Networks everywhere

Networks everywhere

Talk, held at the workshop "Distinguishability in Phylogenetic Networks" (Lorentz Center, Leiden, 2018-08-13-17).

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Johann-Mattis List

August 13, 2018
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Transcript

  1. 1.

    Networks everywhere! Johann-Mattis List Research Group “Computer-Assisted Language Comparison” Department

    of Linguistic and Cultural Evolution Max-Planck Institute for the Science of Human History Jena, Germany 2018-08-13 very long title P(A|B)=P(B|A)... 1 / 20
  2. 3.

    Introduction Networks in historical linguistics... networks of lexical borrowing networks

    of languages / dialects (data-display) networks of word similarities networks of word formation processes networks of sound correspondence patterns networks of sound change transitions networks of semantic similarity 3 / 20
  3. 4.

    Introduction ... and beyond networks of rhyme patterns networks of

    Chinese character formation processes networks of sound glosses in Chinese networks of reconstruction systems 4 / 20
  4. 6.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: lexical borrowing . . ---Lánzhōu .

    Fùzhōu -- . Xiāngtàn -- . M ěixiàn -- . H ongkong -- . ---Wǔhàn . ---Běijīng . ---Kùnmíng . Hángzhōu -- . Xiàmén -- . ---Chéngdū . Sùzhōu -- . Shànghǎi -- . Táiběi -- . ---Zhèngzhōu . Shèxiàn -- . ---Nánjīng . ---Guìyáng . W énzhōu -- . N ánníng -- . Tūnxī -- . ---Tiānjìn . Shāntóu -- . ---Xīníng . ---Q īngdǎo . ---Ürüm qi . ---Píngyáo . Nánchàng -- . ---Tàiyuán . Chángshā -- . Hǎikǒu -- . ---Héfèi . Jiàn'ǒu -- . ---Yīnchuàn . ---Hohhot . Táoyuán -- . ---Xī'ān . G uǎngzhōu -- . ---Harbin . ---Jìnán . 1 . 10 . 20 . Inferred Links List et al. (2014): Minimal lateral networks... 6 / 20
  5. 7.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: lexical borrowing Guānhuà Xiàng Mǐn Yuè

    Wú Jìn Kèjiā Gàn Pínghuà Huī 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 1 Běijīng 北京 2 Chángshā 长沙 3 Chéngdū 成都 4 Fùzhōu 福州 5 Guǎngzhōu 广州 6 Guìyáng 贵阳 7 Harbin 哈尔滨 8 Hǎikǒu 海口 9 Hángzhōu 杭州 10 Héfèi 合肥 11 Hohhot 呼和浩特 12 Jiàn'ōu 建瓯 13 Jìnán 济南 14 Kùnmíng 昆明 15 Lánzhōu 兰州 16 Měixiàn 梅县 17 Nánchàng 南昌 18 Nánjīng 南京 19 Nánníng 南宁 20 Píngyáo 平遥 21 Qīngdǎo 青岛 22 Shànghǎi 上海 23 Shāntóu 汕头 24 Shèxiàn 歙县 25 Sùzhōu 苏州 26 Táiběi 台北 27 Tàiyuán 太原 28 Táoyuán 桃园 29 Tiānjìn 天津 30 Tūnxī 屯溪 31 Wénzhōu 温州 32 Wǔhàn 武汉 33 Ürümqi 乌鲁木齐 34 Xiàmén 厦门 35 Hongkong 香港 36 Xiāngtàn 湘潭 37 Xīníng 西宁 38 Xī'ān 西安 39 Yīnchuàn 银川 40 Zhèngzhōu 郑州 1 8 16 Inferred Links List et al. (2014): Minimal lateral networks... 6 / 20
  6. 8.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: data-display networks Anyi Nanchang Shuangfeng Changsha

    Yingshan Wuhan Chengdu Ningxia Taiyuan Yuci Beijing Suzhou Shanghai_B Shanghai_A Ningbo Wenzhou Fuzhou Taibei Zhanping Xiamen Lianchang Meixian Guangzhou 0.1 List 2015: Neighbor-Net or Chinese dialects by Wang (2004) 7 / 20
  7. 9.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: word similarity networks Fúzhōu ŋuoʔ⁵ Měixiàn

    ŋiat⁵ 0.44 kuoŋ⁴⁴ 0.78 0.78 Wēnzhōu y²¹ ȵ 0.30 0.35 0.67 ku ³ ɔ ⁵ 0.80 0.85 0.27 0.67 vai¹³ 0.85 0.85 0.82 0.73 0.73 Běijīng y ¹ ɛ⁵ 0.77 0.84 0.73 0.56 0.56 0.66 li ŋ¹ ɑ 0.78 0.78 0.44 0.67 0.82 0.82 0.80 ŋiat⁵ kuoŋ⁴⁴ ŋuoʔ⁵ ȵy²¹ yɛ⁵¹ kuɔ³⁵ liɑŋ¹ vai¹³ ŋiat⁵ vai¹³ kuoŋ⁴⁴ ŋuoʔ⁵ liɑŋ¹ yɛ⁵¹ ȵy²¹ kuɔ³⁵ ȵy²¹ kuɔ³⁵ ŋiat⁵ yɛ⁵¹ liɑŋ¹ ŋuoʔ⁵ kuoŋ⁴⁴ vai¹³ B C D A List et al. (2016): partial cognate detection 8 / 20
  8. 10.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: word similarity networks "person" "hombre" PERSUNE

    PESUNYR PESUN PERSUN PESYN UMPRE UM UME UM UME "mensch" MESKE MADYR MENS MENS MEBYR "čelovek" TSWUBJEK TSLUBJEK TSLUBEK TSYBEK TSUBEK TSALABEK TSWUJEK TSILABEK TSLUBEK PESYN PESEN PERSUNE PERSUNA PERSUN PERSUNA PERSUNA LYTINA LYS LYTI "ljudi" Slavic Romance Germanic a b - - - - - m i - - ²² - - - - - m i - ŋ ³¹ - - - - - m i e n ⁵³ - - - - - m i e n ⁵⁵ - - - - - m ɛ i ŋ ²¹² l i a n ⁵³⁻³⁵ m i a n ⁰ l i a n ⁴² - - - - - l i a n ⁵³ - - - - - l i a n ⁵¹ - - - - - l i e n ²¹² - - - - - l i ã - ⁵⁵ - - - - - l i ɛ n ²¹³ - - - - - l i ɛ̃ n ⁴⁴² - - - - - liǎn-miàn臉⾯ miàn ⾯ liǎn 臉 LIN6 LIN3 LIN2 LIN6 LIN6 LIN3 LIN6 LIN3 LIN3 LIN6 MIN1 MIN3 MIN5 MIN2 MEN6 MIN1 MI1 MIN1 MIN3 LIN6MIN List et al. (2016): sequence similarity networks 8 / 20
  9. 11.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: word formation processes Italian dare French

    donner Indo-European *deh₃- *deh₃-no- Latin dare dōnum dōnāre Italian sole French soleil Swedish sol German Sonne Germanic *sōwel- *sunnō- Latin sōl sōliculus Indo-European *sóh₂-wl̩ - *sh₂én- A B List (2016): subtypes of homology in linguistics 9 / 20
  10. 12.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: word formation processes Ellenbogengesellschaft 'dog-eat-dog society'

    Bogen 'bow' Elle 'underarm' Geselle 'comrade' -schaft -ship (suff.) ge- 'together' (pref.) Saal 'housing' Ellenbogen 'elbow' Gesellschaft 'society' List (2018): word formation networks 9 / 20
  11. 13.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: word formation processes Fúzhōu Měixiàn Guǎngzhōu

    Běijīng Fúzhōu Měixiàn Guǎngzhōu Běijīng List (2017-2022): word tree reconciliation (?) 9 / 20
  12. 14.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: word formation processes Fúzhōu Měixiàn Guǎngzhōu

    Běijīng Fúzhōu Měixiàn Guǎngzhōu Běijīng List (2017-2022): word tree reconciliation (?) 9 / 20
  13. 15.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: word formation processes Fúzhōu Měixiàn Guǎngzhōu

    Běijīng List (2017-2022): word tree reconciliation (?) 9 / 20
  14. 16.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: word formation processes Fúzhōu Měixiàn Guǎngzhōu

    Běijīng List (2017-2022): word tree reconciliation (?) 9 / 20
  15. 17.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: word formation processes LOSS INNO VATIO

    N INNO VATIO N BORROWING List (2017-2022): word tree reconciliation (?) 9 / 20
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  17. 22.
  18. 23.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: sound change networks k tʃ h

    s ʃ x k tʃ s → tʃ ʃ ʃ → → k x h h → → s k s tʃ ʃ x h A Reflexes (including proto-form) B Transitions (provided by expert) C Conversion to directed network k x tʃ ʃ s h k 0 1 1 2 3 2 x 50 0 50 50 50 1 tʃ 50 50 0 1 2 3 ʃ 50 50 50 0 1 2 s 50 50 50 50 0 1 h 50 50 50 50 50 0 D Creation of Transition Matrix x → Chacon and List (2015): sound change transitions 11 / 20
  19. 25.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: semantic similarity networks List et al.

    (2018): cross-linguistic polysemy networks 12 / 20
  20. 26.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: semantic similarity networks CARRY IN HAND

    CARRY UNDER ARM RULE ORDER SALT TAKE CHOOSE LEND SHARE BRING FORGET ACQUIT HAVE SEX HAND LIBERATE DIRTY GUEST ARM BETWEEN UPPER ARM MOLD TORCH OR LAMP OWN GAP (DISTANCE) DRIP (EMIT LIQUID) FINGERNAIL OR TOENAIL RIVER KISS RAIN (PRECIPITATION) WHEN SPOON SUCK ROUND LICK FINGERNAIL CLAW SOUP DRINK FORK PITCHFORK WATER SEA OPEN SMOKE (INHALE) LET GO OR SET FREE CAUSE DIRT FORKED BRANCH SEND LIP FORGIVE UNTIE ANCHOR EAT BITE BEVERAGE SWALLOW SAP URINE ANKLE FISHHOOK WHEEL WHERE LIFT CHIEFTAIN LOWER ARM CAUSE TO (LET) QUEEN GIVE ELBOW DONATE ELECTRICITY SKY STORM CLOUDS MUD SWAMP SMOKE (EXHAUST) FRESH SMOKE (EMIT SMOKE) STRANGER CEASE MOORLAND HOST GO UP (ASCEND) WEDDING CLIMB CLOUD PALM OF HAND FIVE MARRY RISE (MOVE UPWARDS) WRIST KING PRESIDENT FATHOM COLLARBONE RIDE SPACE (AVAILABLE) MASTER SHOULDER BROOM RAKE FLESH HOOK DRIBBLE SPIT TOE PAW OCEAN FINGER LAKE EDGE OBSCURE TOP NIGHT INCREASE WORLD UP DARKNESS BE GOD CALF OF LEG LEG SHIN FISH LOWER LEG WOMAN FEMALE (OF PERSON) FEMALE FEMALE (OF ANIMAL) LAGOON CORNER BORDER BESIDE FRINGE BOUNDARY WIFE COAST POINTED SHARP SHORE PLACE (POSITION) END (OF SPACE) EARTH (SOIL) BLACK STAND UP CHEW MEAL BREAKFAST HEEL FOOD DINNER (SUPPER) FOOT STAR SAND CLAY STAND SHOULDERBLADE CRAWL WAKE UP FOG FINISH DARK MALE ICE WAIST MARRIED MAN HIP DEEP LUNG FOAM REMAINS BLUE WAIT (FOR) LIFE LATE BE ALIVE AFTER TOWN BEHIND ASH FLOUR STATE (POLITICS) NEW UPPER BACK BOTTOM PASTURE THATCH BUTTOCKS MAN MALE (OF ANIMAL) MALE (OF PERSON) SIT DOWN TALL CROUCH EVENING AFTERNOON HIGH WEST GROW MAINLAND SIT LAND FLOOR AREA HALT (STOP) DUST REMAIN GROUND NATIVE COUNTRY DWELL (LIVE, RESIDE) COUNTRY HUSBAND BACK END (OF TIME) SPINE GRASS DEW MARRIED WOMAN ROOSTER INSECT FOWL BIRD ANIMAL HEN SHORT BABY CORN FIELD THIN SAGO PALM GARDEN SMALL THIN (OF SHAPE OF OBJECT) CLAN NARROW FAMILY YOUNG CITIZEN FINE OR THIN SHALLOW THIN (SLIM) GIRL RELATIVES YOUNG MAN FRIEND PARENTS CHILD (DESCENDANT) YOUNG WOMAN BOY NEIGHBOUR CHILD (YOUNG HUMAN) SON SIBLING BROTHER DESCENDANTS OLDER SIBLING DAUGHTER ALONE FENCE ONLY FEW TOWER SOME ONE YARD OUTSIDE FORTRESS NEVER PLAIN PEOPLE VALLEY DOWN FIELD LOW PERSON YOUNGER SIBLING YOUNGER SISTER OLDER BROTHER YOUNGER BROTHER COUSIN SISTER OLDER SISTER NEPHEW DAMP FLOWER MANY SMOOTH WIDE FLAT BLOOD WET BELOW OR UNDER DOWN OR BELOW GREY BREAD DOUGH RAW VILLAGE GREEN CROWD SOFT AT ALL SLIP UNRIPE VEIN BLOOD VESSEL ALWAYS TENDON ROOF ROOT INSIDE OR GENTLE OLD WITH ENOUGH OLD (AGED) FORMER AND ROOM HOME TENT HUT GARDEN-HOUSE WEAK DENSE MEN'S HOUSE OLD MAN LAZY STILL (CONTINUING) TIRED AGAIN MORE READY OLD WOMAN SOMETIMES IN HOUSE OFTEN YELLOW RED AFTERWARDS BIG GOLD YOLK HOUR SALTY PINCH KNEEL AGE RIPE THICK FULL STRAIGHT BE LATE LIGHT (RADIATION) ABOVE WORK (ACTIVITY) PRODUCE MAKE DAY (NOT NIGHT) HEAVEN WORK (LABOUR) BUILD FAR AT THAT TIME LONG WHITE LENGTH THEN MOUNTAIN OR HILL SEASON HAVE PRESS GET PICK UP HEAD HOLD EARN DO OR MAKE WEATHER FATHER STEPFATHER UNCLE FATHER-IN-LAW (OF MAN) FATHER'S BROTHER MOTHER'S BROTHER STEPMOTHER AUNT BEGINNING BEGIN FIRST FATHER'S SISTER MOTHER-IN-LAW (OF WOMAN) MOTHER'S SISTER MOTHER MOTHER-IN-LAW (OF MAN) PARENTS-IN-LAW GRANDDAUGHTER SON-IN-LAW (OF WOMAN) FATHER-IN-LAW (OF WOMAN) SON-IN-LAW (OF MAN) DAUGHTER-IN-LAW (OF WOMAN) CHILD-IN-LAW SIBLING'S CHILD NIECE GRANDFATHER DAUGHTER-IN-LAW (OF MAN) IN FRONT OF FORWARD GRANDSON GRANDCHILD GRANDMOTHER ANCESTORS GRANDPARENTS THING STREET MANNER ROAD PIECE PORT PATH OR ROAD PATH RIB BONE BAIT THIGH BAY FLESH OR MEAT MEAT FOOTPRINT SIDE PART SLICE WALL (OF HOUSE) MIDDLE NAVEL SNOW LAST (FINAL) HAY HALF NEAR CHICKEN BULL SNAKE WORM CATTLE LIVESTOCK CALF OX COW WHICH WHITHER (WHERE TO) WINE HOW CIRCLE RING BALL BRACELET HOW MUCH HOW MANY BEEHIVE GRAVE CAVE BEARD RAIN (RAINING) SPRING OR WELL MOUSTACHE STREAM GLUE ALCOHOL (FERMENTED DRINK) BEE BEER HONEY WHO WASP MEAD WHAT WHY CANDY LUNCH ITEM WARE CUSTOM LAW MIDDAY PIT (POTHOLE) HOLE FURROW DITCH LAIR JUDGMENT COURT ADJUDICATE CONDEMN CONVICT ACCUSE BLAME ANNOUNCE PREACH EXPLAIN SAY ASK (REQUEST) THROW BUDGE (ONESELF) SHOOT EMBERS UGLY CHOP CUT DOWN COLD (OF WEATHER) FIREWOOD GRASP LEAD (GUIDE) DISTANCE LIE DOWN CARRY ON HEAD PERMIT PUSH MOLAR TOOTH FRONT TOOTH (INCISOR) RIDGEPOLE BEAK COAT TOWEL HELMET SHIRT HEADBAND HEADGEAR RAG VEIL SOON TOGETHER IMMEDIATELY NEST NOW BED TODAY INSTANTLY SUDDENLY RUG WITHOUT PONCHO BLANKET CLOAK MAT BEFORE BOLT (MOVE IN HASTE) ROAR (OF SEA) FAST DASH (OF VEHICLE) EARLY YESTERDAY HURRY AT FIRST EMPTY NO DRY ZERO NOTHING NOT RESULT IN BE BORN HAPPEN PASS SUCCEED BECOME BRAVE CLOTH POWERFUL DARE LOUD GRASS-SKIRT DRESS CLOTHES SKIRT RIPEN SOLID PIERCE HARD BEGET ROUGH REFUSE FRY DRESS UP DENY CALM MORNING PEACE BE SILENT QUIET SWELL TOMORROW HEALTHY EXPENSIVE HAPPY ROAST OR FRY STRONG BAKE PRICE BOIL (SOMETHING) PUT ON COOKED SLOW FAITHFUL RIGHT LAST (ENDURE) FOR A LONG TIME DAWN BEAUTIFUL GOOD COOK (SOMETHING) YES CORRECT (RIGHT) BOIL (OF LIQUID) DO PUT BRIGHT CLEAN LIGHT (COLOR) LAY (VERB) SHINE SEAT (SOMEBODY) INNOCENT FORBID PREPARE CERTAIN TRUTH TRUE DEAR PRECIOUS WARM HEAT CONCEIVE SEW LOOM PLAIT LIGHT (IGNITE) BURN (SOMETHING) PREVENT HOLY GOOD-LOOKING ARSON BEND CHANGE (BECOME DIFFERENT) BURNING TWIST DEBT CROOKED ROLL SPIN HEAVY HOT WEAVE DIFFICULT FEVER PLAIT OR BRAID OR WEAVE PREGNANT OWE TWINKLE CLEAR BEND (SOMETHING) MORTAR CRUSHER PESTLE BITTER MILL MONTH SKULL MEASURE TRY COME BACK TIME MOON COUNT JOIN SQUEEZE PILE UP CLOCK BUY DRAW MILK DAY (24 HOURS) BETRAY GUARD PROTECT PAY KNEE KEEP SELL SUN BILL HELP LIE (MISLEAD) TRADE OR BARTER DECEIT PERJURY RESCUE CURE FOLD SIEVE PRESERVE TRANSLATE TURN (SOMETHING) TURN WRAP HERD (SOMETHING) WAGES DEFEND CHANGE RETURN HOME TIE UP (TETHER) TURN AROUND HANG KNIT WEIGH HANG UP GIVE BACK CONNECT COVER BUTTON BUNCH KNOT SHUT BUNDLE TIE NOOSE GILL EAR EARLOBE THINK FOLLOW JEWEL BE ABLE OBEY SUMMER FEEL (TACTUALLY) REMEMBER SUSPECT BELIEVE GUESS RECOGNIZE (SOMEBODY) SOUR SWEET SUGAR CANE BRACKISH SUGAR TASTY CALCULATE IMITATE CITRUS FRUIT TASTE (SOMETHING) READ COME PRECIPICE SEE STONE OR ROCK APPROACH TOUCH ARRIVE YEAR MEET GRIND FRAGRANT ROTTEN SMELL (STINK) SMELL (PERCEIVE) STINKING SNIFF PUS FEEL UNDERSTAND HEAR THINK (BELIEVE) LISTEN MOVE (AFFECT EMOTIONALLY) KNOW (SOMETHING) NOTICE (SOMETHING) WATCH LEARN REEF STUDY LOOK FOR LOOK NASAL MUCUS (SNOT) SPLASH PITY HIDE (CONCEAL) SHELF FLY (MOVE THROUGH AIR) REGRET NOSTRIL THIEF BOARD SINK (DESCEND) DECREASE CHEEK NOSE BROKEN LOSE EMERGE (APPEAR) ANXIETY BAD LUCK GOOD LUCK OMEN WRONG SLAB FOREHEAD EYE BAD EVIL TABLE INJURE DANGER SURPRISED HARVEST BERRY FEAR (FRIGHT) NUT FAULT MISTAKE BECOME SICK SEED MISS (A TARGET) GUILTY SWELLING BRUISE BLISTER BOIL (OF SKIN) SCAR CHOKE ENTER ACHE SICK DISEASE PAIN DAMAGE (INJURY) SEVERE GRIEF SAUSAGE BEAD STOMACH INTESTINES CHAIN SPLEEN NECKLACE WOMB LIVER BELLY MEANING GHOST POSTCARD HEART LEGENDARY CREATURE SHADE DEMON BRAIN MEMORY FIGHT LETTER THOUGHT MIND BOOK COLLAR INTENTION SPIRIT PURSUE LONG HAIR SPRINGTIME HAIR (HEAD) THINK (REFLECT) DOUBT AUTUMN ORNAMENT HOPE ARMY QUARREL BEAT SOLDIER KNOCK BATTLE NOISE REST NAPE (OF NECK) THROAT NECK IDEA IF BECAUSE SLEEP FOREST DRIP (FALL IN GLOBULES) STICK TREE WALKING STICK PLANT (VEGETATION) LIE (REST) DRAG ASK (INQUIRE) DIVIDE URGE (SOMEONE) STING BRANCH CAMPFIRE BORROW SEPARATE TOOTH MOUTH CANDLE FALL ASLEEP DRIVE (CATTLE) MATCH DRIVE RAFTER BEAM DOORPOST DREAM (SOMETHING) POST MAST TUMBLE (FALL DOWN) WALK TREE TRUNK LAND (DESCEND) TEAR (SHRED) SAW GO OUT FALL TEAR (OF EYE) GO DOWN (DESCEND) BODY TREE STUMP SHOW CARVE SPOIL (SOMEBODY OR SOMETHING) BREAK (CLEAVE) PLANT (SOMETHING) DESTROY WALK (TAKE A WALK) CHIN BREAK (DESTROY OR GET DESTROYED) CUT PICK SPLIT LEAVE PULL CLUB WOOD MOVE (ONESELF) HIRE PRAISE MIX KNEAD WIPE SNEEZE BOAST SCRATCH CLEAN (SOMETHING) HOARFROST WORSHIP COUGH SWEEP RUB SCRAPE CARCASS DIE (FROM ACCIDENT) DIE BATHE SWIM DEAD FLOAT LOVE STAB SAIL PEEL SPREAD OUT CRY COMMON COLD (DISEASE) FROST CORPSE SHRIEK JUMP SHOUT DIG WINTER NAME STREAM (FLOW CONTINUOUSLY) PLOUGH CULTIVATE PLAY VISIBLE SEEM STRETCH SOW SEEDS RETREAT INVITE MUSIC RUN COLD HOLLOW OUT CHARCOAL TONGUE STOVE CONVERSATION SKIN DIVORCE OVEN EARWAX COOKHOUSE TIP (OF TONGUE) AIR HUNT BORE CALL BY NAME BREATH STEP (VERB) SONG ATTACK WASH PROUD SIN DEFENDANT CRIME CHIME (ACTION) EGG TESTICLES BARLEY FRUIT VEGETABLES GRAIN MAIZE RICE WHEAT RUDDER RYE PADDLE SWAY SWING (MOVEMENT) SWING (SOMETHING) SHAKE ROW FREEZE JOG (SOMETHING) OAT SHIVER RINSE RING (MAKE SOUND) MAKE NOISE SOUND (OF INSTRUMENT OR VOICE) TINKLE HOE SHOVEL SPADE FLOW DANCE FLEE CALL DAMAGE SAME FACE SIMILAR DISAPPEAR ESCAPE PRAY GAME BURY CAPE CHAIR MOVE STEAL GROAN HOWL COLD (CHILL) JAW DROWN SINK (DISAPPEAR IN WATER) SET (HEAVENLY BODIES) DIVE WOUND POUND TALK BREATHE PROMISE SPEAK WIND VOICE FUR PUBIC HAIR SOUND OR NOISE STRIKE OR BEAT BARK SCALE KILL HAMMER TONE (MUSIC) WOOL EXTINGUISH MURDER HIT SPEECH CHAT (WITH SOMEBODY) WORD STORM THRESH LEATHER LIKE NEED (NOUN) FELT SKIN (OF FRUIT) PAPER OATH WANT SWEAR KICK SNAIL DEATH PULL OFF (SKIN) SHELL FIREPLACE PEN HAIR (BODY) LANGUAGE CONVEY (A MESSAGE) TELL LEAF (LEAFLIKE OBJECT) FEATHER POUR FLAME GO SING BEESWAX HELL GATHER CARRY SEIZE CATCH TRAP (CATCH) WING FIRE CARRY ON SHOULDER CAST MOW BOSS FIND FIN ADMIT TEACH LEAF SAILCLOTH HAIR ANSWER SAY FOOT CIRCLE GRAIN List et al. (2018): cross-linguistic polysemy networks 12 / 20
  21. 27.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: semantic similarity networks TONGUE TELL ANNOUNCE

    TALK TIP (OF TONGUE) ADMIT CHAT (WITH SOMEBODY) SAY WORD ANSWER LANGUAGE VOICE SOUND OR NOISE NOISE PREACH SPEECH TONE (MUSIC) EXPLAIN CONVERSATION CONVEY (A MESSAGE) SPEAK List et al. (2018): cross-linguistic polysemy networks 12 / 20
  22. 28.

    Linguistics Networks in linguistics: semantic similarity networks TOE ANKLE ROUND

    RING FOOT CIRCLE WHEEL LEG BALL FOOTPRINT HEEL List et al. (2018): cross-linguistic polysemy networks 12 / 20
  23. 31.

    Beyond Linguistics Beyond linguistics: Networks of rhyme patterns 訧 蚩

    謀 治 絲 淇 之 哉 霾 來 尤 思 List (2017): networks of rhyme words in Chinese 14 / 20
  24. 34.

    Beyond Linguistics Beyond linguistics: Networks of character formation 倚 'jeX

    攲 khje, kje 觭 khje 奇 'kje, gje 踦 khje, kjeX, ngjeX 錡 gje, gjeX, ngjeX 寄 kjeH 綺 khjeX 畸 kje 騎 gje 猗 'aX, 'je, 'jeX 輢 'jeX 椅 'je 陭 'je 掎 kjeX 荷 ha 可 khaX 訶 xa 苛 ha 河 ha 呵 xa 哥 ka 歌 ka 何 ha 阿 'a 柯 ka (A) (B) List (2018): Chinese character formation networks 15 / 20
  25. 35.

    Beyond Linguistics Beyond linguistics: Networks of character formation 攫 隻

    矍 滸 許 稟 忤 㐭 懍 玃 嬴 瀛 杕 大 泰 贏 陰 㡿 語 蔭 侌 㴑 屰 寤 悟 盇 晤 朔 吾 逆 櫛 葢 即 節 檟 賈 襾 气 愾 微 氣 薇 欮 午 疋 義 五 角 諷 癢 楓 矉 嬪 儐 濱 鬢 繽 蕕 翔 祥 庠 養 姜 詳 蝤 緧 鰌 猶 賓 芃 帆 軓 汎 風 鳳 鉅 拒 粔 矩 距 詎 盈 夃 荒 巟 驚 慌 躩 楹 蜘 踟 智 磿 儆 檠 曆 歷 蒸 瓬 妨 舫 邡 放 枋 昉 烝 敬 知 秝 厤 矢 丞 茍 拯 木 士 沐 志 誌 寍 寧 濘 霂 方 紡 芳 訪 髣 仿 坊 房 懃 櫃 埏 誕 壴 圥 愍 爻 與 蘀 舁 殬 擇 鐸 棫 厲 勱 礪 邁 勵 萬 秅 歟 民 糲 璵 旟 鱮 蠣 譽 堇 答 荅 睪 圛 懌 釋 坴 脀 駁 喜 肴 䡈 眠 敃 僅 饉 勤 珉 泯 蓳 匱 饎 稑 譆 嬉 陸 睦 殽 彷 防 僂 魴 機 譏 蟣 磯 璣 穖 饑 䢔 給 閤 戍 洽 幾 合 翕 璊 亳 瞞 亭 樠 宅 咤 詫 㒼 停 猷 誠 頂 丁 成 町 汀 盛 輶 乇 丿 歙 託 延 侘 梴 筵 㓃 驟 陬 滿 趣 娶 取 杵 聚 卸 懣 疎 胥 桷 解 楚 斛 糈 犧 湑 懈 蕨 壻 蹶 撅 橜 蟹 邂 蠃 議 蟻 儀 羲 羸 厥 闕 离 戸 呉 矛 蠥 鉞 糱 噳 孼 越 狘 籬 輮 顧 揉 糅 雇 螭 離 柔 所 漓 扈 茅 麌 誤 虞 辥 戉 優 瀀 瀉 憑 媢 帽 霧 墀 遲 塘 藜 腳 棃 黎 犀 唐 穅 卻 綌 潟 冃 舄 冫 庚 敄 冒 冰 寫 馮 憂 務 瞀 古 祜 胡 葫 故 苦 餬 巨 菀 婉 倨 鋸 糊 腕 宛 居 鴛 苑 眢 怨 旻 忞 紊 汶 文 盌 閔 玟 夗 吝 穟 燧 凡 憫 襚 羊 隧 邃 遂 隊 㒸 墜 旞 酋 蝓 窬 逾 揄 輸 踰 歈 完 元 筦 翫 院 遊 仔 子 慝 蘧 暱 羣 籧 孜 斿 蝣 君 窘 裙 尹 伊 掠 諒 勍 黥 景 忌 倞 涼 圮 毌 附 付 摜 貫 慣 醵 箬 豦 遽 據 若 諾 婼 匿 劇 糜 魔 麾 磨 影 麻 憬 跽 撥 發 爾 癹 廢 邇 彌 瀰 眥 觜 㧘 祡 柴 泥 怩 些 葦 闈 韙 幃 圍 煒 褘 緯 諱 厓 街 圭 鼃 哇 卦 挂 絓 蛙 詖 簸 披 波 跛 破 被 皮 陂 婆 京 韋 宓 囗 掛 謐 崖 密 睚 匕 牝 疕 尼 種 湩 動 董 鍾 踵 腫 慟 鬳 甗 䖈 獻 過 薖 咼 騧 蝸 蜹 冎 庸 凍 蚋 芮 墉 鏞 租 駔 粗 組 虘 蒩 祖 殂 樝 輕 牼 巠 頸 勁 䞓 鑋 莖 陘 徵 助 鉏 阻 耡 鋤 涷 蝀 東 棟 重 愉 屨 渝 慮 愈 投 鑢 羖 股 殳 拍 白 訾 柏 玼 泚 紫 迫 魄 林 欲 紲 霖 琳 泄 俗 容 詍 淋 世 溶 谷 蓉 貣 式 忒 侙 箴 試 軾 鍼 妀 弋 伽 賀 扐 迦 仂 飶 苾 駜 桂 覕 窐 㠱 丂 玩 巧 霾 㱙 禁 婪 襟 惏 摩 塺 噤 穌 兪 蘇 魯 府 魚 櫓 腐 骴 粕 此 貲 頿 泊 髭 疵 碧 代 黛 岱 疲 貸 袋 己 違 偉 勒 力 阞 泐 祕 畦 毖 泌 柲 刲 必 恚 奎 閟 佳 理 里 狸 貍 裏 鯉 攷 考 乎 呼 虖 嘑 栲 記 杞 紀 芑 屺 誋 羭 覦 瑜 瘉 諭 廬 壚 櫨 鑪 籚 纑 顱 蓍 秕 鼖 卉 枇 筰 妣 冪 賁 庇 莋 吅 雚 權 讙 鄧 短 鐙 豎 隥 盧 登 燈 澄 豶 幩 轒 噴 歕 僨 蕡 濆 憤 墳 證 渴 褐 顴 勸 遏 揭 懽 歡 觀 臚 驩 旂 斤 訢 忻 頎 祈 欣 昕 釿 近 靳 芹 掀 勺 廉 簾 旦 嫌 暮 磏 鼸 豆 鎌 募 筳 莛 廷 梃 霆 蜓 庭 挺 鋌 控 功 攻 貢 空 兼 紅 椌 呈 程 桯 酲 聽 珽 裎 逞 邛 訌 虹 工 杠 江 矼 鴻 蘄 嗛 蒹 謙 歉 慊 溓 熑 徇 旬 恂 殉 侚 洵 坦 頭 裋 袒 但 鴠 亶 脰 怛 詣 䭫 鰭 耆 鬐 鮨 脂 指 嗜 釣 酌 妁 灼 礿 旳 靮 約 杓 汋 豹 旨 㕣 氈 饘 膻 鱣 顫 鸇 擅 葯 稅 說 挩 脫 閱 蛻 銳 悅 橁 筍 沿 船 兌 荀 詢 絢 阼 胙 祚 詐 咋 瘼 漠 笮 柞 作 乍 迮 怍 賖 䣄 余 韽 㱃 斀 噣 髑 韣 項 燭 觸 躅 濁 屬 除 鐲 斸 畬 艅 餘 悆 篨 擒 欘 墓 謨 寞 蟆 慕 模 莫 膜 幕 傚 蜀 獨 襡 戠 窨 嶽 歆 獄 鸑 識 㠯 幟 職 織 樴 熾 允 鈗 沇 苢 夋 吮 耜 悛 浚 駿 餕 畯 焌 逡 俊 狻 竣 酸 喑 䇂 言 暗 唁 瘖 音 闇 浦 甫 餔 痡 蒲 捘 朘 持 時 塒 等 堅 待 邿 詩 寺 特 㞢 蚩 鏗 匍 哺 捕 酺 傅 鋪 榑 莆 簠 輔 鬴 圃 補 脯 黼 逋 恃 峙 侍 洔 痔 庤 畤 契 㓞 齧 絜 挈 犗 害 割 黃 炗 丰 潢 璜 轄 簧 蚌 弭 咠 麛 緝 輯 渳 葺 戢 狀 牀 斨 牄 壯 戕 爿 牂 橫 廣 莊 觵 臧 裝 次 厶 弘 二 矣 佽 絘 咨 恣 資 茨 餈 楫 揖 耳 恥 佴 強 涘 竢 俟 眸 楮 奢 赭 䰞 褚 渚 箸 豬 瀦 賻 博 簿 溥 搏 簙 薄 燔 幡 旛 繙 璠 灰 臤 掔 佑 右 腎 又 賢 緊 祐 洧 賄 鮪 痏 宥 囿 有 尤 敷 鎛 尃 膊 旉 縛 擴 藏 勹 䆅 薋 曠 獷 壙 襁 纊 贓 賂 客 骼 觡 垎 路 詻 頟 句 輅 包 格 略 珞 各 胳 貉 閣 恪 楔 潔 鍥 喫 濈 駱 雒 酪 絡 烙 洛 狢 柯 哥 奇 苛 呵 奸 阿 河 何 訶 忓 藁 嚆 僑 嶠 鐈 橋 趫 撟 稾 高 縞 槁 膏 槀 落 犒 毫 嗃 翯 蒿 鎬 熇 喬 痀 駒 劬 絇 胊 軥 鴝 竘 苟 蚼 枸 怐 可 狗 耇 飽 胞 苞 姁 匏 庖 炮 愙 露 璐 喀 潞 簬 鷺 繑 驕 鷮 矯 蹻 屩 葽 呶 雖 鷕 腰 怓 女 汝 荷 挐 孥 交 吟 岑 今 酓 骹 茭 窔 狡 蛟 郊 鮫 恔 效 皎 較 猗 觭 攲 踦 倚 椅 輢 陭 綺 歌 騎 錡 寄 掎 畸 禽 衾 芩 靲 紟 衿 黔 隹 蜼 顀 椎 砮 弩 帑 怒 奴 拏 笯 駑 維 鵻 錐 騅 唯 帷 惟 要 眙 佁 怡 詒 貽 飴 治 笞 陽 瘍 煬 揚 颺 楊 暘 畼 炱 駘 怠 殆 紿 冶 始 場 台 腸 暢 枲 昜 胎 碭 愓 籹 禓 如 湯 餳 璗 洳 恕 茹 簜 盪 絮 帤 傷 蕩 駮 咬 姣 佼 烄 校 暑 者 堵 諸 陼 緒 儲 坒 比 粃 紕 仳 芘 昨 常 鱨 掌 嘗 酢 竿 玕 肝 枹 皯 旰 袍 鮑 鞄 涂 稌 途 荼 塗 播 蟠 潘 釆 番 蕃 膰 藩 推 堆 陮 蓷 誰 催 頷 錦 含 㜝 金 䘳 斯 揀 諫 牟 麰 爛 闌 侔 愒 竭 曷 匃 謁 歇 陛 睹 皤 譒 屠 闍 悉 蟋 振 沾 批 宸 侲 蜃 霑 阽 抯 菹 柤 沮 雹 練 爤 賴 籟 剌 蘭 瀨 獺 柬 期 干 扞 悍 睢 基 崔 衎 刊 漼 摧 趡 朞 償 當 尚 徐 詰 蛣 賞 敞 佶 儻 閾 或 淢 國 膕 荏 剄 涇 經 賃 逕 徑 瘏 脛 任 紝 衽 壬 飪 入 龢 盉 科 委 禾 內 踊 涌 勇 俑 蛹 湧 通 筩 用 誦 甬 痛 桶 傭 蜮 赳 虯 惑 而 多 聝 觓 占 鏜 棠 堂 黨 攩 矘 螳 瞠 震 娠 賑 鹹 辰 脣 漘 諴 減 嘉 駕 珈 加 枷 哿 痁 拈 㓠 苫 覘 坫 點 帖 㚤 杙 憾 咸 緘 感 顑 拭 叫 丩 訆 收 嘂 荍 且 倭 巍 逶 魏 萎 納 軜 吶 頡 劼 黠 髻 袺 襭 珌 騏 旗 祺 惎 麒 諅 貊 褶 摺 慴 百 陌 伯 帛 習 怕 謵 其 熠 稘 槢 諆 萁 欺 棋 鼾 睅 捍 軒 雌 砠 疽 狙 岨 蛆 雎 鴡 苴 咀 詛 拮 姞 桔 吉 結 僛 旱 汗 邗 釬 閈 罕 豻 瘻 膢 摟 蔞 屢 縷 戲 超 壞 渡 懷 沼 剫 昭 縫 度 逢 蜂 遝 召 褱 䖒 蹠 鋒 貰 耎 宜 侈 輿 迻 哆 移 抴 㢋 㨎 渜 蝡 輭 煗 勩 萋 緀 悽 淒 孀 霜 湘 想 相 箱 郤 貴 蕢 僓 屮 簣 妻 眔 刀 虍 庶 夆 髏 鏤 螻 樓 塿 婁 窶 寠 List (2018): Chinese character formation networks 15 / 20
  26. 36.

    Beyond Linguistics Beyond linguistics: Networks of Chinese sound glosses 森木多貌。從林從木。讀若曾參之參。

    The character 森 (sēn «forest») denotes many trees. It consists of the characters 林 (lín «forest») and 木 (mù «wood»). To read as the character 參 in 曾參 zēngcēn. (a) dúruò glossing method 东 德 红 反/切 dōng (tuwng) dé (tok) hóng (huwng) fǎn / qiè The character 东 «east» is read as t[ok]-[h]uwng. (b) fǎnqiè glossing method List (2018): networks of Chinese sound glosses 16 / 20
  27. 37.

    Beyond Linguistics Beyond linguistics: Networks of Chinese sound glosses bj

    pj b 防 扶 苻 附 平2 鄙 甫 比3 父2 分2 比5 馮2 便2 婢 皮 平 馮 房 便 部 弼 毗 頻 比 父 徧 反2 并 封2 方 府 方2 扶2 陂 兵 封 分 彼 筆 裴 縛 符 浮 List (2018): networks of Chinese sound glosses 16 / 20
  28. 38.

    Beyond Linguistics Beyond linguistics: Networks of Chinese sound glosses 韋

    薳 王 爲 云 有 羽 雨 于 雲 以 乗2 神 余 夷 餘 台 徐 似 祥 翼 恱 弋 夕 支 移 詳2 寺 與2 永 又 營 實 爲2 王2 食2 筠 宜 牛 危 魚 疑 語 擬 玉 舒 詩 書 榮 傷 洧 賞 皮 房 毗 裴 部 便 頻 與 食 辝 旬 隨 辭 乗 羊 詳 與3 作 即 遵 醉 簪2 臧 將 資 借 借2 子 漸 則 雖 思 胥2 私 作2 祖 息 司 斯 作3 比 弼 馮 便2 婢 平 比3 父2 馮2 比5 彼 筆 陂 扶2 分2 兵 鄙 研 虞 愚 五 遇 語2 兒2 俄 吾 弃 羌 欽 跪 卿 詰 丘 曲 兹2 乞 傾 倉 當2 丁 張2 親 柱2 七 遷 捕 陟 蒲 猪 薄 珍 張 豬 裴2 徵 並 九 傍2 居 蒼 部2 僕 取 平3 中 卓 竹 知 追 商 釋 識2 施 施2 始 綺 袪 驅 墟 區 豈 虚 起 驅2 窺 矢 式 吐2 湯 去 失 試 麁 仍 人 如 采 而 蒼2 麤 握 委 央 衣 伊 音 烟 依 一 憂 偏 孚 舉 反 妃 曁 於 俱 吉 叉 楚 敕 初 恥 耳 叉2 測 挹 儒 穠2 丑 汝 創 瘡 抽 古 楮 苦 癡 兒 楚2 芻 公 客 恪 苦2 口 楷2 枯 空 謙 取2 几 奇 醋 其2 千 規 紀 戸 䟽 史 踈 兼 詭 各 格 干 過 乖 佳 姑 楷 博 可 康 牽 虛 魯 此 德 練 普 妃2 得 離3 郎 多 滂 雌 姊 叱 妳 歩 那2 洛 落 勒 匹 當 乃 諾 冬 披2 丁2 那 比2 偏2 賴 阻2 楮2 來 必 盧 側 奴 都 譬 賔 莊 卑 簪 鄒 阻 爭 比4 查 內 犲 青 冝 厠 班 況 邊 休 興2 巴 香 朽 羲 布 卜 伯 晡 興 北 補 許 喜 百 下 何 獲 於2 黃 天 通 鷖 區2 烟2 安 哀 愛 胡 乎 懷 侯 其 狂2 臼 近 俟 去2 士 渠 跪2 具 丕 峯 牀 崱 芳 鉏 鋤 披 拂 里 近2 巨 狂 求 敷 縷 強 離2 衢 力 房2 白 離 傍 步 良 頻2 吕 連 林 桑 相 氏2 悉 辛 蘇 武 靡 先 文 速 寫 思2 素 須 胥 封2 甫 府 扶 苻 浮 徧 父 并 分 方2 反2 封 余2 是 視 成 承 氏3 正2 職 識 旨 符 占 脂 占2 署 氏 煑 諸2 殖 視2 植2 之 寔 諸 時 蜀 止 嘗 章 市 常 征 正 殊 附 平2 防 方 縛 女 昌 尺 度 赤 充 特 處 拏 尼 穠 藏 託 才 在 徂 前 謨 匠 模 慈 兹 摸 目 自 母 情 巫 眉 莫 美 望2 彌 無 慕 秦 名 眉2 疾 明 綿 亡 漸2 摸2 望 臣 植 墜 丈 柱 佇 呼 海 他 虎 昨 荒 花 火 呵2 馨 呵 吐 台2 土 湯2 藏2 湯3 直 除 持 宅 治 場 堂 池2 同 唐 徒 陀 烏 山 沙 所 砂 生 土2 池 除2 數2 色 鉏2 數 助 杜 遟 乙 鶵 撫 雛 俟2 仕 崇 紆 謁 憶 馳 hj syj khj trj tshj nyj kh p tsr l t ph pj xj k l tshj n t phj h ' sr d tshyj nrj dz x th drj dzj mj m dzrj gj sj pj dzyj tsyj yj zyj zj ngj bj tsj b lj kj phj 'j List (2018): networks of Chinese sound glosses 16 / 20
  29. 40.

    Beyond Linguistics Beyond linguistics: Networks of reconstruction systems Karlgren (1950)

    Wáng (1980) Li (1971) Zhèngzhāng (2003) Pān (2000) Baxter and Sagart (2014) Starostin (1989) Schuessler (2007) 0.01 List (2018): using networks for evaluation 17 / 20
  30. 42.

    Beyond Linguistics Outlook Beyond beyond? can we profit from gene

    tree reconciliation methods? how well does character mapping work for linguistic data? how far can we stretch our analogies? is word formation similar to protein domain evolution? when will biologists learn from linguistic applications? 19 / 20