

This talk by Jonny Schneider and Stewart Gleadow for ThoughtWorks Quarterly Technology Briefing discusses various topics related to mobile product strategy, design and delivery.

Jonny Schneider

August 21, 2012
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Transcript

  1. Topic for the next few slides
    ‘Name of referenced work’, Author/source/URL, date.

    View full-size slide

  2. Technology has changed
    We behave differently
    Creating better mobile products
    Building mobile apps
    ›❯
    ›❯
    ›❯
    ›❯
    Here’s what we’ll talk about:
    We’ll take a brief look at changing technology and how that’s affected the way people behave
    Discuss how we can create better mobile products
    Walk through some approaches to engineering better apps

    View full-size slide

  3. Technology has changed
    We behave differently
    Creating better mobile products
    Building mobile apps
    ›❯
    ›❯
    ›❯
    ›❯

    View full-size slide

  4. http://www.flickr.com/photos/avlxyz/308574017
    US market and mobile trends
    are similar to Australia
    We’re using local research
    wherever possible
    First, a note about stats.
    We’re both affluent nations, big love for gadgets and internet.
    Culturally and socioeconomically similar.

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  5. http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2008/02/10/opinion/10op.graphic.ready.html
    REFRIGERATOR
    100%
    80%
    90%
    60%
    40%
    20%
    0
    1900 1915 1930 1945 1960 1975 1990 2005
    AIR-CONDITIONING
    AUTOMOBILE
    TELEPHONE
    COLOR TV
    INTERNET
    ELECTRICITY
    COMPUTER
    MOBILE PHONE
    Technology, people and time
    If we look back over the last 100 years, we see only the most critical technologies reach saturation point (over 90%). And
    it takes a long time.

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  6. http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2008/02/10/opinion/10op.graphic.ready.html
    REFRIGERATOR
    100%
    80%
    90%
    60%
    40%
    20%
    0
    1900 1915 1930 1945 1960 1975 1990 2005
    AIR-CONDITIONING
    AUTOMOBILE
    TELEPHONE
    COLOR TV
    INTERNET
    ELECTRICITY
    MOBILE PHONE
    COMPUTER
    Technology, people and time
    Electricity, 50 years
    Telephone, 70 years
    Automobile, 80 years

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  7. http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2008/02/10/opinion/10op.graphic.ready.html
    REFRIGERATOR
    100%
    80%
    90%
    60%
    40%
    20%
    0
    1900 1915 1930 1945 1960 1975 1990 2005
    80 YEARS
    50 YEARS
    70 YEARS
    AIR-CONDITIONING
    AUTOMOBILE
    TELEPHONE
    COLOR TV
    INTERNET
    ELECTRICITY
    MOBILE PHONE
    COMPUTER
    Technology, people and time
    Electricity, 50 years
    Telephone, 70 years
    Automobile, 80 years

    View full-size slide

  8. http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2008/02/10/opinion/10op.graphic.ready.html
    REFRIGERATOR
    100%
    80%
    90%
    60%
    40%
    20%
    0
    1900 1915 1930 1945 1960 1975 1990 2005
    30 YEARS
    20 YEARS
    AIR-CONDITIONING
    AUTOMOBILE
    TELEPHONE
    COLOR TV
    INTERNET
    ELECTRICITY
    80 YEARS
    50 YEARS
    70 YEARS
    COMPUTER
    MOBILE PHONE
    Technology, people and time
    Let’s look at Internet and Mobile phones. These have been much quicker.
    They’re both still relatively new.
    Internet on phone is even newer
    These figures only report to 2005.

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  9. Pew Research, 2012. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/Digital-differences/Main-Report/Internet-adoption-over-time.aspx
    0
    20
    40
    60
    80
    ‘95 ‘96 ‘97 ‘98 ‘99 ‘00 ‘00 ‘01 ‘02 ‘03 ‘04 ‘05 ‘06 ‘07 ‘08 ‘09 ‘10 ‘11
    Internet adoption over time (percentage American adults)
    US trend: Adult internet users.

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  10. The Australian Online Consumer Landscape Report, Nielsen 2012.
    0
    20
    40
    60
    80
    ‘95 ‘96 ‘97 ‘98 ‘99 ‘00 ‘00 ‘01 ‘02 ‘03 ‘04 ‘05 ‘06 ‘07 ‘08 ‘09 ‘10 ‘11
    Internet adoption over time (percentage American adults)
    82% of Australian adults
    online in 2012
    It’s the same in Australia.

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  11. Pew Research Center, 2012. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/Digital-differences/Main-Report/The-power-of-mobile.aspx
    0
    15
    30
    45
    60
    75
    90
    Apr ‘06 Apr ‘08 Sep ‘09 Sep ‘10 Aug ‘11 Feb ‘12
    Desktop PC
    Laptop
    Mobile Phone
    Tablet
    Adult gadget ownership over time
    But how are people accessing the internet?
    Let’s take a look at device ownership.
    Desktop in decline over last five years.
    Laptop have become the preference.
    Almost everyone has a mobile phone.
    Tablet has very sharp growth.
    This shouldn’t be news to you, but it is significant.

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  12. Australia - Understanding the Mobile Consumer. Australian Bureau of Statistics. May, 2012. http://bit.ly/MKj8dq
    Australian Mobile Phone Lifestyle Index. 2011. http://www.aimia.com.au/ampli
    The Australian Online Consumer Landscape Report, Nielsen 2012.
    110% mobile device penetration
    In Australia...
    18% tablet ownership
    52% of those are smartphones
    0
    15
    30
    45
    60
    75
    90
    Apr ‘06 Apr ‘08 Sep ‘09 Sep ‘10 Aug ‘11 Feb ‘12
    Desktop PC
    Laptop
    Mobile Phone
    Tablet
    It’s basically the same in Australia.

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  13. Data: http://isc.org; http://amta.org.au; http://wikipedia.org and various websites
    ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99 ‘01 ‘03 ‘05 ‘07 ‘09 ‘11
    Telecom ‘Walkabout’
    Motorola
    Brick
    AMPS
    Analogue
    GSM
    2G/WAP/WML/i-mode
    3G UMTS
    NextG
    Let’s look at where we’ve come from...
    Analogue networks. First phones were all voice.

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  14. Data: http://isc.org; http://amta.org.au; http://wikipedia.org and various websites
    ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99 ‘01 ‘03 ‘05 ‘07 ‘09 ‘11
    Telecom ‘Walkabout’
    Motorola
    Brick
    AMPS
    Analogue
    GSM
    2G/WAP/WML/i-mode
    3G UMTS
    NextG
    1st mobile
    web browsers
    SMS is born
    Predictive
    Text
    SMS comes with 2G about 1993.
    1st web browsers around 1997... but nobody used them

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  15. Data: http://isc.org; http://amta.org.au; http://wikipedia.org and various websites
    ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99 ‘01 ‘03 ‘05 ‘07 ‘09 ‘11
    Telecom ‘Walkabout’
    Motorola
    Brick
    Nokia 5110
    AMPS
    Analogue
    GSM
    2G/WAP/WML/i-mode
    3G UMTS
    NextG
    1st mobile
    web browsers
    SMS is born
    Predictive
    Text
    Remember Nokia 5120? I bet you didn’t use the web browser (there wasn’t one)

    View full-size slide

  16. Data: http://isc.org; http://amta.org.au; http://wikipedia.org and various websites
    ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99 ‘01 ‘03 ‘05 ‘07 ‘09 ‘11
    Telecom ‘Walkabout’
    Motorola
    Brick
    Nokia 5110
    Palm Treo
    Motorola
    RAZR
    AMPS
    Analogue
    GSM
    2G/WAP/WML/i-mode
    3G UMTS
    NextG
    1st mobile
    web browsers
    SMS is born
    Predictive
    Text
    Palm Treo/Moto RAZR. Now we’re starting to browse.
    3G arrives, but not common yet.

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  17. Data: http://isc.org; http://amta.org.au; http://wikipedia.org and various websites
    ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99 ‘01 ‘03 ‘05 ‘07 ‘09 ‘11
    Telecom ‘Walkabout’
    Motorola
    Brick
    Nokia 5110
    Palm Treo
    Motorola
    RAZR
    AMPS
    Analogue
    GSM
    2G/WAP/WML/i-mode
    3G UMTS
    NextG
    1st mobile
    web browsers
    SMS is born
    1st WebKit
    browser
    Predictive
    Text
    WebKit in 2005. Nokia s60.

    View full-size slide

  18. Data: http://isc.org; http://amta.org.au; http://wikipedia.org and various websites
    ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99 ‘01 ‘03 ‘05 ‘07 ‘09 ‘11
    Telecom ‘Walkabout’
    Motorola
    Brick
    Nokia 5110
    Palm Treo
    Motorola
    RAZR
    HTC Dream
    (1st Android)
    iPhone 3
    iPad 1
    AMPS
    Analogue
    GSM
    2G/WAP/WML/i-mode
    3G UMTS
    NextG
    1st mobile
    web browsers
    SMS is born
    1st WebKit
    browser
    Predictive
    Text
    You know the rest. Apple release iPhone... People go crazy for web on mobile.
    Web on Mobile is less than 10 years old.

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  19. http://www.flickr.com/photos/jakecaptive/3205277810
    So What?
    There is new technology, and people are using it...
    So What.

    View full-size slide

  20. Technology has changed
    We behave differently
    Creating better mobile products
    Building mobile apps
    ›❯
    ›❯
    ›❯
    ›❯

    View full-size slide

  21. mitpress.mit.edu/books/norvh/chapter1.html
    Don Norman, 1998
    “...we tend to place the
    emphasis on
    the technologies
    themselves, when it is
    really the social impact
    and cultural change that
    will be most dramatic.”
    Don Norman is my man for cognitive sciences, design and usability engineering.
    He wrote some seminal books.
    What he’s saying in essence is that...
    it’s not gadgets that change the world, but how we humans use them.
    He is right. And we see this play out in a number of ways.
    Let’s look at an example.

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  22. mitpress.mit.edu/books/norvh/chapter1.html
    Don Norman, 1998
    “...we tend to place the
    emphasis on
    the technologies
    themselves, when it is
    really the social impact
    and cultural change that
    will be most dramatic.”
    Don Norman is my man for cognitive sciences, design and usability engineering.
    He wrote some seminal books.
    What he’s saying in essence is that...
    it’s not gadgets that change the world, but how we humans use them.
    He is right. And we see this play out in a number of ways.
    Let’s look at an example.

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  23. What is the most radical,
    innovative mobile device
    released in the last few years?
    You probably thought of a smartphone first.

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  24. What is the most radical,
    innovative mobile device
    released in the last few years?
    Vodafone 150
    $10 - $15
    The Vodafone 150 only do Voice, SMS, USSD. That’s it.
    But it’s had an astonishing impact in some parts of the world.
    We tend to focus on smart phones, especially in the city
    Don’t forget that forget that smartphones are not ubiquitous yet

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  25. http://na.unep.net/globalpop/africa/Appendix_6e.html
    Population Density
    A lot of people on the north african coast and up the nile.
    Very dense in parts of west Africa, especially Nigeria.
    Heavy pockets through east Africa as well.

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  26. http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap081005.html
    Access to electricity
    When you compare access to electricity, it looks like there is a lot of overlap...
    Actually only about 4% of the population that have access to grid power

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  27. http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap081005.html
    GSM Network Coverage
    Now look at GSM:
    Strong GSM coverage.
    Around 98% of the population
    Moved from having access to information only in immediate surroundings
    to now having access to a global network of information

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  28. What does it mean for
    information sharing?
    RapidFTR
    RapidFTR is a system to help aid workers reunite lost children with their parents
    The old way: People printed photos of lost children and posted on walls in centre of communities
    The new way: Needs to deal with misplaced children with a global perspective. Asylum seekers moving around the globe in
    response to various disasters and events.
    It needs to work offline (dropping connections), data sync later and be secure enough to avoid exploiters taking advantage
    of people at risk.
    It’s dramatically improved the effectiveness of goal at hand: reuniting lost children with parents.

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  29. Yesterday,
    We went go to the computer to use internet
    We behave differently
    Africa is a poignant example of social change brought about by technology.
    At home, we’ve also changed, just in different ways.

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  30. Today,
    We access the internet any place, any time.
    We behave differently
    Web on a phone is not remarkable itself.
    But how it is changing our behaviour is.
    Let’s have a look at that in a little more detail.

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  31. Australian Mobile Phone Lifestyle Index. 2011. http://www.aimia.com.au/ampli
    0
    20
    40
    60
    80
    100
    Voice
    SMS
    Entertainment
    Visit web
    Search
    Banking
    2009
    2010
    2011
    Use of the mobile phone for different purposes
    This data is from the latest Australian Mobile Phone Lifestyle Index, and shows how we’ve been using phones over the last
    three years.
    Voice and SMS is ubiquitous and hasn’t changed.
    Entertainment
    websites
    search
    banking
    People clearly use their phone to do more things, and they’re expecting to use it for more.

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  32. Pew Research, 2012. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/Just-in-time/
    ‘Just in time’ information
    86% of smartphone owners access
    information just-in-time...
    Mobile enables ‘Just in time’ behaviour
    10 years ago, we:
    Phone friend on landline, arrange to ‘meet under the clocks’ at Flinders St. Station at 2pm.
    We’d Arrive. On time!
    Friend not here? Seek out a pay phone and call at home to see what time they left.
    For transit info we carried the printed timetable, or memorised the sequence.
    3 trains per hour, every 20 mins departing five past the hour.
    Today, we get that info ‘just in time’

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  33. Pew Research, 2012. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/Just-in-time/
    ‘Just in time’ information
    86% of smartphone owners access
    information just-in-time...
    41% coordinate a meet-up
    35% solve an unexpected problem
    20% get a up-to-the-minute
    transport info
    Mobile enables ‘Just in time’ behaviour
    10 years ago, we:
    Phone friend on landline, arrange to ‘meet under the clocks’ at Flinders St. Station at 2pm.
    We’d Arrive. On time!
    Friend not here? Seek out a pay phone and call at home to see what time they left.
    For transit info we carried the printed timetable, or memorised the sequence.
    3 trains per hour, every 20 mins departing five past the hour.
    Today, we get that info ‘just in time’

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  34. Australian Mobile Phone Lifestyle Index, 2011. http://www.aimia.com.au/ampli
    ‘Just in time’ information
    In Australia...
    39% restaurant or cafe info
    34% use mobile search daily
    55% accessed maps/location/traffic
    It’s the same in Australia

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  35. http://www.flickr.com/photos/martinhoward/2709364519
    What does it mean for payments?
    About 50% of IB logins are on a mobile device
    Significant value-transactions are taking place via mobile devices
    Customer are comfortable with this, and it’s now expected
    old slow movers are innovating: Banks are running m-payments trials all over the world, with lots of technologies
    New entrants are shaking things up: Bank Simple, Movenbank, Square... and so on.

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  36. http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20081202180014/
    20-25% of GDP
    paid via SMS
    Back to Africa...
    A different take on mobile payments, but incredibly successful: mPesa
    ~$200m AUD profit (most profitable mobile app in the world - double Angry Birds)
    20-25% of GDP
    mPesa works on very rudimentary technology, but it meets a very real user need
    It solves a people problem first, using whatever technology is available.
    We should learn from this.

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  37. 50% of smartphone owners use
    their device in-store to help
    make purchasing decisions
    What does it mean for retail?
    Have you ever done this? Of course you have.
    Aside from price matching, there’re other uses for this.
    One example:
    - An app that scans barcodes to give ingredient list and match with user’s allergies
    - accessibility features on the iPhone mean this can be used by people with impaired vision
    - it’s not just changing behaviour, it’s creating new opportunities

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  38. Technology has changed
    We behave differently
    Creating better mobile products
    Building mobile apps
    ›❯
    ›❯
    ›❯
    ›❯
    How do we take advantage of these new opportunities?
    Lets look at what makes a good mobile product, and how we can create mobile products that meet changing customer
    expectations

    View full-size slide

  39. 2010 Native iOS and Android apps
    2007 A dedicated mobile website
    2012 Integrated mobile experience
    What does success look like?
    2014 ???
    In two years, it will look different again...
    We need to build products for today’s market, and be preparing for tomorrow

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  40. http://g.co/projectglass
    Opportunistic interactions
    Integrated with life
    Everything is ‘smart’ and
    all things are connected
    Post-mobile world
    Soon, we won’t need a phone to be mobile. Mobile will just be a part of everything.
    Integrated with life. Some call this ‘ubiquitous computing’.
    One example is Google’s Project Glass prototype.
    The marketing videos are pretty cheesy, but the concept is on point.
    Don’t forget that it’s early days, and there are lots of things to work out.

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  41. Remember the first
    10 years of radio?
    First radio broadcasts were stage-play recitals.
    It took a while to use it for news broadcasting, and to discover SoundFX and... advertising.

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  42. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television
    Remember the first
    10 years of television?
    First television was radio with pictures.

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  43. http://www.icehousedesigns.com/webarchive/images/flshbk_COLLAGE2.gif
    Remember the first
    10 years of the web?
    First websites were static, digitised documents.
    This is Microsoft in 1995. Brochureware with image-map navigation. Awesome!
    Web on a mobile is emerging from a similar place, it takes a while to mature into meaningful and useful experiences.
    So, how do we create better mobile products?

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  44. ‘Content/feature discrimination’
    ‘Graceful Degradation’
    Big assumptions about customer needs
    We’ve been saying ‘do less’
    (on mobile) for a long time
    We’ve been saying ‘do less’ for a while, and ‘graceful degradation’ was once the way to do it.
    It can be a valid approach, and useful for established products and services, but it has problems.
    We take a large-screen design and make it smaller for mobile.
    In this example, a unicorn.
    As the screens get smaller, we chop bits off usually at the extremities.
    Tail. Legs. Torso.
    Eventually, only the head is left.
    So, most of the time it ain’t that graceful.

    View full-size slide

  45. ‘Content/feature discrimination’
    ‘Graceful Degradation’
    Big assumptions about customer needs
    We’ve been saying ‘do less’
    (on mobile) for a long time
    We’ve been saying ‘do less’ for a while, and ‘graceful degradation’ was once the way to do it.
    It can be a valid approach, and useful for established products and services, but it has problems.
    We take a large-screen design and make it smaller for mobile.
    In this example, a unicorn.
    As the screens get smaller, we chop bits off usually at the extremities.
    Tail. Legs. Torso.
    Eventually, only the head is left.
    So, most of the time it ain’t that graceful.

    View full-size slide

  46. ‘full version’ mobile version
    Content
    Content
    Content
    Product info ˒ ˒
    Exchange rates ˒
    Interest rates ˒
    Product disclosure statements ˒
    Forms & documents ˒
    Features
    Features
    Features
    check account balance ˒ ˒
    transfer funds ˒ ˒
    pay a bill with BPAY ˒ ˒
    schedule a future transfer ˒
    Change daily limits ˒
    Update mailing address ˒
    An example from banking
    Full feature set on desktop version.
    Truncation on mobile.
    Content like forms, documents, Product Disclosure Statements and so on.
    Or so called ‘peripheral’ features.

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  47. Morgan Stanley Associates Internet Trends (2010)
    2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
    Mobile Internet Users Desktop Internet Users
    Mobile Majority is very close
    Customers want to do more on mobile
    But as customers, we expect to do more on mobile today, so truncation - even at the periphery - is a dangerous strategy.

    View full-size slide

  48. A good start...
    ‘Progressive Enhancement’
    Mobile first, content first
    Feature parity
    This is the same idea as graceful degradation but in reverse.
    Instead of starting big and degrading, we start small and enhance.
    Progressive enhancement is what is usually happening in ‘mobile first’ thinking, and ‘responsive web design’.
    Start with a small unicorn - one that works for mobile - and then deliver unicorns to all screens.

    View full-size slide

  49. A good start...
    ‘Progressive Enhancement’
    Mobile first, content first
    Feature parity
    This is the same idea as graceful degradation but in reverse.
    Instead of starting big and degrading, we start small and enhance.
    Progressive enhancement is what is usually happening in ‘mobile first’ thinking, and ‘responsive web design’.
    Start with a small unicorn - one that works for mobile - and then deliver unicorns to all screens.

    View full-size slide

  50. ‘full version’ mobile version
    Content
    Content
    Content
    Your bags ˒ ˒
    People ˒ ˒
    Notifications ˒ ˒
    Blog ˒ ˒
    Help ˒ ˒
    Features
    Features
    Features
    Create a new bag ˒ ˒
    Edit existing bag ˒ ˒
    Explore ˒ ˒
    Search Bagcheck ˒ ˒
    Create new discussion ˒ ˒
    Comment ˒ ˒
    An example
    Bag Check was was built mobile first, by the guy who wrote the book on Mobile First.
    This is becoming a more common approach.
    Deliver unicorns consistently on all screens.
    But it still misses something.

    View full-size slide

  51. Adaptation (usually) only deals
    with the interface not the content
    What if that version of the unicorn
    isn’t helpful for me right now?
    http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jednoro%C5%BCec.svg
    We’ve delivered the unicorn accurately, but if I can’t interact with it in a way that makes sense on my device, then we’ve
    only gone part of the way.
    An example from banking:
    On mobile, a list of future-dated payments is viewable, but I cant edit the payments details. Useless.
    Or PDF forms that render to screen, but can’t be used or printed.
    This doesn’t work, because the content hasn’t been structured and presented in a way that is useful for the mobile
    customer.

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  52. http://www.flickr.com/photos/tomazstolfa/4845875443/
    Portability and consistency
    Adapt content as well as features
    Create Once, Publish Everywhere
    Responsive content
    How can we provide different versions of content and features that are most appropriate for each device?
    Create once, publish everywhere (COPE). Easier said than done.
    Requires a strategic approach to content management.
    What content is required... on what devices... and in what format?
    Are your content and marketing teams ready for this?
    Is your content management system capable of structuring content in this way?

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  53. Another example
    National Public Radio do this really well.
    This is ‘adaptive content’ more than ‘responsive content’.
    They serve different versions of their content, from a simple CMS, across many devices.
    Karen McGrane - my favourite content strategist - talks more about this in her book Content Strategy for Mobile.

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  54. Make it easy for them
    Customers choose when and how
    they interact with your brand
    Seamless experiences
    Awesome, now you have appropriate content and features rendered properly across many devices.
    Keep everything connected and transition as seamlessly as possible
    Because customers don’t see your ‘channels’ - All they see is a brand, and their needs

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  55. Precious Design Studios. http://www.slideshare.net/preciousforever/patterns-for-multiscreen-strategies
    You know they’re likely to be using multiple devices.
    A seamless experience across your channels is expected.
    Provide pathways through content...
    Seamless connection through appropriate and relevant versions of content.

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  56. http://www.flickr.com/photos/thewolf/5812767917
    AirBNB - getting it wrong.
    I travelled to London recently
    airBNB is a site that connects travelers with hosts for accommodation.
    I signed up with Facebook, and booked accommodation on laptop
    On the road, I couldn’t authenticate with the app, because FB Open Auth didn’t work properly
    Using email to login - with forgot password - failed too (because I wasn’t in the database)
    This became a real problem, I almost didn’t have a bed to sleep in.
    Not ideal for a brand who’s goal is connecting travelers with hosts.

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  57. ‘Name of referenced work’, Author/source/URL, date.
    realestate.com.au - Getting it right.
    Search, browse and create a shortlist in your lunch hour.

    View full-size slide

  58. ‘Name of referenced work’, Author/source/URL, date.
    AirPlay the fullscreen image gallery from iPad to TV in the evening to discuss with your partner.

    View full-size slide

  59. ‘Name of referenced work’, Author/source/URL, date.
    Use the open-inspection planner to help you on Saturday afternoons

    View full-size slide

  60. Precious Design Studios. http://www.slideshare.net/preciousforever/patterns-for-multiscreen-strategies
    There are some great interaction patterns emerging around multiscreen experiences.
    Device shifting.
    This is where a consumer begins a task on one device, then completes it on another.
    AirBNB is an example of this gone wrong.
    Draft an email on mobile, finish it on desktop.
    Fill a shopping cart on eBay, complete purchase at home.

    View full-size slide

  61. Precious Design Studios. http://www.slideshare.net/preciousforever/patterns-for-multiscreen-strategies
    Simultaneity.
    Jump-in is an iPad app that ThoughtWorks was involved with for NineMSN.
    It’s a ‘second screen’ experience designed specifically for tablet and TV.
    The iPad experience is simultaneous with the TV broadcast.
    During Olympics, able to interact with content such as live news, current medal tally, event schedule and realtime twitter
    conversations that are related to the broadcast.

    View full-size slide

  62. Precious Design Studios. http://www.slideshare.net/preciousforever/patterns-for-multiscreen-strategies

    View full-size slide

  63. An ecosystem of screens
    and physical interfaces
    So we have an ecosystem of screens and physical interfaces.
    Apps are seen as today’s heroes. Let’s look at those in more detail.

    View full-size slide

  64. Consumers expect a
    continuous experience
    Let’s look at what’s expected from your apps now: continuity across all channels
    - people do different tasks on different devices
    - that means your app, the mobile website, desktop systems all talking on the backend
    -“we’ll just connect it up on the backend”, simple stuff
    - what about people who phone in? or visit in person?

    View full-size slide

  65. ‘Name of referenced work’, Author/source/URL, date.
    - all these standalone backend systems that don’t talk well to each other
    - in reality, “the backend” is not one nice continuous system
    -> lots of separate systems, different technologies... we don’t even know how some of them work anymore, so we don’t
    touch them... but they seem to work
    - so to get our continuous mobile experience, we also need to wrangle all this other stuff
    - the mess on the backend doesn’t give you the flexibility you’ll need going forward
    - but it is the bit the consumer sees, the thing they will judge you on

    View full-size slide

  66. ‘Name of referenced work’, Author/source/URL, date.
    Retail
    Call Centre
    - all these standalone backend systems that don’t talk well to each other
    - in reality, “the backend” is not one nice continuous system
    -> lots of separate systems, different technologies... we don’t even know how some of them work anymore, so we don’t
    touch them... but they seem to work
    - so to get our continuous mobile experience, we also need to wrangle all this other stuff
    - the mess on the backend doesn’t give you the flexibility you’ll need going forward
    - but it is the bit the consumer sees, the thing they will judge you on

    View full-size slide

  67. ‘Name of referenced work’, Author/source/URL, date.
    Retail
    Call Centre
    Legacy Thing
    - all these standalone backend systems that don’t talk well to each other
    - in reality, “the backend” is not one nice continuous system
    -> lots of separate systems, different technologies... we don’t even know how some of them work anymore, so we don’t
    touch them... but they seem to work
    - so to get our continuous mobile experience, we also need to wrangle all this other stuff
    - the mess on the backend doesn’t give you the flexibility you’ll need going forward
    - but it is the bit the consumer sees, the thing they will judge you on

    View full-size slide

  68. ‘Name of referenced work’, Author/source/URL, date.
    Some expensive and proprietary system
    Mainframe
    Database
    Message Hub
    Retail
    Call Centre
    Legacy Thing
    - all these standalone backend systems that don’t talk well to each other
    - in reality, “the backend” is not one nice continuous system
    -> lots of separate systems, different technologies... we don’t even know how some of them work anymore, so we don’t
    touch them... but they seem to work
    - so to get our continuous mobile experience, we also need to wrangle all this other stuff
    - the mess on the backend doesn’t give you the flexibility you’ll need going forward
    - but it is the bit the consumer sees, the thing they will judge you on

    View full-size slide

  69. ‘Name of referenced work’, Author/source/URL, date.
    Some expensive and proprietary system
    Mainframe
    Database
    Message Hub
    Retail
    Call Centre
    Legacy Thing
    - all these standalone backend systems that don’t talk well to each other
    - in reality, “the backend” is not one nice continuous system
    -> lots of separate systems, different technologies... we don’t even know how some of them work anymore, so we don’t
    touch them... but they seem to work
    - so to get our continuous mobile experience, we also need to wrangle all this other stuff
    - the mess on the backend doesn’t give you the flexibility you’ll need going forward
    - but it is the bit the consumer sees, the thing they will judge you on

    View full-size slide

  70. ‘Name of referenced work’, Author/source/URL, date.
    Some expensive and proprietary system
    Mainframe
    Database
    Message Hub
    Retail
    Call Centre
    Legacy Thing
    - all these standalone backend systems that don’t talk well to each other
    - in reality, “the backend” is not one nice continuous system
    -> lots of separate systems, different technologies... we don’t even know how some of them work anymore, so we don’t
    touch them... but they seem to work
    - so to get our continuous mobile experience, we also need to wrangle all this other stuff
    - the mess on the backend doesn’t give you the flexibility you’ll need going forward
    - but it is the bit the consumer sees, the thing they will judge you on

    View full-size slide

  71. Technology has changed
    We behave differently
    Creating better mobile products
    Building mobile apps
    ›❯
    ›❯
    ›❯
    ›❯

    View full-size slide

  72. Different mobile platforms
    - mobile is booming, everyone is getting connected...
    but we’re not all buying the same devices (sometimes not even similar devices)
    - 5 main platforms: iOS, Android, Windows, Blackberry, Web
    - going to simplify to 3: iOS, Android, the Web
    -> Win7/8 looks really promising, make your conclusions about the future of Blackberry
    - how can we target all of these platforms?
    - Do we even want to? Different interaction patterns.

    View full-size slide

  73. Native or Web?
    Going to quickly explain each of these approaches and some of the tradeoffs
    -> one of the great debates in the developer community at the moment

    View full-size slide

  74. Objective C and Java
    In the app store
    Lowest barrier to a
    great experience
    Native or Web?
    Being discoverable in the app store is still important
    - a reasonable proportion of users can’t distinguish between the app store and web search
    (even though search is so bad in the Apple app store)
    - means you’re writing using the tools provided by the vendors (Apple, Google, Microsoft)
    - Objective C is kind of a strange language, and Java isn’t exactly the new hotness
    - native apps have the lowest barrier to awesome (it’s not automatic)

    View full-size slide

  75. HTML, CSS, Javascript
    Distribute through
    the browser
    Some reuse across platforms
    Native or Web?
    - apps that you actually distribute and run inside the browser on your mobile device
    - easier to manage versions and updates
    - HTML5 is going to save the day, and everything will just work
    (in reality you have a bunch of tweaking and performance tuning ahead of you)
    - get to work with familiar technology: in house skills, easier to find devs
    - don’t underestimate the challenge of finding good developers for native apps

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  76. or
    - no one size fits all, it depends
    - but it’s not an either/or choice, there is a whole spectrum between the two
    - modern mobile platforms have reasonable support for running parts of your app using web technologies
    -> people are calling these hybrid apps, can be a confusing term

    View full-size slide

  77. NATIVE HYBRID WEB
    - at the other end, we have pure web apps written in HTML, CSS and Javascript
    - at one end, we have completely native apps written in Objective C, Java
    - full native apps: expect heavy usage, offline access, high performance slick UI
    - tools that wrap up a web app inside a native shell to go on the app store (Phone Gap)
    -> eg. BBC Olympics app... good screenshots, sluggish performance, but hits-all-platforms
    - custom hybrid apps: native apps with web components
    - interestingly, Facebook has been rewriting their app to have more native components

    View full-size slide

  78. The Guardian
    NATIVE HYBRID WEB
    Democracy Now!
    - at the other end, we have pure web apps written in HTML, CSS and Javascript
    - at one end, we have completely native apps written in Objective C, Java
    - full native apps: expect heavy usage, offline access, high performance slick UI
    - tools that wrap up a web app inside a native shell to go on the app store (Phone Gap)
    -> eg. BBC Olympics app... good screenshots, sluggish performance, but hits-all-platforms
    - custom hybrid apps: native apps with web components
    - interestingly, Facebook has been rewriting their app to have more native components

    View full-size slide

  79. The Guardian
    NATIVE HYBRID WEB
    Democracy Now!
    Instagram
    - at the other end, we have pure web apps written in HTML, CSS and Javascript
    - at one end, we have completely native apps written in Objective C, Java
    - full native apps: expect heavy usage, offline access, high performance slick UI
    - tools that wrap up a web app inside a native shell to go on the app store (Phone Gap)
    -> eg. BBC Olympics app... good screenshots, sluggish performance, but hits-all-platforms
    - custom hybrid apps: native apps with web components
    - interestingly, Facebook has been rewriting their app to have more native components

    View full-size slide

  80. using PhoneGap
    The Guardian
    NATIVE HYBRID WEB
    Democracy Now!
    BBC Olympics
    Instagram
    - at the other end, we have pure web apps written in HTML, CSS and Javascript
    - at one end, we have completely native apps written in Objective C, Java
    - full native apps: expect heavy usage, offline access, high performance slick UI
    - tools that wrap up a web app inside a native shell to go on the app store (Phone Gap)
    -> eg. BBC Olympics app... good screenshots, sluggish performance, but hits-all-platforms
    - custom hybrid apps: native apps with web components
    - interestingly, Facebook has been rewriting their app to have more native components

    View full-size slide

  81. using PhoneGap
    The Guardian
    NATIVE HYBRID WEB
    Democracy Now!
    BBC Olympics
    Facebook
    LinkedIn
    Instagram Jump-in
    - at the other end, we have pure web apps written in HTML, CSS and Javascript
    - at one end, we have completely native apps written in Objective C, Java
    - full native apps: expect heavy usage, offline access, high performance slick UI
    - tools that wrap up a web app inside a native shell to go on the app store (Phone Gap)
    -> eg. BBC Olympics app... good screenshots, sluggish performance, but hits-all-platforms
    - custom hybrid apps: native apps with web components
    - interestingly, Facebook has been rewriting their app to have more native components

    View full-size slide

  82. using PhoneGap
    The Guardian
    NATIVE HYBRID WEB
    Democracy Now!
    BBC Olympics
    Facebook LinkedIn
    Instagram Jump-in
    - at the other end, we have pure web apps written in HTML, CSS and Javascript
    - at one end, we have completely native apps written in Objective C, Java
    - full native apps: expect heavy usage, offline access, high performance slick UI
    - tools that wrap up a web app inside a native shell to go on the app store (Phone Gap)
    -> eg. BBC Olympics app... good screenshots, sluggish performance, but hits-all-platforms
    - custom hybrid apps: native apps with web components
    - interestingly, Facebook has been rewriting their app to have more native components

    View full-size slide

  83. http://www.flickr.com/photos/raeallen/200891658
    How should you build your app?
    Platform Coverage
    User Experience
    - there’s a whole spectrum of approaches to choose from, which should you take?
    - there are a number of things to take into consideration:
    -> time to market, quality of the user experience, performance, development capability, platform coverage, discoverability
    -> going to simplify this to the fundamental two factors
    - let’s look at these tradeoffs, and approaches that favour one over the other

    View full-size slide

  84. Platform Coverage
    User Experience
    - this is where we want to be: a great experience on all platforms...
    - let’s treat that as the goal, but we’re not going to get there straight away
    - for a lot of people, this is where they are at the moment, with a fairly large and tricky mess
    - two ways we can go:
    -> tackle a single platform first, and go for a really polished interface, slowly expand both the feature set and platform
    coverage from there (calling this the Laser strategy)
    -> go for a shallow cut of both the experience and feature set, but hit as many platforms as possible (calling this the cover
    your bases strategy)
    - let’s look at each approach, and where it might make sense to use it

    View full-size slide

  85. Platform Coverage
    User Experience
    - this is where we want to be: a great experience on all platforms...
    - let’s treat that as the goal, but we’re not going to get there straight away
    - for a lot of people, this is where they are at the moment, with a fairly large and tricky mess
    - two ways we can go:
    -> tackle a single platform first, and go for a really polished interface, slowly expand both the feature set and platform
    coverage from there (calling this the Laser strategy)
    -> go for a shallow cut of both the experience and feature set, but hit as many platforms as possible (calling this the cover
    your bases strategy)
    - let’s look at each approach, and where it might make sense to use it

    View full-size slide

  86. Platform Coverage
    User Experience
    - this is where we want to be: a great experience on all platforms...
    - let’s treat that as the goal, but we’re not going to get there straight away
    - for a lot of people, this is where they are at the moment, with a fairly large and tricky mess
    - two ways we can go:
    -> tackle a single platform first, and go for a really polished interface, slowly expand both the feature set and platform
    coverage from there (calling this the Laser strategy)
    -> go for a shallow cut of both the experience and feature set, but hit as many platforms as possible (calling this the cover
    your bases strategy)
    - let’s look at each approach, and where it might make sense to use it

    View full-size slide

  87. Platform Coverage
    User Experience
    Laser
    - initially, focus on a single platform and nail it... eg. iPhone app
    - for new companies trying to win customers, where experience is an important selling point
    -> if you can’t win the market with this focus, what makes you think you can win it at all?
    - for existing companies, look at your stats: which users to do you want to hit first?
    -> In Australia, and your company is targeting professional adults, it’s often the iPhone
    eg. high end fashion, even banking and insurance, selling cars or houses
    (if your product is aimed at teenagers, you’re likely to see more Androids)
    - iOS is more dominant here than elsewhere (employment, wages, no carrier lock in)
    -> read stats about number of devices purchased, but usage of those is very different

    View full-size slide

  88. Platform Coverage
    User Experience
    Cover your
    bases
    - cut scope and quality finish to try and hit as many platforms as possible
    - might make sense for companies with existing customers: don’t be exclusive
    - where playing favourites isn’t really an option (eg. ATO - eTax, except they didn’t)
    eg. emergency warning system: want it to go to everyone (people have ignored this)
    - depending on the content you're presenting, HTML/CSS might be well suited
    eg. for text markup and layout...
    -> for infinite scrolling tables/multiple gestures, native still a long way ahead

    View full-size slide

  89. or
    - not an either/or choice, you can use both (native and web)
    - use native where it makes sense, use web components where it makes sense
    -> compromise between the laser and cover your bases strategies
    - there are frameworks out there to help do this (eg. PhoneGap/Cordova, Titanium/Kony)
    -> but don’t want to lock yourself in

    View full-size slide

  90. and
    - not an either/or choice, you can use both (native and web)
    - use native where it makes sense, use web components where it makes sense
    -> compromise between the laser and cover your bases strategies
    - there are frameworks out there to help do this (eg. PhoneGap/Cordova, Titanium/Kony)
    -> but don’t want to lock yourself in

    View full-size slide

  91. and
    Don’t lock yourself into
    doing everything natively or
    everything using the web
    - not an either/or choice, you can use both (native and web)
    - use native where it makes sense, use web components where it makes sense
    -> compromise between the laser and cover your bases strategies
    - there are frameworks out there to help do this (eg. PhoneGap/Cordova, Titanium/Kony)
    -> but don’t want to lock yourself in

    View full-size slide

  92. Shared presentation using HTML/CSS
    Shared logic using Javascript
    Sharing between platforms
    - it doesn’t have to be Javascript, could use Mono and C#
    -> Thoughtworks Tech Radar: treating Javascript as a first class language
    -> “it depends” eg. a banking app vs search and listing or directory app
    - complex UI, gestures, animations... native eg. Hipstamatic/Instragram/iPhoto
    - marking up content (text/images) without a lot of interaction
    -> HTML/CSS have evolved for exactly for that purpose
    - reuse at all costs is not the answer, focus on what the user is trying to achieve
    - be pragmatic about how to reuse parts where it will save you time and money

    View full-size slide

  93. Objective C Objective C
    HTML / CSS Javascript
    User Interface Client Logic
    iPhone
    Mobile
    Web
    - how this evolved from experience with the laser approach: a global bank
    -> iPhone, Android, web apps: different languages for each platform
    - the left hand column is your opportunity to share the presentation
    -> depending on the size of the UI code, how complex it is, how expensive it is to maintain
    -> might make sense to duplicate across platforms if it’s simpler and quicker
    - the right hand column represents the opportunity to share the logic of the app
    -> is it common? Does it make sense to write it in Javascript?
    -> simple state machine? Yes. Complex image filtering? Probably not.

    View full-size slide

  94. Objective C Objective C
    HTML / CSS Javascript
    User Interface Client Logic
    iPhone
    Mobile
    Web
    What would we do differently?
    - how this evolved from experience with the laser approach: a global bank
    -> iPhone, Android, web apps: different languages for each platform
    - the left hand column is your opportunity to share the presentation
    -> depending on the size of the UI code, how complex it is, how expensive it is to maintain
    -> might make sense to duplicate across platforms if it’s simpler and quicker
    - the right hand column represents the opportunity to share the logic of the app
    -> is it common? Does it make sense to write it in Javascript?
    -> simple state machine? Yes. Complex image filtering? Probably not.

    View full-size slide

  95. Objective C Objective C
    HTML / CSS Javascript
    User Interface Client Logic
    Calatrava
    A bridge between native and web
    - want a bridge between the Javascript and native code
    -> knows how to call javascript code, and also to get values out
    - other side of the bridge allows us to pass data to be presented
    -> choice of whether to present it using web views or native views
    -> pass actions from the UI back down to the appropriate logic
    * finally, need a registry to match up the components of the system with technology
    -> we’ve been using this successfully for a major airline

    View full-size slide

  96. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puente_del_Alamillo
    More an approach than a framework
    Technology choice per feature
    Will soon be open source
    Calatrava
    - named after Santiago Calatrava, designs bridges (this one in Seville, 4th bridge in Venice)
    - nice to name something after a bridge (feel like a real engineer)
    -> acts as the bridge that connects native and web code (gives us that technology choice)
    - calling it a framework might be overkill, it’s only a few hundred lines of code
    - we’ve been using this approach at a “major airline”, it’s been working really well
    -> adding a few new flows within existing native apps, using this approach
    -> can come back and polish the UI later if needed
    - we’ll get this open source, so watch this space
    - so we’ve got an approach for building our apps, but...

    View full-size slide

  97. But the app is just the
    tip of the iceberg
    - calatrava is best option I’ve seen for flexible, pragmatic reuse... but I’m biased
    - tools like PhoneGap, Titanium, Mono are all useful as well, it depends on the app
    * what about the rest of the system?
    - maybe we’re optimising the wrong part?

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  98. App Backend
    - typical app talking to this mysterious “backend”
    * Lots of talk about how to share logic across platforms, but not enough people questioning what all that logic is doing in
    your app in the first place
    - a lot of complexity can be added by talking to an old, chatty backend system
    -> if it’s messy, don’t write all the logic in the app and try and reuse it
    * put a layer in between

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  99. App Backend
    API
    - Simplify the backend systems your app has to deal with, protect them
    - this API can provide a simple view of the backend, as if it was a nice continuous system
    -> the LinkedIn engineering blog has a post on using a node.js server to do this
    - it also gives you a buffer for change (some people never update their apps)
    - whenever you write new logic in your app, see if you can put it in the API

    View full-size slide

  100. API
    App Backend
    How do we build simpler apps
    and smarter backends?
    Product-aligned teams
    RESTful web services
    Serving data and style
    - the app should be as thin as possible, that's the best reuse you can get - how???
    - much easier if you develop the API and the apps at the same time (not technology teams)
    - RESTful web services are great for mobile apps
    -> if you don’t know about REST, look it up, basically structuring systems like the web...
    -> think of it like a replacement for things like SOAP and WSDL
    -> great for reducing the amount of logic required by the client (discoverable)
    eg. switching a single URL and getting completely different data, different static image server
    - create APIs that serve both the JSON data and visual style in HTML/CSS
    -> give yourself more control of your apps, and keep that logic server side

    View full-size slide

  101. Technology has changed
    We behave differently
    Creating better mobile products
    Building mobile apps
    ›❯
    ›❯
    ›❯
    ›❯

    View full-size slide

  102. Focus on customer behaviour
    before technology
    http://www.forbes.com/sites/fredcavazza/2012/08/13/why-launching-a-mobile-app-is-pointless
    Gadgets and technology won’t in themselves change the way your customers behave.
    Find out how they behave and what they need first, then work out how to best meet those needs.
    Forbes put it quite nicely...

    View full-size slide

  103. Focus on customer behaviour
    before technology
    Forbes.com. August 2012
    “Competitive advantage will not be
    gained by providing your customers a
    sharp mobile app, but by making sure
    every decision maker in your
    organization understands the needs
    and habits of mobile users”
    http://www.forbes.com/sites/fredcavazza/2012/08/13/why-launching-a-mobile-app-is-pointless
    Gadgets and technology won’t in themselves change the way your customers behave.
    Find out how they behave and what they need first, then work out how to best meet those needs.
    Forbes put it quite nicely...

    View full-size slide

  104. Do more, not less
    for mobile
    We know that people are using their mobile devices to do more things than ever today.
    There’s a growing expectation to do anything on mobile.
    Truncation for mobile is a dangerous strategy.

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  105. Break large systems into smaller,
    faster moving components so you
    can better respond to change
    - the mobile market is changing rapidly
    - if it takes you a year or two to put out an app, and it’s scraping your backend website, because you don’t have an API and
    you only deploy new versions of the websites every few months
    -> that’s not going to cut it going forward
    * start up companies that don’t have this legacy, wont have this problem, they’ll be a threat
    eg. Ingogo and Uber taxi apps... don’t want to integrate with existing providers
    - Either need to be good at innovation or good at fast follow and delivery... can't fail at both
    - Plan to have APIs for your backend systems, even for mobile web applications.
    - Amazon talks a lot about having lots of small, single purpose APIs
    - if you want zippy mobile web apps, it likely means doing a bit more on the client side
    - reduce load on the network, hide that high latency mobile connection

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  106. Whatever you do, use short iterations,
    measure and learn quickly.
    - we’re still working out what the impact of smartphones is going to be
    - by the time we do, we’ll probably be past smartphones
    -> so get good at reacting to change, and moving quickly
    - there will be many opportunities, but you will need to be learning and moving fast to take advantage of them.

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  107. A. Person, 2011
    “Nulla facilisi. Phasellus mollis nibh eget
    tortor cursus congue. Vivamus velit
    tortor, sodales sed feugiat in, gravida eu
    turpis. Pellentesque quis neque at libero
    malesuada tincidunt a in risus.
    Maecenas.”
    ‘Name of referenced work’, Author/source/URL, date.
    Thank you
    Jonny Schneider
    [email protected]
    @jonnyschneider
    Stewart Gleadow
    [email protected]
    @stewgleadow

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