at a single time • repository: a database containing your history and configuration • index/staging area: a cache between your working directory and your repository • clone: the act of copying a repository or a copy of the repository
a “label” that points to a commit • head: the top commit on a branch. Most recent in a branch’s history • upstream: a copy of a given repository. An “original” copy of the repository history • tag: a description of a given commit. Can be cryptographically signed.