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An Introduction to Spatial Data: Sources & Methods

An Introduction to Spatial Data: Sources & Methods

This talk aims to be an introduction to Geo, for non Geo types. It was given to DIT MSc (Computer Science) students on Sat 23rd March 2013

Richard Cantwell

March 25, 2013
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  1. An Introduction to
    Spatial Data:
    Sources and Methods
    Richard Cantwell
    Senior GIS Consultant /
    Technical Manager
    www.gamma.ie
    [email protected]
    @ManAboutCouch

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  2. www.gamma.ie

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  3. Mercator, World Map, 1569

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  4. Griffith Valuation, 1850-1858

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  5. www.nuim.ie/staff/dpringle/qsms.shtml
    Early Computer mapping – Belfast 1972

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  6. Computer mapping – Belfast, 40 years later

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  7. Google Maps: Turning the world upside down since 2005

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  8. Pre rendered tiles – Range of data sources
    AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML)
    Open API's - Mashups
    Rapid development – releases every 7-10 days
    Google Earth
    Google Maps - Key Innovations
    http://berglondon.com/projects/hat/

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  9. More Than A Map
    www.morethanamap.com

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  10. “A piece of content or data is Open
    if you are free to use, reuse,
    and redistribute it - subject only,
    at most, to the requirement
    to attribute and share-alike.”
    www.opendefinition.org
    http://flic.kr/p/7Aqgs5

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  11. OpenStreetMap
    www.openstreetmap.org

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  12. New sources of GeoData
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/walkingsf/4672160490

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  13. Shining a Light...
    http://www.walkspace.org/namaland/

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  14. Open not always the default option
    http://www.oobrien.com/vis/bikes/

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  15. Dependencies – data or services can be 'switched off'

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  16. Local Authorities getting on board
    data.fingal.ie

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  17. Passive Crowdsourcing

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  18. Passive Crowdsourcing
    opensignalmaps.com

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  19. tools.geofabrik.de/mc

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  20. tools.geofabrik.de/mc

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  23. Why Maps?

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  24. Why Maps?

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  27. John Snow's 'Cholera Map' from 1854
    www.TheGhostMap.com

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  29. Layering Data to gain insights.

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  30. What’s Special
    about Spatial?

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  31. What’s Special about Spatial?
    www.blanz.net/geo13.html

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  32. Spatial data – data that is 'located in space'

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  33. Represent the curved earth on a flat screen or paper: Projections

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  34. Projections
    http://xkcd.com/977

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  35. Projections

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  36. Vector Data: Point

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  37. Vector Data: Line

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  38. Vector Data: Region

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  39. Raster data.

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  40. Tile Data: .../{z}/{x}/{y}.png
    mike.teczno.com

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  41. Tile Data Pyramid
    tile.openstreetmap.org/0/0/0.png
    tile.openstreetmap.org/10/494/331.png
    tile.openstreetmap.org/18/126521/84975.png

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  42. GeoCoded Address data
    www.autoaddress.ie

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  43. GeoCoded Address data
    www.autoaddress.ie

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  44. Issues particular to
    Spatial Data

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  45. Unintentional errors
    Intentional errors
    Projection issues
    Data Classification
    Scale
    Generalisation
    Interpretation
    Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP)

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  46. An Unintentional Error

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  47. A more recent example

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  48. Bad POI Data

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  49. Common data creation errors
    Overshoot
    Undershoot
    Pseudonode
    Dangling Node Missing Label
    Point
    Missing Node
    Polygon Label
    Point

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  50. The Map.
    The reality.
    An Intentional Error

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  51. Projection issues: Offset Imagery

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  52. Classifying Data: here be dragons..
    colorbrewer2.org

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  56. Why are these bastards lying to me

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  57. The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem

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  58. Tobler’s First Law of Geography:
    "Everything is
    related to
    everything else..
    But near things are
    more related than
    distant things."

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  61. A ‘typical’ project

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  62. Deprivation Index, Northside Dublin, 2006

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  63. Deprivation Index, Northside Dublin, 2006

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  64. Residential Addresses, GeoDirectory, 2010

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  65. Combining Data

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  66. Geocoded Client Listing

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  67. GeoCoding
    www.autoaddress.ie

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  68. Geocoded Client Listing

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  69. Client Listing combined with GeoDirectory

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  70. Geocoded & Classified Client Listing

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  71. Market Analysis

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  72. Market Analysis - Mapping

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  73. Where to get
    Open GeoData

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  74. OSi Data
    http://maps.osi.ie/publicviewer/

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  75. Entire Planet downloadable (~500GB uncompressed)
    planet.openstreetmap.org

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  76. Processed data downloads & services
    www.geofabrik.de

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  77. download.geofabrik.de
    Including pre-configured Shapefiles (reduced featureset)

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  79. SRTM
    http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/

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  80. GeoNames
    http://www.geonames.org/

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  81. Geonames
    http://www.geonames.org/

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  82. GeoNames Visualised
    http://www.datapointed.net/2011/01/happy-new-year/

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  83. Landsat
    http://zulu.ssc.nasa.gov/mrsid/mrsid.pl

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  84. DubLinked
    http://www.dublinked.com

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  85. Spatial data is popular
    http://www.dublinked.com

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  86. www.npws.ie/mapsanddata

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  87. gis.epa.ie/betazone/envision/

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  88. airomaps.nuim.ie/census2011

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  89. www.dcenr.gov.ie/Spatial+Data
    GSI / DCENR: An Irish Open Data Pioneer?

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  90. www.dcenr.gov.ie/Spatial+Data
    GSI / DCENR: An Irish Open Data Pioneer?

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  91. www.isde.ie
    The Irish Spatial Data Exchange

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  92. www.irlogi.ie
    The Irish Organisation for Geographic Information (IRLOGI)

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  93. How to Use Open
    GeoData

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  94. Commercial Software
    www.mapinfo.com

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  95. Open Source Software
    www.osgeo.org

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  96. Open Source Software
    www.osgeo.org

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  97. Edit Store Render Consume
    Store Analyse

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  98. WFS / WMS / WCS
    http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards

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  99. API -> GeoJSON

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  100. Extract Raw Data – Map View
    overpass-turbo.eu

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  101. Extract Raw Data – Data View
    overpass-turbo.eu

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  102. Extract Raw Data – Embedded in a map on a web page
    OpenLayers & OSM Overpass API

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  103. www.mapbox.com/tilemill
    Tilemill

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  105. www.mapbox.com/tilemill

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  106. www.switch2osm.org

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  107. maps.stamen.com/watercolor

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  109. Why Open
    GeoData?

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  110. Vs
    www.creativecommons.org
    Comparing Closed and Open GeoData

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  111. The future of commercial online mapping?
    Logorama: vimeo.com/10149605

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  112. www.citymaps.com
    The future of commercial online mapping?

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  113. maps.google.ie
    The future of commercial online mapping?

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  114. VGI: OpenStreetMap
    • Limited to what is ‘visible’
    • API’s limited, aimed at data editors
    • ‘Viral’ nature of data licence
    • Focus on map data
    • ‘Warm Geography’
    • Aims to be of Public Interest
    • Instant data updates, Sporadic
    • ‘Depth’ Issues (coverage, completeness)
    • Weak Metadata / Standards
    Commercial GeoData Providers
    • Wide source of inputs
    • API’s extensive, aimed at data consumers
    • Derived data issues
    • Focus on services
    • ‘Cold Geography’
    • Aims to be Authoritive
    • Moderated update process, Consistent
    • ‘Width’ issues (limited featureset)
    • Expensive

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  115. Contributing to
    OpenStreetMap

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  116. Contributing to OpenStreetMap
    Rule 1: Respect Copyright

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  118. wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Bing

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  119. The impact of High Resolution imagery

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  120. wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide
    Contributing to OpenStreetMap

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  121. Contributing to OpenStreetMap
    wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

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  122. Contributing to OpenStreetMap
    wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

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  123. Contributing to OpenStreetMap
    wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

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  124. Contributing to OpenStreetMap
    wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

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  125. Contributing to OpenStreetMap
    wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

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  126. Contributing to OpenStreetMap
    wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

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  127. Contributing to OpenStreetMap
    wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

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  128. Contributing to OpenStreetMap
    wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

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  129. Not just Bing...

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  130. Load your own vector data (respect !)

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  131. fieldpapers.org
    GPS Mapping – on Paper

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  132. fieldpapers.org
    GPS Mapping – on Paper

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  133. pushpinosm.org
    Mobile Apps – PushPinOSM - iOS

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  134. code.google.com/p/osmeditor4android
    Mobile Apps – Vespucci - Android

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  140. Contributing to OpenStreetMap
    Rule 1: Respect Copyright

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  142. Thank you..
    Questions?
    Richard Cantwell
    Senior GIS Consultant /
    Technical Manager
    www.gamma.ie
    [email protected]
    @ManAboutCouch

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