Traditional Databases in Kubernetes

Traditional Databases in Kubernetes

describes how traditional databases like postgresql clusters are redesigned to run it on Kubernetes to suites CloudNative nature.


Kunal Kushwaha

January 16, 2020


  1. 2.

    About Me • Senior Engineer @ NTT Open Source Software

    Center • Contributes to OSS container projects like podman, KubeVirt etc • Docker Community Leader & Meetup Organizer. • I did detailed evaluation on legacy application migration on Kubernetes using KubeVirt. ◦ Presented at Open Source Summit, Japan (2019) ◦ • Currently working on fixing issues in KubeVirt for smooth migration of traditional DB and HA application to Kubernetes.
  2. 3.

    Major bottlenecks for DB migration in Kubernetes • Lack of

    Virtual IP on Custom Networks. ◦ Traditionally, in HA architecture data path, control path have its own network. ◦ K8s service cannot be binded to secondary networks created through meta CNI like Multus. • Lack of Fencing mechanism for data consistency ◦ Shared storage is quite popular in traditional HA architecture. ◦ Still fencing mechanism is not yet available in Kubernetes, which makes difficult for traditional HA application to migrate without modification. • Lack of static IP ◦ Static IPs were heavily used in traditional Infrastructure. ◦ It is hard to get especially in non-cloud infrastructure and its very costly in cloud too.
  3. 4.

    Alternative solutions for Kubernetes • Replace shared disk with streaming

    replication. ◦ Due to lack of reliable fencing mechanism, avoid shared disk. ◦ Better scale factor (even to multi-region level) • HA packages in side-car. ◦ Move HA packages out of DB containers to side-car containers within pod. ◦ Run along with each db instance and update the DB state to external key-value store. ◦ Participate in Leader election with help of state stored in external key-value store. • Store cluster state outside DB clusters. ◦ Storing cluster state outside DB cluster helps to deal with split-brain conditions. ◦ Cluster state can be stored in distributed and strongly consistent key-value store, so can be accessed independent of db pods.
  4. 5.
  5. 6.

    Popular open source DB Operators • zalando/postgres-operator ◦ Build by

    an european e-commerce company Zalando. ◦ Based on zalando/patroni, a template for postgresql HA with Zookeeper, etc or consul ◦ Production quality. • sorintlab/stolon ◦ Developed by sorintlab for running PostgreSQL in cloud native environment ◦ Similar design like patroni, but independent implementation. • CrunchyData/postgres-operator ◦ Developed by team of PostgreSQL veterans. ◦ Uses zalando/paroni for HA functionality since latest release.
  6. 7.

    Zalando PG Operator Operator Creates & manage postgreSQL HA Cluster.

    Build using open source projects • Patroni: A python daemon that manage one postgres instance. ◦ It keeps cluster state in distributed & strongly consistent key value store. • Spilo: Spilo is a Docker image that provides PostgreSQL and Patroni bundled together.
  7. 9.

    HA Implementation As PostgreSQL cannot talk to Kubernetes directly, So

    Patroni manage PostgreSQL. • Patroni run alongside PostgreSQL & keeps cluster state in distributed & strongly consistent key value store like etcd. • A leader node name is set as a value of the leader key that expires at predefined TTL • The leader node update leader key more often than expiration TTL, preventing expiration. • A non-leader node is not allowed to update the leader key with its name. • Each instance watches the leader key. • Once the leader key expires, each remaining instance decides if it is “healthy enough” * to become leader. • The first “healthy”* instance that creates leader key with its name, becomes leader. ★ Member is never healthy if old master is still running. ★ Member is never healthy if its WAL is behind some other member or its too far behind the last known master position.
  8. 16.

    Credits & References Diagrams Credits PostgreSQL and Kubernetes: DBaaS without

    a vendor-lock Referenced materials • Blue elephant on-demand: PostgreSQL + Kubernetes FOSDEM 2018, Brussels • zalando/patroni: A template for PostgreSQL High Availability with ZooKeeper, etcd, or Consul • An introduction to stolon: cloud native PostgreSQL high availability • sorintlab/stolon: PostgreSQL cloud native High Availability and more. • • Crunchy Data Container Suite Documentation
  9. 17.