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From Java 11 to 17 and beyond

From Java 11 to 17 and beyond

The features released between Java 11 and Java 17 have brought a greater opportunity for developers to improve application development productivity as well and code expressiveness and readability. In this deep-dive session, you will discover all the recent Project Amber features added to the Java language such as Text blocks, Records (including Records serialization), Pattern Matching for instanceof, switch expression, sealed classes, and pattern matching for switch. The main goal of the Amber Project is to bring Pattern Matching to the Java platform, which will impact both the language and the JDK APIs. You will discover record patterns, array patterns, as well as deconstruction patterns, through constructors, factory methods, and deconstructors.

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José

May 02, 2022
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  1. From Java 11 to Java 17 and Beyond Among other

    things José Paumard @JosePaumard Java Developer Advocate Java Platform Group
  2. https://twitter.com/JosePaumard https://github.com/JosePaumard https://www.youtube.com/user/java https://www.youtube.com/user/JPaumard https://www.youtube.com/hashtag/jepcafe https://fr.slideshare.net/jpaumard https://www.pluralsight.com/authors/jose-paumard https://dev.java

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    https://dev.java/
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    https://dev.java/community/
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    https://inside.java/
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    Java 17 – LTS! Java 8 Java 11
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    Java 17 – LTS! Java 8 Java 11 Java 17 ?
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    Next LTS: Java 21 Java 8 Java 11 Java 17 Java 21
  9. Language Type inference for locals (var) Switch expressions Text blocks

    Record classes Sealed classes Pattern matching for instanceof Compact String, Indify Concatenation JDK 17: New Features Since the JDK 8 Copyright © 2021, Oracle and/or its affiliates 9 Tools jshell jlink jdeps jpackage java source code launcher javadoc search + API history JVM Garbage Collectors: G1, ZGC AArch64 support: Windows, Mac, Linux Docker awareness Class Data Sharing by default Helpful NullPointerExceptions Hidden classes Libraries HTTP client Collection factories Unix-domain sockets Stack walker Deserialization filtering Pseudo-RNG, SHA-3, TLS 1.3
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    Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted 10 Stop doing that!
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    Do not call new Integer(...) Stop Calling Wrapper Classes Constructors! @Deprecated(since="9", forRemoval=true) public Integer(int value) { this.value = value; } @IntrinsicCandidate public static Integer valueOf(int i) { // some code return new Integer(i); }
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    Do not override finalize() Stop Overriding Finalize! @Deprecated(since="9", forRemoval=true) protected void finalize() throws Throwable { }
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    Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted 13 Strings
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    A new way of writing Strings Text Blocks String message = """ Hello world!""";
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    String Templates (prev.)
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    Interpolating strings from a template and variables String Templates (prev.) String name = "world"; String message = STR."Hello \{name}!"; System.out.println(message); > Hello world!
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    Is a String Template Expression STR is a template policy "Hello \{name}!" is a template with an embedded expression The evaluation produces a String, but not always String Template Expression String message = STR."Hello \{name}!";
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    Embedded expressions are expressions String Template Expression int x = 10, y = 20; String result = STR."\{x} + \{y} = \{x + y}"; System.out.println(result); > 10 + 20 = 30
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    Embedded expressions are expressions String Template Expression String result = STR."We have a \{getOfferType()} for you"; System.out.println(result); > We have a gift for you
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    Embedded expressions are expressions String Template Expression String time = STR."The time is \{ // The java.time.format package is very useful DateTimeFormatter .ofPattern("HH:mm:ss") .format(LocalTime.now()) } right now"; System.out.println(time); > The time is 12:34:56 right now
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    Embedded expressions are expressions String Template Expression int index = 10; String data = STR."\{index++} \{index++} \{index++}"; System.out.println(data); > 10 11 12
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    FMTR: formatter template policy More Template Policies String form = FMTR.""" Desc Unit Qty Amount %-10s\{description} $%5.2f\{price} %5d\{quantity} $%5.2f\{price * quantity} Subtotal $%5.2f\{price * quantity} Tax $%5.2f\{price * quantity * tax} Total $%5.2f\{price * quantity * (1.0 + tax)} """; System.out.println(form);
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    FMTR: formatter template policy More Template Policies Desc Unit Qty Amount hammer $ 7.88 3 $23.64 Subtotal $23.64 Tax $ 3.55 Total $27.19
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    Yes! A policy is a class that implements TemplatePolicy It supports validation to prevent injection It can return any object User Defined Policies?
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    Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted 25 Records
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    Short answer: a class! Less short answer: a class - That extends the Record class - That is final What is a Record?
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    And you can write: I Need to Write a Record! public record User(String name, int age) { } User sarah = new User("Sarah", 23); System.out.println(sarah); $ User[name=Sarah, age=23]
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    1) A constructor 2) Accessors: name() and age() 3) The following methods: toString(), equals(), hashCode() What Do you Get with a Record? public record User(String name, int age) { }
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    You cannot extend a record A record cannot extend anything You cannot create any instance field in a record You can implement interfaces You can add any instance method You can add any static field or method Restrictions on Records
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    name and age are the components of the record Components are both final instance fields And accessors Components of a Record public record User(String name, int age) { }
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    More on Components public record User(String name, int age) { } User user = new User("Sarah", 23); Class<User> userClass = User.class; boolean isRecord = userClass.isRecord(); Component[] components = userClass.getRecordComponents();
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    More on Components public record User(String name, int age) { } User user = new User("Sarah", 23); RecordComponent nameComponent = components[0]; Class<?> declaring = nameComponent.getDeclaringRecord(); String name = (String) nameComponent.getAccessor()invoke(user);
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    More on Components public record User(@UserName String name, int age) { } @Target(ElementType.RECORD_COMPONENT) @interface UserName {}
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    The state of a record is entirely defined by its components - You cannot add more state by extension, or by extending anything - You cannot add any instance field Record State
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    The constructor of a record that takes its components is called the canonical constructor Record Building public record User(String name, int age) { public record User(String name, int age) { this.name = name; this.age = age; } }
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    Why would you write your own canonical constructor? 1) Defensive copy Record Building public record State(List<City> cities) { public State(List<City> cities) { this.cities = List.copyOf(cities); } }
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    In that case, you need to write your own accessor too! Record Building public record State(List<City> cities) { public State(List<City> cities) { this.cities = List.copyOf(cities); } public List<City> cities() { return List.copyOf(cities); } }
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    Why would you write your own canonical constructor? 2) Validation Record Building public record Range(int begin, int end) { public Range(int begin, int end) { if (begin > end) { throw new IllegalArgumentException("..."); } this.begin = begin; this.end = end; } }
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    Why would you write your own canonical constructor? 2) Validation, with the Compact Constructor Record Building public record Range(int begin, int end) { public Range { if (begin > end) { throw new IllegalArgumentException("..."); } } }
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    A record constructor must call the canonical constructor Record Building public record Range(int begin, int end) { public Range(int end) { this.begin = 0; this.end = end; } }
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    A record constructor must call the canonical constructor Record Building public record Range(int begin, int end) { public Range(int end) { this(0, end); } }
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    You cannot build a record without calling its canonical constructor Deserialization calls the canonical constructor of a record
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    Deserialization calls the canonical constructor of a record Records are a perfect choice for Data Transport Objects Record Serialization
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    Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted 44 Sealed Types
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    Short answer: type (interface, class, abstract class)! Less short answer: a type - That declares its subtypes - That lives in the same package or module as them What is a Sealed Type?
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    A sealed type must declare its extension Syntax public sealed interface Shape permits Square, Rectangle, WeirdShape { }
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    An extension of a sealed type must be: - final - or sealed - or non-sealed Syntax
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    An extension of a sealed type must be: - final Syntax public record Square(int edge) implements Shape { }
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    An extension of a sealed type must be: - sealed Syntax public sealed class Rectangle permits ExtendedRectangle { }
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    An extension of a sealed type must be: - non-sealed Syntax public non-sealed abstract class WeirdShape { }
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    Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted 51 Pattern Matching
  52. ?Record and Array Pattern Matching? Record Sealed Classes Switch Expression

    Constant Dynamic Inner Classes private in VM Nestmates Pattern Matching for instanceof 11 14 16 17 Switch on Types 19
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    In reference to the Amber Chronicles by Roger Zelazny Project Amber
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    A pattern is a combination of a match predicate that determines if the pattern matches a target, along with a set of pattern variables that are conditionally extracted if the pattern matches the target. Java 16 : Pattern Match for IntanceOf Pattern Matching for Java Gavin Bierman and Brian Goetz, September 2018 https://github.com/openjdk/amber-docs/blob/master/site/design-notes/pattern-matching-for-java.md
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    String name = the type of the pattern String = the name of the pattern name = the binding variable o = target operand Type Pattern if (o instanceof String name) { // some code }
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    Type Pattern if (o instanceof String name) { Sytem.out.println(name.toUpperCase()); } if (o instanceof String name && name.length() > 0) { Sytem.out.println(name.toUpperCase()); }
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    Type Pattern if (o instanceof String name) { Sytem.out.println(name.toUpperCase()); } if (!(o instanceof String name)) { // you cant use name here! return; // or throw an exception } Sytem.out.println(name.toUpperCase());
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    Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted 58 Record Pattern Matching (prev Java 19?)
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    Record Pattern Matching record User(String name, int age) {} if (o instanceof User user)) { String name = user.name(); int age = user.age(); }
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    Record Pattern Matching record User(String name, int age) {} if (o instanceof User(String name, int age))) { // use name and age }
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    Record Pattern Matching record User(String name, int age) {} if (o instanceof User(String name, int age) user)) { // use name and age }
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    Record deconstruction is easy because a record is built on components And components are declared along with it The binding variables are initialized by calling the accessors Deconstructing a Record
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    Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted 63 Array Pattern Matching
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    Array Pattern Matching if (o instanceof String[] array && array.length() >= 2) { // do something with array[0] and array[1] }
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    Array Pattern Matching if (o instanceof String[] {s1, s2}) { // do something with s1 and s2 }
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    Nesting Patterns + Type Inference if (o instanceof Circle[] {Circle(var r1), Circle(var r2)}) { // do something with s1 and s2 } record Circle(int radius) {}
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    Nesting Patterns + Type Inference if (o instanceof Circle[] { Circle(Point(int x1, int y1), _), Circle(Point(int x2, int y2), _)}) { // do something with x1, y1, x2, y2 } record Circle(Point p1, int radius) {} record Point(int x, int y) {}
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    Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted 68 Pattern Matching for Switch
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    Pattern Matching for Switch interface Shape {} record Square(int edge) implements Shape {} record Circle(int radius) implements Shape {}
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    Pattern Matching for Switch double area(Shape shape) { return switch (shape) { case Square square -> square.edge()*square.edge(); case Circle circle -> Math.PI*circle.radius()* circle.radius(); default -> 0; } }
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    Switch on a Sealed Type sealed interface Shape permits Square, Circle {} record Square(int edge) implements Shape {} record Circle(int radius) implements Shape {}
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    Switch on a Sealed Type double area(Shape shape) { return switch (shape) { case Square square -> square.edge()*square.edge(); case Circle circle -> Math.PI*circle.radius()* circle.radius(); // default -> 0; // Not needed! } }
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    The compiler can: - check if a type is not present and raise an error - raise a warning if an uneeded default is present Switch on a Sealed Type
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    Guarded Pattern (prev. 17 and 18) double area(Shape shape) { return switch (shape) { case Square square && square.edge() == 0 -> 0; case Square square -> square.edge()*square.edge(); case Circle circle -> Math.PI*circle.radius()* circle.radius(); } }
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    Guarded Pattern (prev. 17 and 18) double area(Shape shape) { return switch (shape) { case Square square && square.edge() == 0 -> 0; case Square square -> square.edge()*square.edge(); case Circle circle -> Math.PI*circle.radius()* circle.radius(); } }
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    Switch Pattern with When (prev. 19?) double area(Shape shape) { return switch (shape) { case Square square when square.edge() == 0 -> 0; case Square square -> square.edge()*square.edge(); case Circle circle -> Math.PI*circle.radius()* circle.radius(); } }
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    (19 prev?) Switch and Record Pattern Matching double area(Shape shape) { return switch (shape) { case Square(int edge) when edge == 0 -> 0; case Square(int edge) -> edge*edge; case Circle(int radius) -> Math.PI*radius*radius; } }
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    Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted 78 The Future of Pattern Matching
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    Nested Patterns, needed binding variables, type inference Syntaxic Sugars if (shape instanceof Circle(var center, _) && center instanceof Point(int x, int y)) { // center and radius are binding variables } if (shape instanceof Circle(Point(int x, int y), _)) { // center and radius are binding variables }
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    The deconstruction uses the canonical constructor of a record What about: - factory methods? Deconstruction
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    Deconstruction Using Factory Methods interface Shape { static Circle circle(double radius) { return new Circle(radius); } static Square square(double edge) { return new Square(edge); } } record Circle(double radius) {} record Square(double edge) {}
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    Then this code could become possible: Deconstruction Using Factory Methods double area = switch(shape) { case Shape.circle(double radius) -> Math.PI*radius*radius; case Shape.square(double edge) -> edge*edge; }
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    With factory methods Deconstruction Using Factory Methods if (opt instanceof Optional.of(var max)) { // max is a binding variable }
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    With factory methods Deconstruction Using Factory Methods if (s instanceof String.format("%s is %d years old", String name, Integer.valueOf(int age) { // name and age are binding variables }
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    Map deconstruction This is an extended form of Pattern Matching where you check the value of a binding variable Deconstruction Using Factory Methods if (map instanceof Map.withMapping("name", var name) && map instanceof Map.withMapping("email", var email)) { // name and email are binding variables }
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    Pattern combination More Examples if (map instanceof Map.withMapping("name", var name) __AND Map.withMapping("email", var email)) { // name and email are binding variables } __AND = pattern combination
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    More Examples { "firstName": "John", "lastName": "Smith", "age": 25, "address" : { "street": "21 2nd Street", "city": "New York", "state": "NY", "postalCode": "10021" } } if (json instanceof stringKey("firstName", var firstName) __AND stringKey("lastName", var lastName) __AND intKey("age", var age) __AND objectKey("address", stringKey("street", var street) __AND stringKey("city", var city) __AND stringKey("state", var state) )) { // firstName, lastName, age, // street, city, state, ... // are binding variables }
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    If Java Embraces « Map Literals » Map<String, String> map = { "firstName": "John", "lastName": "Smith", "age": "25" } if (map instanceof { "firstName": var firstName, "lastName": var lastName, "age": Integer.toString(var age) }) { // firstName, lastName, age // are binding variables // age is a deconstructed int }
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    The deconstruction uses the canonical constructor of a record What about: - factory methods? - classes that are not records? Deconstruction
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    What About Your POJOs? public class Point { private int x, y; public Point(int x, int y) { this.x = x; this.y = y; } public deconstructor(int x, int y) { x = this.x; y = this.y; } } This is the output of the deconstructor It allows both: - overloading - defensive copy
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    Match can check if an expression matches a pattern Just as if checks for a boolean expression Introducing Match
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    Pattern with Match (or Let?) record Point(int x, int y) {} record Circle(Point center, int radius) implements Shape {} Circle circle = ...; match Circle(var center, var radius) = circle; // center and radius are binding variables
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    Pattern with Let record Point(int x, int y) {} record Circle(Point center, int radius) implements Shape {} Circle circle = ...; let Circle(var center, var radius) = circle else throw new IllegalStateException("Not a circle");
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    Pattern with Let record Point(int x, int y) {} record Circle(Point center, int radius) implements Shape {} Circle circle = ...; let Circle(var center, var radius) = circle else { center = new Point(0, 0); // this is called radius = 0; // an anonymous matcher }
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    You can use match with more than one pattern… … or use nested patterns Pattern with Let Shape shape = ...; let Rectangle(var p1, var p2) = shape, Point(var x0, var y0) = p1, Point(var x1, var y2) = p2;
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    Nesting Patterns + Type Inference List<Point> points = ...; for (Point point: points) { int x = point.x(); int y = point.x(); // do something with x and y } record Point(int x, int y) {}
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    Nesting Patterns + Type Inference List<Point> points = ...; for (Point(int x, int y): points) { // do something with x and y } record Point(int x, int y) {}
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    • Constant Patterns: checks the operand with a constant value • Type Patterns: checks if the operand has the right type, casts it, and creates a binding variable Patterns at a Glance
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    • Patterns + Deconstruction: checks the operand type, casts it, bind the component to binding variables • Patterns + Method: uses a factory method or a deconstructor • Patterns + Var: infers the right type, and creates the binding variable • Pattern + _: infers the right type, but does not create the binding variable Patterns at a Glance
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    Where are we? • Pattern Matching for instanceof (16) • Pattern Matching for Switch (prev 17, 18, 19?) • Record and Array Pattern Matching (19?) • Match • Literals Patterns at a Glance