kettles replaced Stones still used today - brewers like the stone ﬂavour Hops only around for last 500 years so not used before this historically Finnish Sahti dates back to the 1360s Sahti - ABV 7-11%. Carbonation will be very low; Due to high protein levels, body will have a thick & tacky mouthfeel; High alcohol warmth possible.
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, and Russia. Not boiling the wort is normal for sahti, pretty common in gotlandsdricke, and used to be normal for Berliner Weisse. It was also common in many dead farmhouse ales. Today it’s normal for koduõlu. In the northern part of western Norway, the brewers make kornøl. In northern Lithuania, people brew kaimiškas.
153 °F (67 °C) for an hour, you have basically Pasteurised it. A temperature of 145 °F (63 °C) for 30 minutes, or 162 °F (72 °C) for 15 seconds is considered enough for milk products (pathogen removal only) DMS? DMS doesn’t form until the wort reaches 175-180F so if you don’t go above this you don’t get DMS. Hop tea can be used to ensure the hops are isomerised
IBUs by putting hops in your mash. By using high alpha varieties and in large quantities you can achieve an IBU level that is ok for a number of styles. You’d probably have trouble getting to IBU levels required for a double IPA with this method, but for Belgian/ farmhouse styles 10-15 IBU could be ok. Another option is adding hops in your strike and sparge water.
other reactions happen, too. Proteins coagulate, so they usually drop out of the beer. In raw ale, this doesn’t happen. It just means that raw ale gets a recognisably different ﬂavour proﬁle from boiled beer.
mouthfeel, not boiling the wort contributes to that through the protein that helps ﬁll out and smoothen the body. The effect is not too different from using oats or wheat in the grist. The relatively subtle raw ale ﬂavour, will be overwhelmed by the hops. Saison. In a dry saison with European aroma hops the protein will ﬁll out the body nicely, and the grainy, green ﬂavours from the raw wort will blend in nicely with the funky saison yeast aroma.
the time to make sure everything is pasteurised. Remember there is no cold-side, so you really have to sanitise the mashtun, ﬁlter, “juniper branches”, and everything that’s used during mash and lautering. Raw ale brewers are extremely careful with sanitisation.