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Networks everywhere

Networks everywhere

Talk, held at the workshop "Distinguishability in Phylogenetic Networks" (Lorentz Center, Leiden, 2018-08-13-17).

Johann-Mattis List

August 13, 2018
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  1. Networks everywhere!
    Johann-Mattis List
    Research Group “Computer-Assisted Language Comparison”
    Department of Linguistic and Cultural Evolution
    Max-Planck Institute for the Science of Human History
    Jena, Germany
    2018-08-13
    very
    long
    title
    P(A|B)=P(B|A)...
    1 / 20

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  2. Introduction
    2 / 20

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  3. Introduction
    Networks in historical linguistics...
    networks of lexical borrowing
    networks of languages / dialects (data-display)
    networks of word similarities
    networks of word formation processes
    networks of sound correspondence patterns
    networks of sound change transitions
    networks of semantic similarity
    3 / 20

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  4. Introduction
    ... and beyond
    networks of rhyme patterns
    networks of Chinese character formation processes
    networks of sound glosses in Chinese
    networks of reconstruction systems
    4 / 20

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  5. Networks in Linguistics
    5 / 20

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  6. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: lexical borrowing
    .
    .
    ---Lánzhōu
    .
    Fùzhōu --
    .
    Xiāngtàn --
    .
    M
    ěixiàn
    --
    .
    H
    ongkong
    --
    .
    ---Wǔhàn
    .
    ---Běijīng
    .
    ---Kùnmíng
    .
    Hángzhōu
    --
    .
    Xiàmén --
    .
    ---Chéngdū
    .
    Sùzhōu
    --
    .
    Shànghǎi --
    .
    Táiběi --
    .
    ---Zhèngzhōu
    .
    Shèxiàn --
    .
    ---Nánjīng
    .
    ---Guìyáng
    .
    W
    énzhōu
    --
    .
    N
    ánníng
    --
    .
    Tūnxī --
    .
    ---Tiānjìn
    .
    Shāntóu --
    .
    ---Xīníng
    .
    ---Q
    īngdǎo
    .
    ---Ürüm
    qi
    .
    ---Píngyáo
    .
    Nánchàng --
    .
    ---Tàiyuán
    .
    Chángshā --
    .
    Hǎikǒu --
    .
    ---Héfèi
    .
    Jiàn'ǒu --
    .
    ---Yīnchuàn
    .
    ---Hohhot
    .
    Táoyuán --
    .
    ---Xī'ān
    .
    G
    uǎngzhōu
    --
    .
    ---Harbin
    .
    ---Jìnán
    .
    1
    .
    10
    .
    20
    .
    Inferred Links
    List et al. (2014): Minimal lateral networks...
    6 / 20

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  7. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: lexical borrowing
    Guānhuà
    Xiàng
    Mǐn
    Yuè

    Jìn
    Kèjiā
    Gàn
    Pínghuà
    Huī
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    16
    17
    18
    19
    20
    21
    22
    23
    24
    25
    26
    27
    28
    29
    30
    31
    32
    33
    34
    35
    36
    37
    38
    39
    40
    1 Běijīng 北京
    2 Chángshā 长沙
    3 Chéngdū 成都
    4 Fùzhōu 福州
    5 Guǎngzhōu 广州
    6 Guìyáng 贵阳
    7 Harbin 哈尔滨
    8 Hǎikǒu 海口
    9 Hángzhōu 杭州
    10 Héfèi 合肥
    11 Hohhot 呼和浩特
    12 Jiàn'ōu 建瓯
    13 Jìnán 济南
    14 Kùnmíng 昆明
    15 Lánzhōu 兰州
    16 Měixiàn 梅县
    17 Nánchàng 南昌
    18 Nánjīng 南京
    19 Nánníng 南宁
    20 Píngyáo 平遥
    21 Qīngdǎo 青岛
    22 Shànghǎi 上海
    23 Shāntóu 汕头
    24 Shèxiàn 歙县
    25 Sùzhōu 苏州
    26 Táiběi 台北
    27 Tàiyuán 太原
    28 Táoyuán 桃园
    29 Tiānjìn 天津
    30 Tūnxī 屯溪
    31 Wénzhōu 温州
    32 Wǔhàn 武汉
    33 Ürümqi 乌鲁木齐
    34 Xiàmén 厦门
    35 Hongkong 香港
    36 Xiāngtàn 湘潭
    37 Xīníng 西宁
    38 Xī'ān 西安
    39 Yīnchuàn 银川
    40 Zhèngzhōu 郑州
    1
    8
    16
    Inferred Links
    List et al. (2014): Minimal lateral networks...
    6 / 20

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  8. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: data-display networks
    Anyi
    Nanchang
    Shuangfeng
    Changsha
    Yingshan
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Ningxia
    Taiyuan
    Yuci
    Beijing
    Suzhou
    Shanghai_B
    Shanghai_A
    Ningbo
    Wenzhou
    Fuzhou
    Taibei
    Zhanping
    Xiamen
    Lianchang
    Meixian
    Guangzhou
    0.1
    List 2015: Neighbor-Net or Chinese dialects by Wang (2004)
    7 / 20

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  9. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: word similarity networks
    Fúzhōu ŋuoʔ⁵
    Měixiàn
    ŋiat⁵ 0.44
    kuoŋ⁴⁴ 0.78 0.78
    Wēnzhōu
    y²¹
    ȵ 0.30 0.35 0.67
    ku ³
    ɔ ⁵ 0.80 0.85 0.27 0.67
    vai¹³ 0.85 0.85 0.82 0.73 0.73
    Běijīng y ¹
    ɛ⁵ 0.77 0.84 0.73 0.56 0.56 0.66
    li ŋ¹
    ɑ 0.78 0.78 0.44 0.67 0.82 0.82 0.80
    ŋiat⁵
    kuoŋ⁴⁴
    ŋuoʔ⁵
    ȵy²¹
    yɛ⁵¹
    kuɔ³⁵
    liɑŋ¹
    vai¹³
    ŋiat⁵
    vai¹³
    kuoŋ⁴⁴
    ŋuoʔ⁵
    liɑŋ¹
    yɛ⁵¹
    ȵy²¹
    kuɔ³⁵
    ȵy²¹
    kuɔ³⁵
    ŋiat⁵
    yɛ⁵¹
    liɑŋ¹
    ŋuoʔ⁵
    kuoŋ⁴⁴
    vai¹³
    B C
    D
    A
    List et al. (2016): partial cognate detection
    8 / 20

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  10. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: word similarity networks
    "person"
    "hombre"
    PERSUNE PESUNYR
    PESUN
    PERSUN
    PESYN
    UMPRE
    UM
    UME
    UM
    UME
    "mensch"
    MESKE
    MADYR
    MENS
    MENS
    MEBYR
    "čelovek"
    TSWUBJEK
    TSLUBJEK
    TSLUBEK
    TSYBEK
    TSUBEK
    TSALABEK
    TSWUJEK
    TSILABEK
    TSLUBEK
    PESYN
    PESEN
    PERSUNE PERSUNA
    PERSUN
    PERSUNA
    PERSUNA
    LYTINA
    LYS
    LYTI
    "ljudi"
    Slavic
    Romance
    Germanic
    a b
    - - - - - m i - - ²²
    - - - - - m i - ŋ ³¹
    - - - - - m i e n ⁵³
    - - - - - m i e n ⁵⁵
    - - - - - m ɛ i ŋ ²¹²
    l i a n ⁵³⁻³⁵ m i a n ⁰
    l i a n ⁴² - - - - -
    l i a n ⁵³ - - - - -
    l i a n ⁵¹ - - - - -
    l i e n ²¹² - - - - -
    l i ã - ⁵⁵ - - - - -
    l i ɛ n ²¹³ - - - - -
    l i ɛ̃ n ⁴⁴² - - - - -
    liǎn-miàn臉⾯
    miàn ⾯
    liǎn 臉
    LIN6
    LIN3
    LIN2
    LIN6
    LIN6 LIN3
    LIN6
    LIN3
    LIN3
    LIN6
    MIN1
    MIN3
    MIN5
    MIN2
    MEN6
    MIN1
    MI1
    MIN1
    MIN3
    LIN6MIN
    List et al. (2016): sequence similarity networks
    8 / 20

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  11. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: word formation processes
    Italian
    dare
    French
    donner
    Indo-European
    *deh₃-
    *deh₃-no-
    Latin
    dare
    dōnum
    dōnāre
    Italian
    sole
    French
    soleil
    Swedish
    sol
    German
    Sonne
    Germanic
    *sōwel-
    *sunnō-
    Latin
    sōl
    sōliculus
    Indo-European
    *sóh₂-wl̩ -
    *sh₂én-
    A B
    List (2016): subtypes of homology in linguistics
    9 / 20

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  12. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: word formation processes
    Ellenbogengesellschaft
    'dog-eat-dog society'
    Bogen
    'bow'
    Elle
    'underarm'
    Geselle
    'comrade'
    -schaft
    -ship (suff.)
    ge-
    'together' (pref.)
    Saal
    'housing'
    Ellenbogen
    'elbow'
    Gesellschaft
    'society'
    List (2018): word formation networks
    9 / 20

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  13. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: word formation processes
    Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Běijīng Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Běijīng
    List (2017-2022): word tree reconciliation (?)
    9 / 20

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  14. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: word formation processes
    Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Běijīng Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Běijīng
    List (2017-2022): word tree reconciliation (?)
    9 / 20

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  15. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: word formation processes
    Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Běijīng
    List (2017-2022): word tree reconciliation (?)
    9 / 20

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  16. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: word formation processes
    Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Běijīng
    List (2017-2022): word tree reconciliation (?)
    9 / 20

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  17. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: word formation processes
    LOSS
    INNO
    VATIO
    N
    INNO
    VATIO
    N
    BORROWING
    List (2017-2022): word tree reconciliation (?)
    9 / 20

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  18. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: sound correspondence patterns
    Hill and List (2016): sound correspondence patterns
    10 / 20

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  19. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: sound correspondence patterns
    Hill and List (2016): sound correspondence patterns
    10 / 20

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  20. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: sound correspondence patterns
    Hill and List (2016): sound correspondence patterns
    10 / 20

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  21. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: sound correspondence patterns
    Hill and List (2016): correspondence pattern networks
    10 / 20

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  22. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: sound correspondence patterns
    Hill and List (2016): correspondence pattern networks
    10 / 20

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  23. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: sound change networks
    k tʃ h s ʃ x
    k tʃ
    s

    tʃ ʃ
    ʃ


    k
    x
    h
    h


    s
    k
    s
    tʃ ʃ
    x
    h
    A Reflexes (including proto-form)
    B Transitions (provided by expert)
    C Conversion to directed network
    k x tʃ ʃ s h
    k 0 1 1 2 3 2
    x 50 0 50 50 50 1
    tʃ 50 50 0 1 2 3
    ʃ 50 50 50 0 1 2
    s 50 50 50 50 0 1
    h 50 50 50 50 50 0
    D Creation of Transition Matrix
    x

    Chacon and List (2015): sound change transitions
    11 / 20

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  24. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: sound change networks
    Chacon and List (2015): sound transitions on tree
    11 / 20

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  25. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: semantic similarity networks
    List et al. (2018): cross-linguistic polysemy networks
    12 / 20

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  26. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: semantic similarity networks
    CARRY IN HAND
    CARRY UNDER ARM
    RULE
    ORDER
    SALT
    TAKE
    CHOOSE
    LEND SHARE
    BRING
    FORGET
    ACQUIT
    HAVE SEX
    HAND
    LIBERATE
    DIRTY
    GUEST
    ARM
    BETWEEN
    UPPER ARM
    MOLD
    TORCH OR LAMP
    OWN
    GAP (DISTANCE)
    DRIP (EMIT LIQUID)
    FINGERNAIL OR TOENAIL
    RIVER
    KISS
    RAIN (PRECIPITATION)
    WHEN
    SPOON
    SUCK
    ROUND
    LICK
    FINGERNAIL
    CLAW SOUP
    DRINK
    FORK
    PITCHFORK
    WATER
    SEA
    OPEN
    SMOKE (INHALE)
    LET GO OR SET FREE
    CAUSE
    DIRT
    FORKED BRANCH
    SEND
    LIP
    FORGIVE
    UNTIE
    ANCHOR
    EAT
    BITE
    BEVERAGE
    SWALLOW
    SAP
    URINE
    ANKLE
    FISHHOOK
    WHEEL
    WHERE
    LIFT
    CHIEFTAIN
    LOWER ARM
    CAUSE TO (LET)
    QUEEN
    GIVE
    ELBOW
    DONATE
    ELECTRICITY
    SKY
    STORM CLOUDS
    MUD
    SWAMP
    SMOKE (EXHAUST)
    FRESH
    SMOKE (EMIT SMOKE)
    STRANGER
    CEASE
    MOORLAND
    HOST
    GO UP (ASCEND)
    WEDDING
    CLIMB
    CLOUD
    PALM OF HAND
    FIVE
    MARRY
    RISE (MOVE UPWARDS)
    WRIST
    KING
    PRESIDENT
    FATHOM
    COLLARBONE
    RIDE
    SPACE (AVAILABLE)
    MASTER
    SHOULDER
    BROOM
    RAKE
    FLESH
    HOOK
    DRIBBLE
    SPIT
    TOE
    PAW
    OCEAN
    FINGER
    LAKE
    EDGE
    OBSCURE
    TOP
    NIGHT
    INCREASE
    WORLD
    UP
    DARKNESS
    BE
    GOD
    CALF OF LEG
    LEG
    SHIN
    FISH
    LOWER LEG
    WOMAN
    FEMALE (OF PERSON)
    FEMALE
    FEMALE (OF ANIMAL)
    LAGOON
    CORNER
    BORDER
    BESIDE
    FRINGE
    BOUNDARY
    WIFE
    COAST
    POINTED
    SHARP
    SHORE
    PLACE (POSITION)
    END (OF SPACE)
    EARTH (SOIL)
    BLACK
    STAND UP
    CHEW
    MEAL
    BREAKFAST
    HEEL
    FOOD
    DINNER (SUPPER)
    FOOT
    STAR
    SAND
    CLAY
    STAND
    SHOULDERBLADE
    CRAWL
    WAKE UP FOG
    FINISH
    DARK
    MALE ICE
    WAIST
    MARRIED MAN
    HIP
    DEEP
    LUNG
    FOAM
    REMAINS
    BLUE
    WAIT (FOR)
    LIFE
    LATE
    BE ALIVE
    AFTER
    TOWN
    BEHIND
    ASH
    FLOUR
    STATE (POLITICS)
    NEW
    UPPER BACK
    BOTTOM
    PASTURE
    THATCH
    BUTTOCKS
    MAN
    MALE (OF ANIMAL)
    MALE (OF PERSON)
    SIT DOWN
    TALL
    CROUCH
    EVENING
    AFTERNOON
    HIGH
    WEST
    GROW
    MAINLAND
    SIT
    LAND
    FLOOR
    AREA
    HALT (STOP)
    DUST
    REMAIN
    GROUND
    NATIVE COUNTRY
    DWELL (LIVE, RESIDE)
    COUNTRY
    HUSBAND
    BACK
    END (OF TIME)
    SPINE
    GRASS
    DEW
    MARRIED WOMAN
    ROOSTER
    INSECT
    FOWL
    BIRD
    ANIMAL
    HEN
    SHORT
    BABY
    CORN FIELD
    THIN
    SAGO PALM
    GARDEN
    SMALL
    THIN (OF SHAPE OF OBJECT)
    CLAN
    NARROW
    FAMILY
    YOUNG
    CITIZEN
    FINE OR THIN
    SHALLOW
    THIN (SLIM)
    GIRL
    RELATIVES
    YOUNG MAN
    FRIEND
    PARENTS
    CHILD (DESCENDANT)
    YOUNG WOMAN
    BOY
    NEIGHBOUR
    CHILD (YOUNG HUMAN)
    SON
    SIBLING
    BROTHER
    DESCENDANTS
    OLDER SIBLING
    DAUGHTER
    ALONE
    FENCE
    ONLY
    FEW
    TOWER
    SOME
    ONE
    YARD
    OUTSIDE
    FORTRESS
    NEVER
    PLAIN
    PEOPLE
    VALLEY
    DOWN
    FIELD
    LOW
    PERSON
    YOUNGER SIBLING
    YOUNGER SISTER
    OLDER BROTHER
    YOUNGER BROTHER
    COUSIN
    SISTER
    OLDER SISTER
    NEPHEW
    DAMP
    FLOWER
    MANY
    SMOOTH
    WIDE
    FLAT
    BLOOD
    WET
    BELOW OR UNDER
    DOWN OR BELOW
    GREY
    BREAD
    DOUGH
    RAW
    VILLAGE
    GREEN
    CROWD
    SOFT
    AT
    ALL
    SLIP
    UNRIPE
    VEIN
    BLOOD VESSEL
    ALWAYS
    TENDON
    ROOF
    ROOT
    INSIDE
    OR
    GENTLE
    OLD
    WITH
    ENOUGH
    OLD (AGED)
    FORMER
    AND
    ROOM
    HOME
    TENT
    HUT
    GARDEN-HOUSE
    WEAK
    DENSE
    MEN'S HOUSE
    OLD MAN
    LAZY
    STILL (CONTINUING)
    TIRED
    AGAIN
    MORE
    READY
    OLD WOMAN
    SOMETIMES
    IN
    HOUSE
    OFTEN
    YELLOW
    RED
    AFTERWARDS
    BIG
    GOLD
    YOLK
    HOUR
    SALTY
    PINCH
    KNEEL
    AGE
    RIPE
    THICK
    FULL
    STRAIGHT
    BE LATE
    LIGHT (RADIATION) ABOVE
    WORK (ACTIVITY)
    PRODUCE
    MAKE
    DAY (NOT NIGHT)
    HEAVEN
    WORK (LABOUR) BUILD
    FAR
    AT THAT TIME
    LONG
    WHITE
    LENGTH
    THEN
    MOUNTAIN OR HILL
    SEASON
    HAVE
    PRESS
    GET
    PICK UP
    HEAD
    HOLD
    EARN
    DO OR MAKE
    WEATHER
    FATHER
    STEPFATHER
    UNCLE
    FATHER-IN-LAW (OF MAN)
    FATHER'S BROTHER
    MOTHER'S BROTHER
    STEPMOTHER
    AUNT
    BEGINNING
    BEGIN
    FIRST
    FATHER'S SISTER
    MOTHER-IN-LAW (OF WOMAN)
    MOTHER'S SISTER
    MOTHER
    MOTHER-IN-LAW (OF MAN)
    PARENTS-IN-LAW
    GRANDDAUGHTER
    SON-IN-LAW (OF WOMAN)
    FATHER-IN-LAW (OF WOMAN)
    SON-IN-LAW (OF MAN)
    DAUGHTER-IN-LAW (OF WOMAN)
    CHILD-IN-LAW
    SIBLING'S CHILD
    NIECE
    GRANDFATHER
    DAUGHTER-IN-LAW (OF MAN)
    IN FRONT OF
    FORWARD
    GRANDSON
    GRANDCHILD
    GRANDMOTHER
    ANCESTORS
    GRANDPARENTS
    THING
    STREET
    MANNER
    ROAD
    PIECE
    PORT
    PATH OR ROAD
    PATH
    RIB
    BONE
    BAIT
    THIGH
    BAY
    FLESH OR MEAT MEAT FOOTPRINT
    SIDE
    PART
    SLICE
    WALL (OF HOUSE)
    MIDDLE
    NAVEL
    SNOW
    LAST (FINAL)
    HAY HALF
    NEAR
    CHICKEN
    BULL
    SNAKE
    WORM
    CATTLE
    LIVESTOCK
    CALF
    OX
    COW
    WHICH
    WHITHER (WHERE TO)
    WINE
    HOW
    CIRCLE
    RING
    BALL
    BRACELET
    HOW MUCH
    HOW MANY
    BEEHIVE
    GRAVE
    CAVE
    BEARD
    RAIN (RAINING)
    SPRING OR WELL
    MOUSTACHE
    STREAM
    GLUE
    ALCOHOL (FERMENTED DRINK)
    BEE
    BEER
    HONEY
    WHO WASP
    MEAD
    WHAT
    WHY
    CANDY
    LUNCH
    ITEM
    WARE
    CUSTOM
    LAW
    MIDDAY
    PIT (POTHOLE)
    HOLE
    FURROW
    DITCH
    LAIR
    JUDGMENT
    COURT
    ADJUDICATE
    CONDEMN
    CONVICT
    ACCUSE
    BLAME
    ANNOUNCE
    PREACH
    EXPLAIN
    SAY
    ASK (REQUEST)
    THROW
    BUDGE (ONESELF)
    SHOOT
    EMBERS
    UGLY
    CHOP
    CUT DOWN
    COLD (OF WEATHER)
    FIREWOOD
    GRASP
    LEAD (GUIDE)
    DISTANCE
    LIE DOWN
    CARRY ON HEAD
    PERMIT
    PUSH
    MOLAR TOOTH
    FRONT TOOTH (INCISOR)
    RIDGEPOLE
    BEAK
    COAT
    TOWEL
    HELMET
    SHIRT
    HEADBAND
    HEADGEAR
    RAG
    VEIL
    SOON
    TOGETHER
    IMMEDIATELY
    NEST
    NOW
    BED
    TODAY
    INSTANTLY
    SUDDENLY
    RUG
    WITHOUT
    PONCHO
    BLANKET
    CLOAK
    MAT
    BEFORE
    BOLT (MOVE IN HASTE)
    ROAR (OF SEA)
    FAST
    DASH (OF VEHICLE)
    EARLY
    YESTERDAY
    HURRY
    AT FIRST
    EMPTY
    NO
    DRY
    ZERO
    NOTHING
    NOT
    RESULT IN
    BE BORN
    HAPPEN
    PASS
    SUCCEED
    BECOME
    BRAVE
    CLOTH
    POWERFUL
    DARE
    LOUD
    GRASS-SKIRT
    DRESS
    CLOTHES
    SKIRT
    RIPEN
    SOLID
    PIERCE
    HARD
    BEGET
    ROUGH
    REFUSE
    FRY
    DRESS UP
    DENY
    CALM
    MORNING
    PEACE
    BE SILENT
    QUIET
    SWELL
    TOMORROW
    HEALTHY
    EXPENSIVE
    HAPPY
    ROAST OR FRY
    STRONG BAKE
    PRICE
    BOIL (SOMETHING)
    PUT ON
    COOKED
    SLOW
    FAITHFUL
    RIGHT
    LAST (ENDURE)
    FOR A LONG TIME
    DAWN
    BEAUTIFUL
    GOOD
    COOK (SOMETHING)
    YES
    CORRECT (RIGHT)
    BOIL (OF LIQUID)
    DO
    PUT
    BRIGHT
    CLEAN
    LIGHT (COLOR)
    LAY (VERB)
    SHINE
    SEAT (SOMEBODY)
    INNOCENT
    FORBID
    PREPARE
    CERTAIN
    TRUTH TRUE
    DEAR
    PRECIOUS
    WARM
    HEAT
    CONCEIVE
    SEW
    LOOM
    PLAIT
    LIGHT (IGNITE)
    BURN (SOMETHING) PREVENT
    HOLY
    GOOD-LOOKING
    ARSON
    BEND
    CHANGE (BECOME DIFFERENT)
    BURNING
    TWIST
    DEBT
    CROOKED
    ROLL
    SPIN
    HEAVY
    HOT
    WEAVE
    DIFFICULT
    FEVER
    PLAIT OR BRAID OR WEAVE
    PREGNANT
    OWE
    TWINKLE
    CLEAR
    BEND (SOMETHING)
    MORTAR CRUSHER
    PESTLE
    BITTER
    MILL MONTH SKULL
    MEASURE
    TRY
    COME BACK TIME
    MOON
    COUNT
    JOIN
    SQUEEZE
    PILE UP
    CLOCK
    BUY
    DRAW MILK
    DAY (24 HOURS)
    BETRAY
    GUARD
    PROTECT
    PAY
    KNEE
    KEEP
    SELL
    SUN
    BILL
    HELP
    LIE (MISLEAD)
    TRADE OR BARTER
    DECEIT
    PERJURY
    RESCUE
    CURE
    FOLD
    SIEVE
    PRESERVE
    TRANSLATE
    TURN (SOMETHING)
    TURN
    WRAP
    HERD (SOMETHING)
    WAGES
    DEFEND
    CHANGE
    RETURN HOME
    TIE UP (TETHER)
    TURN AROUND
    HANG
    KNIT
    WEIGH
    HANG UP
    GIVE BACK
    CONNECT
    COVER
    BUTTON
    BUNCH
    KNOT
    SHUT
    BUNDLE
    TIE
    NOOSE
    GILL
    EAR
    EARLOBE
    THINK
    FOLLOW
    JEWEL
    BE ABLE
    OBEY
    SUMMER
    FEEL (TACTUALLY)
    REMEMBER
    SUSPECT
    BELIEVE
    GUESS
    RECOGNIZE (SOMEBODY)
    SOUR
    SWEET
    SUGAR CANE
    BRACKISH
    SUGAR
    TASTY
    CALCULATE
    IMITATE
    CITRUS FRUIT
    TASTE (SOMETHING)
    READ
    COME
    PRECIPICE
    SEE
    STONE OR ROCK
    APPROACH
    TOUCH
    ARRIVE
    YEAR
    MEET
    GRIND
    FRAGRANT
    ROTTEN SMELL (STINK)
    SMELL (PERCEIVE)
    STINKING
    SNIFF
    PUS
    FEEL
    UNDERSTAND
    HEAR
    THINK (BELIEVE)
    LISTEN
    MOVE (AFFECT EMOTIONALLY)
    KNOW (SOMETHING)
    NOTICE (SOMETHING)
    WATCH
    LEARN
    REEF
    STUDY
    LOOK FOR
    LOOK
    NASAL MUCUS (SNOT)
    SPLASH
    PITY
    HIDE (CONCEAL)
    SHELF
    FLY (MOVE THROUGH AIR)
    REGRET
    NOSTRIL
    THIEF
    BOARD
    SINK (DESCEND)
    DECREASE
    CHEEK
    NOSE
    BROKEN
    LOSE
    EMERGE (APPEAR)
    ANXIETY
    BAD LUCK
    GOOD LUCK
    OMEN
    WRONG
    SLAB
    FOREHEAD
    EYE
    BAD
    EVIL
    TABLE
    INJURE
    DANGER
    SURPRISED
    HARVEST
    BERRY
    FEAR (FRIGHT)
    NUT FAULT
    MISTAKE
    BECOME SICK
    SEED
    MISS (A TARGET)
    GUILTY
    SWELLING
    BRUISE
    BLISTER
    BOIL (OF SKIN)
    SCAR
    CHOKE
    ENTER
    ACHE
    SICK
    DISEASE
    PAIN
    DAMAGE (INJURY)
    SEVERE
    GRIEF
    SAUSAGE
    BEAD
    STOMACH
    INTESTINES
    CHAIN
    SPLEEN
    NECKLACE
    WOMB
    LIVER
    BELLY
    MEANING
    GHOST
    POSTCARD
    HEART
    LEGENDARY CREATURE
    SHADE
    DEMON
    BRAIN MEMORY
    FIGHT
    LETTER
    THOUGHT
    MIND
    BOOK
    COLLAR INTENTION
    SPIRIT
    PURSUE
    LONG HAIR
    SPRINGTIME
    HAIR (HEAD)
    THINK (REFLECT)
    DOUBT
    AUTUMN
    ORNAMENT
    HOPE
    ARMY
    QUARREL
    BEAT
    SOLDIER
    KNOCK
    BATTLE
    NOISE
    REST
    NAPE (OF NECK)
    THROAT
    NECK
    IDEA
    IF
    BECAUSE
    SLEEP
    FOREST
    DRIP (FALL IN GLOBULES)
    STICK
    TREE
    WALKING STICK
    PLANT (VEGETATION)
    LIE (REST)
    DRAG
    ASK (INQUIRE)
    DIVIDE
    URGE (SOMEONE)
    STING
    BRANCH
    CAMPFIRE BORROW SEPARATE TOOTH
    MOUTH
    CANDLE
    FALL ASLEEP
    DRIVE (CATTLE)
    MATCH
    DRIVE
    RAFTER
    BEAM
    DOORPOST
    DREAM (SOMETHING)
    POST
    MAST
    TUMBLE (FALL DOWN)
    WALK
    TREE TRUNK
    LAND (DESCEND)
    TEAR (SHRED)
    SAW
    GO OUT
    FALL
    TEAR (OF EYE) GO DOWN (DESCEND)
    BODY
    TREE STUMP
    SHOW
    CARVE
    SPOIL (SOMEBODY OR
    SOMETHING)
    BREAK (CLEAVE)
    PLANT (SOMETHING)
    DESTROY
    WALK (TAKE A WALK)
    CHIN
    BREAK (DESTROY OR GET
    DESTROYED)
    CUT
    PICK
    SPLIT
    LEAVE
    PULL
    CLUB
    WOOD
    MOVE (ONESELF)
    HIRE
    PRAISE
    MIX
    KNEAD
    WIPE
    SNEEZE
    BOAST
    SCRATCH
    CLEAN (SOMETHING)
    HOARFROST
    WORSHIP
    COUGH
    SWEEP
    RUB
    SCRAPE
    CARCASS
    DIE (FROM ACCIDENT)
    DIE
    BATHE
    SWIM
    DEAD
    FLOAT
    LOVE
    STAB
    SAIL
    PEEL
    SPREAD OUT
    CRY
    COMMON COLD (DISEASE)
    FROST
    CORPSE
    SHRIEK
    JUMP
    SHOUT
    DIG
    WINTER
    NAME
    STREAM (FLOW CONTINUOUSLY)
    PLOUGH
    CULTIVATE
    PLAY
    VISIBLE
    SEEM
    STRETCH
    SOW SEEDS
    RETREAT
    INVITE
    MUSIC
    RUN
    COLD
    HOLLOW OUT
    CHARCOAL
    TONGUE
    STOVE
    CONVERSATION
    SKIN
    DIVORCE
    OVEN
    EARWAX
    COOKHOUSE
    TIP (OF TONGUE)
    AIR
    HUNT
    BORE
    CALL BY NAME
    BREATH
    STEP (VERB)
    SONG
    ATTACK
    WASH
    PROUD
    SIN
    DEFENDANT
    CRIME
    CHIME (ACTION) EGG
    TESTICLES
    BARLEY
    FRUIT
    VEGETABLES
    GRAIN
    MAIZE
    RICE
    WHEAT
    RUDDER
    RYE
    PADDLE SWAY
    SWING (MOVEMENT)
    SWING (SOMETHING)
    SHAKE
    ROW
    FREEZE
    JOG (SOMETHING)
    OAT
    SHIVER
    RINSE
    RING (MAKE SOUND)
    MAKE NOISE
    SOUND (OF INSTRUMENT OR
    VOICE)
    TINKLE
    HOE
    SHOVEL
    SPADE
    FLOW
    DANCE
    FLEE
    CALL
    DAMAGE
    SAME FACE
    SIMILAR DISAPPEAR
    ESCAPE
    PRAY GAME
    BURY
    CAPE
    CHAIR
    MOVE
    STEAL
    GROAN
    HOWL
    COLD (CHILL)
    JAW
    DROWN
    SINK (DISAPPEAR IN WATER)
    SET (HEAVENLY BODIES)
    DIVE
    WOUND
    POUND
    TALK
    BREATHE
    PROMISE
    SPEAK
    WIND
    VOICE
    FUR
    PUBIC HAIR
    SOUND OR NOISE
    STRIKE OR BEAT
    BARK
    SCALE
    KILL
    HAMMER
    TONE (MUSIC)
    WOOL
    EXTINGUISH
    MURDER
    HIT
    SPEECH
    CHAT (WITH SOMEBODY)
    WORD
    STORM
    THRESH
    LEATHER
    LIKE
    NEED (NOUN)
    FELT
    SKIN (OF FRUIT)
    PAPER
    OATH
    WANT
    SWEAR
    KICK
    SNAIL
    DEATH
    PULL OFF (SKIN)
    SHELL
    FIREPLACE
    PEN
    HAIR (BODY)
    LANGUAGE
    CONVEY (A MESSAGE)
    TELL
    LEAF (LEAFLIKE OBJECT)
    FEATHER
    POUR
    FLAME
    GO
    SING
    BEESWAX
    HELL
    GATHER
    CARRY
    SEIZE
    CATCH
    TRAP (CATCH)
    WING
    FIRE
    CARRY ON SHOULDER
    CAST
    MOW
    BOSS
    FIND
    FIN
    ADMIT
    TEACH
    LEAF
    SAILCLOTH
    HAIR ANSWER
    SAY
    FOOT
    CIRCLE
    GRAIN
    List et al. (2018): cross-linguistic polysemy networks
    12 / 20

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  27. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: semantic similarity networks
    TONGUE
    TELL ANNOUNCE
    TALK
    TIP (OF TONGUE)
    ADMIT
    CHAT (WITH SOMEBODY)
    SAY
    WORD
    ANSWER
    LANGUAGE
    VOICE
    SOUND OR NOISE
    NOISE
    PREACH
    SPEECH
    TONE (MUSIC)
    EXPLAIN
    CONVERSATION
    CONVEY (A MESSAGE)
    SPEAK
    List et al. (2018): cross-linguistic polysemy networks
    12 / 20

    View full-size slide

  28. Linguistics
    Networks in linguistics: semantic similarity networks
    TOE
    ANKLE
    ROUND
    RING
    FOOT
    CIRCLE
    WHEEL
    LEG
    BALL
    FOOTPRINT
    HEEL
    List et al. (2018): cross-linguistic polysemy networks
    12 / 20

    View full-size slide

  29. Beyond Linguistics
    13 / 20

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  30. Beyond Linguistics
    Beyond linguistics: Networks of rhyme patterns
    List (2017): networks of rhyme words in Chinese
    14 / 20

    View full-size slide

  31. Beyond Linguistics
    Beyond linguistics: Networks of rhyme patterns












    List (2017): networks of rhyme words in Chinese
    14 / 20

    View full-size slide

  32. Beyond Linguistics
    Beyond linguistics: Networks of rhyme patterns
    List (2017): networks of rhyme words in Chinese
    14 / 20

    View full-size slide

  33. Beyond Linguistics
    Beyond linguistics: Networks of rhyme patterns
    List (2017): networks of rhyme words in Chinese
    14 / 20

    View full-size slide

  34. Beyond Linguistics
    Beyond linguistics: Networks of character formation
    倚 'jeX
    攲 khje, kje
    觭 khje
    奇 'kje, gje
    踦 khje, kjeX, ngjeX
    錡 gje, gjeX, ngjeX
    寄 kjeH
    綺 khjeX
    畸 kje
    騎 gje
    猗 'aX, 'je, 'jeX
    輢 'jeX
    椅 'je
    陭 'je
    掎 kjeX
    荷 ha
    可 khaX
    訶 xa
    苛 ha
    河 ha
    呵 xa
    哥 ka
    歌 ka
    何 ha
    阿 'a
    柯 ka
    (A) (B)
    List (2018): Chinese character formation networks
    15 / 20

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  35. Beyond Linguistics
    Beyond linguistics: Networks of character formation




































    襾 气




    欮 午
    疋 義 五

    諷 癢



    儐 濱 鬢 繽 蕕




    姜 詳 蝤 緧 鰌 猶
    賓 芃 帆 軓 汎 風 鳳

    拒 粔
    矩 距









    蜘 踟


    儆 檠 曆
    歷 蒸
    瓬 妨
    舫 邡
    放 枋


    敬 知


    矢 丞









    濘 霂

    紡 芳 訪 髣 仿 坊 房
    懃 櫃
    埏 誕
    壴 圥






    擇 鐸 棫









    糲 璵 旟 鱮
    蠣 譽

    答 荅

    圛 懌 釋

    脀 駁
    喜 肴 䡈
    眠 敃 僅 饉 勤

    泯 蓳 匱
    饎 稑
    譆 嬉 陸 睦 殽

    防 僂

    機 譏


    璣 穖 饑
    䢔 給












    咤 詫






    成 町




    丿








    陬 滿



    杵 聚


    疎 胥 桷

    楚 斛
    糈 犧
    湑 懈 蕨
    壻 蹶 撅 橜
    蟹 邂

    議 蟻
    儀 羲 羸
    厥 闕
    离 戸 呉

    蠥 鉞

    噳 孼 越 狘

    輮 顧
    揉 糅

    螭 離
    柔 所
    漓 扈
    茅 麌
    誤 虞 辥 戉
    優 瀀
    瀉 憑 媢 帽 霧
    墀 遲 塘
    藜 腳
    棃 黎 犀 唐 穅 卻 綌 潟

    舄 冫
    庚 敄


    寫 馮 憂 務 瞀

    祜 胡

    故 苦




    倨 鋸
    糊 腕

    居 鴛
    苑 眢
    怨 旻




    盌 閔






    憫 襚

    隧 邃
    遂 隊






    逾 揄 輸
    踰 歈




    院 遊


    慝 蘧



    孜 斿






    掠 諒
    勍 黥

    忌 倞 涼










    遽 據

    諾 婼 匿 劇
    糜 魔











    邇 彌

    眥 觜 㧘 祡 柴 泥


    葦 闈 韙

    圍 煒 褘
    緯 諱





    卦 挂 絓 蛙
    詖 簸
    披 波 跛 破














    牝 疕


    湩 動












    騧 蝸


    庸 凍
    蚋 芮
    墉 鏞
    租 駔

    組 虘

    祖 殂

    輕 牼


    勁 䞓




    助 鉏

    耡 鋤
    涷 蝀

    棟 重

    屨 渝












    泚 紫
    迫 魄



    霖 琳










    式 忒




    鍼 妀




    迦 仂






















    魯 府

    櫓 腐



    貲 頿

    髭 疵





    貸 袋

    違 偉






    毖 泌











    裏 鯉







    記 杞
    紀 芑


    羭 覦
    瑜 瘉 諭

    壚 櫨 鑪 籚 纑 顱








    賁 庇












    燈 澄 豶 幩

    噴 歕 僨 蕡







    勸 遏 揭



    臚 驩



    忻 頎 祈


    釿 近
    靳 芹





    嫌 暮



    鎌 募
    筳 莛

    梃 霆 蜓
    庭 挺 鋌 控
    功 攻 貢 空




    程 桯


    珽 裎 逞




    杠 江 矼

    蘄 嗛
    蒹 謙

    慊 溓 熑



    殉 侚 洵
    坦 頭 裋



    亶 脰











    酌 妁 灼 礿 旳 靮 約
    杓 汋 豹


    氈 饘 膻
    鱣 顫
    鸇 擅

    稅 說
    挩 脫 閱
    蛻 銳 悅

    筍 沿 船 兌
    荀 詢 絢






    漠 笮 柞


    迮 怍



    韽 㱃




    項 燭 觸 躅 濁 屬 除


    畬 艅 餘




    墓 謨 寞

    慕 模

    膜 幕


    獨 襡

    窨 嶽








    樴 熾

    鈗 沇






    駿



    逡 俊 狻
    竣 酸










    餔 痡

    捘 朘
    持 時

    等 堅









    哺 捕 酺



    莆 簠 輔 鬴 圃 補
    脯 黼 逋

    峙 侍








    挈 犗







    轄 簧

    弭 咠
    麛 緝 輯
    渳 葺 戢



    牄 壯




    廣 莊
    觵 臧 裝





    佽 絘 咨 恣 資 茨 餈



    恥 佴
    強 涘

    俟 眸


    赭 䰞
    褚 渚



    賻 博
    簿


    簙 薄

    幡 旛 繙 璠


    掔 佑



    賢 緊 祐 洧



    宥 囿
    有 尤






    擴 藏

    䆅 薋
    曠 獷
    壙 襁
    纊 贓



    觡 垎 路 詻 頟 句
    輅 包




    胳 貉
    閣 恪
    楔 潔
    鍥 喫








    柯 哥 奇
    苛 呵 奸


    何 訶 忓
    藁 嚆 僑 嶠 鐈 橋 趫 撟


    縞 槁
    膏 槀

    犒 毫 嗃


    鎬 熇 喬
    痀 駒 劬 絇 胊 軥 鴝 竘
    苟 蚼 枸


    狗 耇 飽
    胞 苞
    姁 匏
    庖 炮
    愙 露

    喀 潞
    簬 鷺



    矯 蹻 屩

    呶 雖 鷕





    挐 孥

    吟 岑



    茭 窔
    狡 蛟 郊 鮫 恔 效 皎 較



    踦 倚 椅 輢 陭

    歌 騎 錡 寄 掎 畸

    衾 芩 靲
    紟 衿 黔

    蜼 顀



    帑 怒

    拏 笯 駑

    鵻 錐 騅 唯 帷 惟


    佁 怡 詒 貽 飴 治 笞
    陽 瘍
    煬 揚 颺 楊
    暘 畼
    炱 駘 怠 殆 紿 冶









    愓 籹
    禓 如
    湯 餳
    璗 洳 恕


    盪 絮



    駮 咬


    烄 校



    諸 陼 緒



    粃 紕
    仳 芘
    昨 常




    竿
    玕 肝




    鮑 鞄
    涂 稌
    途 荼










    堆 陮



    頷 錦








    麰 爛



















    宸 侲





    柤 沮







    瀨 獺










    漼 摧





    徐 詰







    淢 國

    荏 剄 涇

    賃 逕

    瘏 脛
    任 紝 衽



    龢 盉 科 委





    俑 蛹

    通 筩




    桶 傭
    蜮 赳 虯



    聝 觓





    攩 矘 螳 瞠

    娠 賑 鹹



    諴 減




    枷 哿
    痁 拈


    覘 坫 點 帖 㚤 杙


    緘 感 顑



    訆 收





    逶 魏
    萎 納 軜 吶
    頡 劼






    旗 祺 惎
    麒 諅

    褶 摺













    萁 欺 棋









    蛆 雎 鴡 苴 咀 詛

    姞 桔



    旱 汗 邗 釬 閈 罕


    膢 摟 蔞 屢 縷

    超 壞 渡

    沼 剫
    昭 縫

    逢 蜂 遝
    召 褱 䖒






    輿 迻
    哆 移 抴
    㢋 㨎


    輭 煗 勩
    萋 緀
    悽 淒 孀




    箱 郤

    蕢 僓

    簣 妻

    刀 虍








    窶 寠
    List (2018): Chinese character formation networks
    15 / 20

    View full-size slide

  36. Beyond Linguistics
    Beyond linguistics: Networks of Chinese sound glosses
    森木多貌。從林從木。讀若曾參之參。
    The character 森 (sēn «forest») denotes many trees. It consists of the
    characters 林 (lín «forest») and 木 (mù «wood»). To read as the character
    參 in 曾參 zēngcēn.
    (a) dúruò glossing method
    东 德 红 反/切
    dōng (tuwng) dé (tok) hóng (huwng) fǎn / qiè
    The character 东 «east» is read as t[ok]-[h]uwng.
    (b) fǎnqiè glossing method
    List (2018): networks of Chinese sound glosses
    16 / 20

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  37. Beyond Linguistics
    Beyond linguistics: Networks of Chinese sound glosses
    bj
    pj b

    扶 苻

    平2
    鄙 甫
    比3 父2 分2
    比5 馮2
    便2





    便
    部 弼


    比 父 徧
    反2

    封2


    方2
    扶2

    兵 封 分






    List (2018): networks of Chinese sound glosses
    16 / 20

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  38. Beyond Linguistics
    Beyond linguistics: Networks of Chinese sound glosses









    雲 以
    乗2


    夷 餘










    詳2

    與2
    永 又 營 實
    爲2 王2 食2







    擬 玉







    皮 房


    部 便





    隨 辭

    羊 詳
    與3


    遵 醉
    簪2




    借2

    漸 則 雖 思
    胥2

    作2




    作3
    比 弼

    便2


    比3 父2
    馮2
    比5 彼


    扶2
    分2 兵


    虞 愚
    五 遇
    語2
    兒2 俄


    羌 欽 跪
    卿 詰


    兹2



    當2
    丁 張2

    柱2







    珍 張
    豬 裴2



    傍2


    部2 僕

    平3



    知 追


    識2

    施2









    驅2



    吐2










    蒼2


    委 央

    伊 音

    依 一















    耳 叉2 測 挹

    穠2 丑
    汝 創 瘡





    兒 楚2 芻



    苦2

    楷2

    空 謙
    取2 几

    醋 其2
    千 規 紀






    各 格
    干 過


    姑 楷





    魯 此

    練 普 妃2

    離3
    郎 多 滂 雌 姊 叱 妳 歩
    那2

    落 勒 匹

    乃 諾 冬
    披2
    丁2

    比2 偏2

    阻2 楮2

    必 盧
    側 奴 都 譬

    莊 卑

    鄒 阻
    爭 比4



    青 冝 厠
    班 況
    邊 休 興2
    巴 香 朽

    布 卜 伯
    晡 興

    補 許



    何 獲 於2



    鷖 區2
    烟2

    哀 愛
    胡 乎 懷 侯
    其 狂2



    去2


    跪2


    峯 牀 崱
    芳 鉏 鋤
    披 拂

    近2

    狂 求



    離2 衢

    房2





    頻2





    氏2 悉






    速 寫
    思2 素


    封2
    甫 府
    扶 苻 浮



    分 方2 反2

    余2
    是 視


    氏3
    正2 職





    占2 署
    氏 煑 諸2 殖
    視2 植2
    之 寔

    時 蜀
    止 嘗



    征 正 殊

    平2
    防 方 縛



    度 赤

    特 處 拏



    託 才 在
    徂 前
    謨 匠
    模 慈 兹
    摸 目 自
    母 情



    美 望2
    彌 無
    慕 秦

    眉2


    綿 亡
    漸2
    摸2













    花 火 呵2



    台2

    湯2 藏2
    湯3




    治 場

    池2
    同 唐



    山 沙

    砂 生
    土2

    除2
    數2

    鉏2








    俟2
    仕 崇

    謁 憶 馳
    hj
    syj
    khj
    trj
    tshj
    nyj
    kh
    p
    tsr
    l
    t
    ph
    pj
    xj
    k
    l
    tshj
    n t phj
    h '
    sr
    d tshyj nrj
    dz
    x
    th
    drj
    dzj
    mj
    m
    dzrj
    gj
    sj
    pj
    dzyj
    tsyj
    yj
    zyj zj
    ngj bj
    tsj
    b lj
    kj
    phj
    'j
    List (2018): networks of Chinese sound glosses
    16 / 20

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  39. Beyond Linguistics
    Beyond linguistics: Networks of reconstruction systems
    List (2018): using networks for evaluation
    17 / 20

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  40. Beyond Linguistics
    Beyond linguistics: Networks of reconstruction systems
    Karlgren (1950)
    Wáng (1980)
    Li (1971)
    Zhèngzhāng (2003)
    Pān (2000)
    Baxter and Sagart (2014)
    Starostin (1989)
    Schuessler (2007)
    0.01
    List (2018): using networks for evaluation
    17 / 20

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  41. Outlook
    18 / 20

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  42. Beyond Linguistics Outlook
    Beyond beyond?
    can we profit from gene tree reconciliation methods?
    how well does character mapping work for linguistic data?
    how far can we stretch our analogies?
    is word formation similar to protein domain evolution?
    when will biologists learn from linguistic applications?
    19 / 20

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  43. Thank you for listening!
    20 / 20

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