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MESH and OpenStreetMap - State of the Map Scotland 2015

MESH and OpenStreetMap - State of the Map Scotland 2015

MESH (Mapping Edinburgh’s Social History) is a path-breaking AHRC funded project that uses data based on addresses and areas to represent historical information. It provides a spatial dimension that enriches and enhances an understanding of the past.

This particular talk shows:
- why the MESH team chose OpenStreetMap (OSM) among different cartographic solutions,
- how the team improved OSM in Edinburgh using historical maps (out-of-copyright town plans and Ordnance Survey maps provided by the National Library of Scotland) and intensive ground surveying,
- the quality of the mapping including a comparison with current Ordnance Survey data,
- how the team and historians start to use it (tools, results),
- how the work presented here can be reused by everyone including academics, public institutions and private companies.

More info about the project: http://www.mesh.ed.ac.uk/

Other Decks in Research


  1. MESH Mapping Edinburgh's Social History Co-editors: Richard Rodger, Bob Morris,

    Charlie Withers, Michael Lynch, Simon Stronach Partners: Team: Eric Grosso, Sophie McCallum, Eisa Esfanjari, Leila Amely, Marc di Tommasi, Michael Brown, Wilson Smith
  2. 3 Disclaimer What you'll see here is: - open data

    - open source - open data - open source - open data - open source
  3. 8 MESH – an atlas around 10 themes 1. Living

    and dying 2. Making, selling and earning 3. Teaching and learning 4. Worshipping 5. Feeding and drinking 6. Moving and communicating 7. Socialising 8. Managing and administering
  4. 11 MESH – constraints... after 3 years... Atlas Data Maps

    Tools Networks Robustness (HGIS) Open source tools Open data Sustainability (5-10 years)
  5. 13 Constraints vs Questions / Solutions Open data and tools,

    Open licence, OpenStreetMap Georeferencing process Data integration Geocoding Robustness (HGIS) Open source tools Open data Sustainability (5-10 years)
  6. 15 MESH – how to build the HGIS? Historical needs,

    historical questions Choice of a period, delimitation of a space (international, national, regional, local), choice of a scale / level of detail Need for resources / data: which ones? Need to create them? Different resources: written documents, historical maps, surveys (archaeological, historical) Problem to know the content of these resources and to access these resources Problem solved more and more thanks to digitisation (parallel between digitisation and the emergence of HGIS)
  7. 16 MESH – how to build the HGIS? A solution

    could be... Current Google Maps + Advocates 1861, using the Google Maps API Overlay
  8. 17 Historical Geographic Information System Other resources Optical character recognition

    (OCR) Geocoding Old maps (OS / NLS) Georeferencing (GCP, transformation, evaluation, etc.) Vectorisation? MESH – how to build the HGIS?
  9. 18 MESH – which map or/and database to use? Google

    Maps (API) Ordnance Survey OpenStreetMap
  10. 28 MESH – which map or/and database to use? GOOGLE

    ORDNANCE SURVEY MAPPING FROM SCRATCH OSM TYPE OF DATA Images only Raster and Vector Vector Vector COPYRIGHT Yes Yes Our choice No OPEN LICENCE No Only OpenData (poor quality) Our choice Yes (ODbL) DATA REDISTRIBUTION No No Our choice Yes (ODbL) QUALITY Relatively good (depends where) Very good (1m) Very poor Good (1-3m) – generally < 5m – DATABASE QUERY Only through Google APIs Yes but tools need to be developed Yes but tools need to be developed Yes with some already existing tools
  11. 29 OpenStreetMap, Edinburgh: resources John Wood map, 1831 Bartholomew plan,

    1912 OS town plan, 1876-1877 OS town plan, 1893-1894 Bartholomew plan, 1919 Bartholomew Post Office map, 1939-1940 Historical maps from the National Library of Scotland
  12. 31 OpenStreetMap, Edinburgh: resources OS town plan, 1849-1851 OS town

    plan, 1876-1877 OS town plan, 1893-1894 OS town plan, 1940s
  13. 41 OSM vs Old map: vectorisation The MESH method Improve

    the roads → skeleton Footprint rather than roofprint Using lower elements (walls, roads) to manage the offset Tracing the walls and the gardens/plots help to understand the differences between the old map and the reality (Bing/survey) Using plots to create new buildings not even in Bing Adding tags Full survey
  14. 42 OSM vs Old map: vectorisation The MESH method (data

    model for addresses) And if there is a shop? 1 address = addr:country addr:city addr:street addr:housenumber source (level) (addr:postcode) (addr:housename) 1 address (amenity)= addr:street addr:housenumber source (level)
  15. 43 OSM: survey It's just a small part of our

    surveys All our surveys will be released to show that we walked each street
  16. 59 OpenStreetMap, Edinburgh: few numbers Edinburgh is the 14th most

    populated city in UK 3-4 man-years required to map it fully Accuracy: 1-3 meters Main enhancements and additions: - 15 000 road segments (25 000 in total) - 52 000 buildings (60 000 in total) - 50 000 addresses (including house numbers, shops, amenities) (52 000 addresses in total) - 11 000 POIs (12 500 POIs in total)
  17. 60 OpenStreetMap, Edinburgh: few numbers Other features of interest -

    railways, transport networks, waterways, administrative boundaries, green spaces, leisure facilities - gardens, walls, fences, etc. Ah! numbers... but what does really represent the survey? - 47,000 house numbers located at the door - total length of the roads: 530km / 330 miles = Edinburgh-London walk (as the crow flies) - total area of the buildigns: 8.3 km² / 3.2 sq miles = 200 Murrayfield stadiums 200
  18. 62 Certainly a big challenge but we try using... fdecomite

    / Brand new bricks (licence: CC BY 2.0) – https://www.flickr.com/photos/fdecomite/2710132377/
  19. 63 to build.... Rob Young / Legoland Windsor - Edinburgh

    Castle (licence: CC BY 2.0) – https://www.flickr.com/photos/rob-young/2835889828
  20. 64 and to avoid.... Eirik Newth / Lego City: Collapse

    (licence: CC BY 2.0) – https://www.flickr.com/photos/eiriknewth/238681391
  21. 66 How to provide a proof? © Crown Copyright and

    database right. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey License number 100023420.
  22. 95 Geocoder and historical geocoders Geocoder - first version based

    on Nominatim - second version based on addok Performance: at least 140-150 addresses per second = Maps in seconds addok include process to correct misspellings Rather easy to to keep good performances with different databases of addresses (historical addresses) Possibility to add “fake” interpolated addresses CSV import/export
  23. 96 House numbers in Edinburgh Geocoding at a house number

    level, until 1800-1820 Robert Kirkwood map (1817) Before 1800, geocoding at a street level
  24. 101 Historical data Boundaries Abercrombie report Data from the old

    maps Data from historical sources Scottish Post Office Directories
  25. 105 Scottish Post Office Directories Content: - name/occupation/address(es) Licence: -

    CC BY-NC-SA - incompatible with OSM Post Office Directories (NLS) Optical Character Recognition (OCR) # old fonts / old letters / columns # one entry = several lines and Geocoding (Addresses) aka historical yellow pages (nearly 150 volumes)
  26. 111 Edinburgh Retail Business Structure 1910-11 Butchers Bakers Spirit Merchants

    % % % women (Mrs, Miss) 1 3 10 family (& son, brother) 4 11 1 company (& Co.) 1 2 6 limited company (Ltd.) 3 3 0 have 2 premises 13 32 8 have 3 3 16 1 have 4 1 8 0 have 5 1 5 have 6 1 4 have 7+ ( Co-op) 15 7 have 8-12 premises 6 have 13+ (Co-op) 10 single premises 87 67 92
  27. 113 Data from the old maps: pubs Current pubs (South

    Edinburgh): exist (blue) or not (red) in 1940s
  28. 115 Data from the old maps: tram lines Tram lines:

    current (blue) and 1944 (orange)