An Introduction to Spatial Data: Sources & Methods

An Introduction to Spatial Data: Sources & Methods

This talk aims to be an introduction to Geo, for non Geo types. It was given to DIT MSc (Computer Science) students on Sat 23rd March 2013

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Richard Cantwell

March 25, 2013
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Transcript

  1. An Introduction to Spatial Data: Sources and Methods Richard Cantwell

    Senior GIS Consultant / Technical Manager www.gamma.ie richard.cantwell@gamma.ie @ManAboutCouch
  2. www.gamma.ie

  3. Mercator, World Map, 1569

  4. Griffith Valuation, 1850-1858

  5. www.nuim.ie/staff/dpringle/qsms.shtml Early Computer mapping – Belfast 1972

  6. Computer mapping – Belfast, 40 years later

  7. Google Maps: Turning the world upside down since 2005

  8. Pre rendered tiles – Range of data sources AJAX (Asynchronous

    JavaScript and XML) Open API's - Mashups Rapid development – releases every 7-10 days Google Earth Google Maps - Key Innovations http://berglondon.com/projects/hat/
  9. More Than A Map www.morethanamap.com

  10. “A piece of content or data is Open if you

    are free to use, reuse, and redistribute it - subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and share-alike.” www.opendefinition.org http://flic.kr/p/7Aqgs5
  11. OpenStreetMap www.openstreetmap.org

  12. New sources of GeoData http://www.flickr.com/photos/walkingsf/4672160490

  13. Shining a Light... http://www.walkspace.org/namaland/

  14. Open not always the default option http://www.oobrien.com/vis/bikes/

  15. Dependencies – data or services can be 'switched off'

  16. Local Authorities getting on board data.fingal.ie

  17. Passive Crowdsourcing

  18. Passive Crowdsourcing opensignalmaps.com

  19. tools.geofabrik.de/mc

  20. tools.geofabrik.de/mc

  21. None
  22. None
  23. Why Maps?

  24. Why Maps?

  25. None
  26. None
  27. John Snow's 'Cholera Map' from 1854 www.TheGhostMap.com

  28. None
  29. Layering Data to gain insights.

  30. What’s Special about Spatial?

  31. What’s Special about Spatial? www.blanz.net/geo13.html

  32. Spatial data – data that is 'located in space'

  33. Represent the curved earth on a flat screen or paper:

    Projections
  34. Projections http://xkcd.com/977

  35. Projections

  36. Vector Data: Point

  37. Vector Data: Line

  38. Vector Data: Region

  39. Raster data.

  40. Tile Data: .../{z}/{x}/{y}.png mike.teczno.com

  41. Tile Data Pyramid tile.openstreetmap.org/0/0/0.png tile.openstreetmap.org/10/494/331.png tile.openstreetmap.org/18/126521/84975.png

  42. GeoCoded Address data www.autoaddress.ie

  43. GeoCoded Address data www.autoaddress.ie

  44. Issues particular to Spatial Data

  45. Unintentional errors Intentional errors Projection issues Data Classification Scale Generalisation

    Interpretation Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP)
  46. An Unintentional Error

  47. A more recent example

  48. Bad POI Data

  49. Common data creation errors Overshoot Undershoot Pseudonode Dangling Node Missing

    Label Point Missing Node Polygon Label Point
  50. The Map. The reality. An Intentional Error

  51. Projection issues: Offset Imagery

  52. Classifying Data: here be dragons.. colorbrewer2.org

  53. None
  54. None
  55. None
  56. Why are these bastards lying to me

  57. The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem

  58. Tobler’s First Law of Geography: "Everything is related to everything

    else.. But near things are more related than distant things."
  59. None
  60. None
  61. A ‘typical’ project

  62. Deprivation Index, Northside Dublin, 2006

  63. Deprivation Index, Northside Dublin, 2006

  64. Residential Addresses, GeoDirectory, 2010

  65. Combining Data

  66. Geocoded Client Listing

  67. GeoCoding www.autoaddress.ie

  68. Geocoded Client Listing

  69. Client Listing combined with GeoDirectory

  70. Geocoded & Classified Client Listing

  71. Market Analysis

  72. Market Analysis - Mapping

  73. Where to get Open GeoData

  74. OSi Data http://maps.osi.ie/publicviewer/

  75. Entire Planet downloadable (~500GB uncompressed) planet.openstreetmap.org

  76. Processed data downloads & services www.geofabrik.de

  77. download.geofabrik.de Including pre-configured Shapefiles (reduced featureset)

  78. None
  79. SRTM http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/

  80. GeoNames http://www.geonames.org/

  81. Geonames http://www.geonames.org/

  82. GeoNames Visualised http://www.datapointed.net/2011/01/happy-new-year/

  83. Landsat http://zulu.ssc.nasa.gov/mrsid/mrsid.pl

  84. DubLinked http://www.dublinked.com

  85. Spatial data is popular http://www.dublinked.com

  86. www.npws.ie/mapsanddata

  87. gis.epa.ie/betazone/envision/

  88. airomaps.nuim.ie/census2011

  89. www.dcenr.gov.ie/Spatial+Data GSI / DCENR: An Irish Open Data Pioneer?

  90. www.dcenr.gov.ie/Spatial+Data GSI / DCENR: An Irish Open Data Pioneer?

  91. www.isde.ie The Irish Spatial Data Exchange

  92. www.irlogi.ie The Irish Organisation for Geographic Information (IRLOGI)

  93. How to Use Open GeoData

  94. Commercial Software www.mapinfo.com

  95. Open Source Software www.osgeo.org

  96. Open Source Software www.osgeo.org

  97. Edit Store Render Consume Store Analyse

  98. WFS / WMS / WCS http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards

  99. API -> GeoJSON

  100. Extract Raw Data – Map View overpass-turbo.eu

  101. Extract Raw Data – Data View overpass-turbo.eu

  102. Extract Raw Data – Embedded in a map <div> on

    a web page OpenLayers & OSM Overpass API
  103. www.mapbox.com/tilemill Tilemill

  104. None
  105. www.mapbox.com/tilemill

  106. www.switch2osm.org

  107. maps.stamen.com/watercolor

  108. None
  109. Why Open GeoData?

  110. Vs www.creativecommons.org Comparing Closed and Open GeoData

  111. The future of commercial online mapping? Logorama: vimeo.com/10149605

  112. www.citymaps.com The future of commercial online mapping?

  113. maps.google.ie The future of commercial online mapping?

  114. VGI: OpenStreetMap • Limited to what is ‘visible’ • API’s

    limited, aimed at data editors • ‘Viral’ nature of data licence • Focus on map data • ‘Warm Geography’ • Aims to be of Public Interest • Instant data updates, Sporadic • ‘Depth’ Issues (coverage, completeness) • Weak Metadata / Standards Commercial GeoData Providers • Wide source of inputs • API’s extensive, aimed at data consumers • Derived data issues • Focus on services • ‘Cold Geography’ • Aims to be Authoritive • Moderated update process, Consistent • ‘Width’ issues (limited featureset) • Expensive
  115. Contributing to OpenStreetMap

  116. Contributing to OpenStreetMap Rule 1: Respect Copyright

  117. None
  118. wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Bing

  119. The impact of High Resolution imagery

  120. wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide Contributing to OpenStreetMap

  121. Contributing to OpenStreetMap wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

  122. Contributing to OpenStreetMap wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

  123. Contributing to OpenStreetMap wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

  124. Contributing to OpenStreetMap wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

  125. Contributing to OpenStreetMap wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

  126. Contributing to OpenStreetMap wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

  127. Contributing to OpenStreetMap wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

  128. Contributing to OpenStreetMap wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners%27_guide

  129. Not just Bing...

  130. Load your own vector data (respect !)

  131. fieldpapers.org GPS Mapping – on Paper

  132. fieldpapers.org GPS Mapping – on Paper

  133. pushpinosm.org Mobile Apps – PushPinOSM - iOS

  134. code.google.com/p/osmeditor4android Mobile Apps – Vespucci - Android

  135. None
  136. None
  137. None
  138. None
  139. None
  140. Contributing to OpenStreetMap Rule 1: Respect Copyright

  141. None
  142. Thank you.. Questions? Richard Cantwell Senior GIS Consultant / Technical

    Manager www.gamma.ie richard.cantwell@gamma.ie @ManAboutCouch