workshop on teaching and learning prosody

workshop on teaching and learning prosody

第57回(2017年度)外国語教育メディア学会(LET)全国研究大会ワークショップでのスライドです。

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Kazuhito Yamato

August 05, 2017
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  1. तۀʹऔΓೖΕ͍ͨϓϩισΟࢦಋ େ࿨ ஌࢙ʢ΍·ͱ ͔ͣͻͱʣ ʢਆށେֶʣ ୈ57ճʢ2017೥౓ʣ֎ࠃޠڭҭϝσΟΞֶձʢLETʣ શࠃݚڀେձ ϫʔΫγϣοϓᶅ 2017೥08݄05೔ʢ౔ʣ ԙ:

    ໊ݹ԰ֶӃେֶ໊ݹ԰Ωϟϯύεനௗֶࣷॶؗ403 ʲϫʔΫγϣοϓᶅʳ
  2. ֬ೝ 2 •͓खݩͷ഑෍ࢿྉΛ֬͝ೝԼ͍͞ɻͦͷ1ʢ྘ʣɼͦ ͷ2ʢԫʣɼͦͷ3ʢ౧ʣɼͦͷ4ʢ੨ʣͱ4ͭ͋Γ· ͢ɻ •ຊεϥΠυ͸pdfʹͯ͠ޙ΄Ͳspeaker deckʹΞοϓ ϩʔυ͠·͢ͷͰͦͪΒ͔Β΋͝ཡԼ͍͞ɻ •URL: https://speakerdeck.com/otamayuzak

    acknowledgment •ຊϫʔΫγϣοϓͷ಺༰͸ɼJSPSՊݚඅ26381197ͱ 17K04778ͷॿ੒Λड͚ͨݚڀΛجʹ͍ͯ͠·͢ɻ
  3. ຊϫʔΫγϣοϓͷߏ੒ 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ 3.۩ମతʹ͸ʁͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ 4.࣮ફྫͷ঺հ 5.օ͞ΜͳΒʁ 4

  4. 1. ͸͡Ίʹ 6 • ຊ೔ͷ͓୊͸ʮतۀʹऔΓೖΕ͍ͨϓϩισΟ ࢦಋʯͰ͢ɻ • ҎԼͷ͜ͱΛ͓࿩͍ͨ͠͠ͱࢥ͍·͢ɻ - ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ

    - ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ࿮૊ΈͷఏҊ - ׆ಈྫɾ࣮ફྫͷ঺հ - Ͳ͏औΓೖΕΔʁ • үాઌੜ@໋ཱؗେͱҰॹʹऔΓ૊ΜͰ͍Δ ڠಉݚڀͷ಺༰Ͱ͢ɻ
  5. 1. ͸͡Ίʹ 7 • ࠓճͷϫʔΫγϣοϓΛ௨ͯ͡ɼࢀՃऀͷօ͞ Μ͕ɼϓϩισΟͷࢦಋʹ͍ͭͯɼ - ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ࿮૊ΈΛ΋ͱʹɼڭࡐݚ ڀͯ͠ΈΑ͏͔ͳ…ʯ -

    ʮ2ֶظɼळֶظɼޙظͷतۀͷதͰऔΓೖΕ ͯΈΑ͏͔ͳ…ʯ - ʮ͜ͷ࣮ྫ΍ҊΛ͜Μͳ෩ʹΞϨϯδͰ͖Δ ͔ͳɼ͋Μͳ෩ʹΞϨϯδͰ͖Δ͔ͳ…ʯ • ͱɼߟ͑ͯ΋Β͏͜ͱΛ໨తͱ͠·͢ɻ
  6. 1. ͸͡Ίʹ • ͦͷ໨తͷୡ੒ͷͨΊʹ͸…ҎԼͷ໰͍ʹ ౴͑Δඞཁ͕͋Δͱࢥ͍ͬͯ·͢ɻ - ൃԻࢦಋʁϓϩισΟࢦಋʁͰ͖Δʁඞ ཁʁԿ͕໰୊ʁ - Ͱ͸ɼͲ͏΍Δʁ۩ମతʹ͸Ͳ͏͢Δʁ

    - ͦΕɼ΍ͬͯΈͨͷʁ • Ͱ͸ɼ࢝Ί·͢ɻ 8
  7. ຊϫʔΫγϣοϓͷߏ੒ 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ 3.۩ମతʹ͸ʁͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ 4.࣮ફྫͷ঺հ 5.օ͞ΜͳΒʁ 10

  8. 2. ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ • ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ • ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়ɾϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞ ཁੑ • ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀͷ໰୊఺ɾࢦಋ্ͷ ՝୊

    • ͰɼͲ͏͠Α͏ʁ 11
  9. 2. ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ • ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕΛ͞Βͬͱ֬ೝ • 80s·Ͱ: segmentalத৺ • 90s·Ͱ:

    bottom-up→top-down • 00sҎ߱: seg/supra balanced • World EnglishesɹɹJenkins (2000)ɿ Lingua Franca Core • prosodyཁૉͰ͸ nucleus placement, chunking ͕core • ࠷ۙͷgoal: intelligibility, comprehensibilityʢsee Table 1ʣ 12
  10. ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ • ࠷ۙͷgoalʹ͍ͭͯ௥ՃͰ֬ೝ • intelligibility, comprehensibility, accentednessʢcf. େ࿨, 2012; Isaacs

    & Trofimovich (eds.), 2017ʣ • i: ฉ͖ख͕࿩ऀͷϝοηʔδΛཧղ͢Δఔ౓ • c: ฉ͖ख͕࿩ऀͷϝοηʔδΛཧղ͢ΔͨΊʹ෷͏࿑ྗͷఔ ౓ • a: ࠃɾ஍ҬɾഎܠΛ൓ө͢Δ΋ͷ • aͱi͸ ͋Δఔ౓ಠཱ͍ͯ͠ΔʢDerwing & Munro, 1997ʣ • iͱc͸teachableʢDerwing, Munro & Wiebe, 1998ʣ • nativeness principle vs intelligibility principle (Levis, 2005) 13 2. ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ
  11. ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ ද1 ൃԻࢦಋͷΞϓϩʔνʢGrant, et al., 2014ʣ 14 Traditional Approaches Current

    Approaches learner goals Perfect, naive-like pronunciation Comfortable intelligibility Speech features All segmentals (consonant and vowel sounds) Selected segmental and suprasegmentals (stress, rhythm, and intonation) based on need and context Practice formats Decontextualized drills controlled aural-oral drills as well as semi- communicative practice formats Language background of teachers Native-speaking teachers Native-speaking and proficient non-native speaking teachers Speaking models Native-speaker models Variety of models and standards depending on the listener, context, and purpose Curriculum choices Stand-alone courses isolated from the rest of the curriculum Stand-alone courses or integrated into other content or skill areas, often listening an speaking 2. ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ
  12. 2. ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ • ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ • ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়ɾϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞ ཁੑ • ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀͷ໰୊఺ɾࢦಋ্ͷ ՝୊

    • ͰɼͲ͏͠Α͏ʁ 15
  13. ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়ɾϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞཁੑ • ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়͸ʁʢԤถฤʣ • Murphy (2014) • Foote, Hotby, &

    Derwing (2011): ΧφμͰͷௐࠪ • ܦݧɾݚमɾϦιʔεɾαϙʔτෆ଍ One recurring theme was that many teachers are hesitant when it comes to teaching pronunciation due to inexperience, lack of specialized training, lack of resources and/or lack of institutional support. (Murphy, 2014, p.204-5) • Chapman(2007)ɼDalton & Seidlhofer (1994) 16 2. ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ
  14. ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়ɾϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞཁੑ • ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়͸ʁʢ೔ຊฤʣ • ϕωοηڭҭ૯߹ݚڀॴ(2016)ͷௐࠪɿதߴͱ΋ʹʮԻಡʯɾʮൃԻ ࢦಋʯ͸ɼʮΑ͘ߦ͏ʯɾʮͱ͖Ͳ͖ߦ͏ʯ཰͕ߴ͍͕… • ࣲా ΄͔(2008)ɼՏ಺ࢁ ΄͔(2011)ɿڭһཆ੒ɼݚमͷػձɼൃԻࢦ

    ಋʹର͢Δࣗ৴ͷͳ͞ • ·ͱΊΔͱ… • ʮॏཁͩͱ͸ࢥͬͯΔɻͰ΋τϨʔχϯά΋ड͚͍ͯͳ͍͠ɼࣗ৴ͳ ͍…ɻʯ • ͨͩ͠ • तۀͷதʹɾଞٕೳͱ߹Θͤͯ౷߹తʹऔΓೖΕΑ͏ͱ͢Δಈ͖ ʢNation & Newton , 2009; Celce-Murcia et al., 2010; Nicola & Darcy, 2015; Jones, 2016) 17 2. ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ
  15. ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়ɾϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞཁੑ • ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞཁੑ • Segmental and/or Suprasegmental • Celce-Murcia et

    al. (2010), Derwing & Rossiter (2003) • Dalton & Seidlehofer (1994) • Wells (2006): native speakers’ intuitive reaction • Celce-Murcia et al. (2010) summarises Derwing and Rossiter(2003) while segmental instruction may still be important for accent reduction in the long run, it is essential to give priority to prosody in pronunciation since it results in better comprehensibility in the short run. (Celce-Muricial et al., 2010, p.) 18 2. ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ
  16. 2. ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ • ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ • ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়ɾϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞ ཁੑ • ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀͷ໰୊఺ɾࢦಋ্ͷ ՝୊

    • ͰɼͲ͏͠Α͏ʁ 19
  17. ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀͷ໰୊఺ɾࢦಋ্ͷ՝୊ • ޠڧ੎ɾ۠੾Γɾจڧ੎ɾΠϯτωʔγϣϯɾ֩഑ஔͳͲʹ ໰୊͕ʢೆᑍ, 2010; ࡈ౻ɾ্ా, 2011; ࡈ౻, 2017) •

    দࡔ(1986): ʮ೔ຊਓֶशऀ͕஫ҙ͢΂͖4఺ʯ 1. ڧܗɼऑܗΛ࢖͍෼͚ɼจڧ੎Λࣗવͳ΋ͷʹ͢Δ͜ ͱɻ 2.จڧ੎ͱ཈༲ͱ͙ͪ͸͙ʹͳΒͳ͍Α͏ʹ͢Δ͜ͱɻ 3.Իௐ֩ͷҐஔΛؒҧ͑ͳ͍Α͏ʹ͢Δ͜ͱɻ 4.Լ߱ௐͰ͸ɼࣗ෼ͷ੠Ҭͷ΋ͬͱ΋Լ·Ͱ͖ͪΜͱ੠ ΛԼΖ͢͜ͱɻʢp.176ʣ • ͜͏ͨ͠՝୊ΛͲ͏ࠀ෰͢Δ͔ʁ 2. ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ 20
  18. ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়ɾϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞཁੑ • ࢦಋ্ͷ՝୊ • ݱঢ়Ͱڍ͛ͨ໰୊࠶ͼ • ॏཁੑ͸ೝࣝʢࣲా ΄͔, 2008ʣɼͰ΋…ࣗ৴͕ͳ͍ɾڭࡐͳ ͲͰ΋ѻ͍ͮΒ͍ʢChapman,

    2007; Dalton & Seidlhofer, 1994) • ࢦಋ๏΍ڭࡐʹ͸ɼϓϩισΟͷ֤ཁૉʢࢠԻɾ฼Իɾڧ੎ɾϦ ζϜɾΠϯτωʔγϣϯʣ͕ಠཱ߲໨Ͱ͋ΔΑ͏ʹɼੵΈ্͛ࣜ ʹฒ΂ΒΕ͍ͯΔɹˠɹinterrelated systemͱͯ͠ଊ͑Α͏ʢcf. Gilbert, 2008; 2012; 2014; Goodwin, 2014; Rogerson-Revell, 2011ʣ • ʢ࠶ܝʣतۀͷதʹ౷߹తʹऔΓೖΕΑ͏ͱ͢Δಈ͖ʢCelce- Murcia et al., 2010; Nation, 2013; Nicola & Darcy, 2015; Jones, 2016) 21 2. ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ
  19. 2. ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ • ൃԻࢦಋͷྲྀΕ • ൃԻࢦಋͷݱঢ়ɾϓϩισΟࢦಋͷඞ ཁੑ • ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀͷ໰୊఺ɾࢦಋ্ͷ ՝୊

    • ͰɼͲ͏͠Α͏ʁ 22
  20. ͰɼͲ͏͠Α͏ʁ • ϓϩισΟࢦಋʹࡍͯ͠͸… • ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪ ଇʯΛ࿮૊Έͱ͢Δ͜ͱΛఏҊ͠·͢ • ͜ͷఏҊ͸… • ϓϩισΟཁૉΛ૬ޓؔ࿈ͨ͠ܗͰ

    • ݱࡏ๊͑Δ՝୊఺ʹऔΓ૊ΊΔ • Ͱ͖Δ͚ͩݱঢ়ͷतۀʹ͓͍ͯ΋औΓೖΕΔ ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ΋ͷ 23 2. ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ
  21. ຊϫʔΫγϣοϓͷߏ੒ 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ 3.۩ମతʹ͸ʁͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ 4.࣮ફྫͷ঺հ 5.օ͞ΜͳΒʁ 24

  22. 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ • ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3 ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁͱʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯΛ ࢖ͬͨ׆ಈ 26

  23. ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ఏҊ͢ΔʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭ ͷݪଇʯͱ͸… 1.฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δ 2.ഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑΛ 3.ڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨ ͤΔɻ •ڭһଆ͸ʮڭࡐݚڀɾࢦಋͷνΣοΫϙΠϯτʯ •ֶशऀଆ͸ʮࣗ෼ͰಡΉɾݴ͏ࡍͷͷߦಈࢦ਑ʯ

    27 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  24. ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • 3ͭͷݪଇͷͦΕͧΕͷ֓ཁʹ߹Θͤͯɼ׆ಈྫ΋঺ հ͍͖ͯ͠·͢ɻ • ׆ಈྫʹ͍ͭͯ͸ɼʮࢿྉͦͷ2 तۀͰऔΓೖΕ͍ͨ ϓϩισΟࢦಋ ׆ಈྫ Ұཡʯͱʮࢿྉͦͷ3

    ׆ಈ ྫʯΛࢀর͍ͩ͘͞ɻ • ׆ಈू࡞੒ͷࢦ਑ • ౤͛ࠐΈͰ͸ͳ͍Α͏ʹ • ڭՊॻຊจΛར༻͠΍͍͢΋ͷ • ϙΠϯτΛߜͬͯ܁Γฦ͢͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ΋ͷ 28 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  25. ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • तۀͷͲ͜Ͱ׆༻͕Մೳ͔ • Ұཡʹ͸׆༻ͷλΠϛϯάΛఏҊ͍ͯ͠·͕͢ɼͦΕͧΕͷ৔ʹద༻ ͯ͠Լ͍͞ɻ • Celce-Muricia et al.

    (2010) ͷ࿮૊Έ΋ࢀߟʹͯ͠Լ͍͞ɻ A communicative framework for teaching English pronunciation 1. description and analysis 2. listening discrimination 3. controlled practice 4. guided practice 5. communicative practice (Celce-Murcia et al., 2010, p. 44-48) •Ͱ͸ɼ3ͭͷݪଇʹೖ͍͖ͬͯ·͢ɻ 29 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  26. ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ֤ݪଇͷ֓આͱ׆ಈྫ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘ Δʯ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑ Λʯ •

    ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦ ͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ 30 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  27. ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ͜ͷݪଇ͸ɼʮԻઅʯɾʮԻઅߏ଄ʯͷ͓࿩ • ʮ͔ͿͤԻૉͷษڧ͸ɼԻઅͷݚڀ͔Β࢝ΊΔ͜ͱ ͱ͢ΔɻͳͥͳΒɼԻઅ͕ड͚ࡼͱͳͬͯɼจ΍ޠ ۟ʹڧ੎͕ஔ͔Εɼͦͷڧ੎͕ϦζϜΛ࡞Γͩ͠ɼ ·ͨ཈༲ͷಈ͖ʹ͖͔͚ͬΛ༩͑Δ͔ΒͰ͋Δʢদ

    ࡔ, 1986, p.165ʣʯ • “the characteristics of stressed and unstressed syllables in single words are mirrored in rhythm, teaching word stress primes students for work with suprasegmentals (Lane, 2010, p.17).” 31 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  28. ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ԻઅɿʮϦζϜͷ1ഥ΍ͻͱͭͷڧ੎Λड͚Δ͜ͱͷͰ͖Δɼ Իͷ࠷খͷ·ͱ·Γʢদࡔ, 1986, p. 165ʣʯʮ฼ԻΛத৺ͱ ͯ͠લޙʹࢠԻΛ൐͏୯Ґʢ຀໺,

    2005, p. 27ʣʯ • ʮ͔ͿͤԻૉͷษڧ͸ɼԻઅͷݚڀ͔Β࢝ΊΔ͜ͱͱ͢Δɻ ͳͥͳΒɼԻઅ͕ड͚ࡼͱͳͬͯɼจ΍ޠ۟ʹڧ੎͕ஔ͔Εɼ ͦͷڧ੎͕ϦζϜΛ࡞Γͩ͠ɼ·ͨ཈༲ͷಈ͖ʹ͖͔͚ͬΛ ༩͑Δ͔ΒͰ͋Δʢদࡔ, 1986, p.165ʣʯ • Իઅߏ଄ • V, CV, CVC, VC ͷ૊Έ߹Θͤ • CCCVCCCCɹstrengths 32 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  29. ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ʮԻઅʯɾʮԻઅߏ଄ʯʹ͍ͭͯɼ೔ຊਓ ӳޠֶशऀ͸Կ͕໰୊ʁ • CVߏ଄͕جຊͷ೔ຊޠʹɼCCͷࢠԻ࿈݁Λ ൃ͢Δ͜ͱͷࠔ೉͞ɻVΛૠೖͯ͠͠·͏ɻ •

    ૠೖ͞ΕͨV͕༨෼ͳഥͱͳΓɼௌऀͷೝࣝ Λ๦͛Δɻ • ׆ಈྫ͸ʁ 33 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  30. ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯͷ׆ಈྫ 1. Θ͟ͱมʹݴ͏ʢݪଇᶃɾᶄʣ p.1 • ೔ຊޠΛӳޠͬΆ͘ݴ͏ɾӳޠΛ೔ຊޠͬΆ͘ݴ ͏͜ͱͰɼ֤ݴޠͷԻઅɾڧ੎ɾΠϯτωʔγϣ ϯͷҧ͍Λମײ͢Δɻ • ྫʣԬ࡚ମҭͷʮྫྷଂݿʹ͸ͬͯ͋Δ΍ͭΛӳޠͬ

    Ά͘ݴ͏ʯʢੲͳΒλϞϦͷ4ΧࠃޠϚʔδϟ ϯ?ʣ • ྫʣᯩʢ2012ʣɿӳޠɾ೔ຊޠͷϖΞͰͦΕͧ ΕʹʮΆ͘ʯಡΉʢdesk-desukuʣɻ 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  31. ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯͷ׆ಈྫ 2. ϋϛϯάʢݪଇᶃɾᶄʣ p.2 • ୯ޠ΍จΛඓՎͷΑ͏ʹϋϛϯάͰಡ·ͤΔɻ ༨ܭͳ฼Ի͕ೖΔͱഥ਺͕૿͑ͯ͠·͏ͷͰɼ ഥ਺ʹ஫໨͢ΔɻڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʹ͸ڧ੎ഥΛ௕ ͘͢Δɻ •

    ଞͷํ๏ͱͯ͠ɼda, ta, खഥࢠɼ఺ΛଧͭͳͲ ΋͋Δ͕ɼ͜ͱ͹Λ࿩͢ࡍͷײ֮ͱͯ͠ԻઅΛ ҙࣝͤ͞Δखஈͱͯ͠ϋϛϯά͸༗ޮɻ • ݪଇᶃ͔Β3ͷ࿈ଓΛߟ͑Δ্Ͱ΋ॏཁɻ 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  32. ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯͷ׆ಈྫ 3. ಉ͡΋ͷΛ୳ͤʢݪଇᶃɾᶄʣp.3 • ୯ޠ΍ϑϨʔζͷϦετΛݟͤͯɼഥ਺͕ಉ͡ɼ·ͨ͸ڧ ऑͷύλʔϯ͕ಉ͡΋ͷΛ୳ͨ͠Γɼ෼ྨ͢Δ׆ಈɻ • จষதͷ୯ޠ΍ϑϨʔζΛڭһ͕ಡΈ্͛ɼ·ͨ͸ϋϛϯ ά͠ɼੜె͕ಉ͡ഥ਺ɾڧऑύλʔϯͷ΋ͷΛจষத͔Β ୳͢ํ๏΋͋Δɻ

    4. Ͳ͜·ͰಡΜͩʁʢݪଇᶃɾᶄʣp.4 • ͋ΔจΛڭࢣ͕ϋϛϯά౳ͰಡΈɼ్தͰࢭ·Γɼੜె ͸Ͳ͜Ͱࢭ·͔ͬͨ౰ͯΔɻ • ؒҧ͍୳͠ͱͯ͠ͷόϦΤʔγϣϯ΋͋Γɻ 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  33. 2.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯ • ֤ݪଇͷ֓આͱ׆ಈྫ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘ Δʯ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑ Λʯ •

    ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦ ͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ 37
  34. 2.ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯ • ֤ݪଇͷ֓આͱ׆ಈྫ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘ Δʯ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑ Λʯ •

    ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦ ͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ 38 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  35. ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛͭ ͚Δʯ • ͜ͷݪଇ͸ɼʮޠڧ੎ʢޠΞΫηϯ τʣʯ͔Βʮ۟ΞΫηϯτʯɼʮϦζ ϜʯΛܦͯʮจΞΫηϯτʯͷ͓࿩ • ݪଇᶃΛ֦େͯ͠ɼଟԻઅޠʹͳΔͱ

    Ͳ͏ͳΔ͔ɼ·ͨޠ͕࿈ͳΔͱͲ͏ͳ Δ͔ʁ 39 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  36. 40 • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ଟԻઅޠͰ͋Ε͹ɼͦΕͧΕͷԻઅ͕ɼୈҰΞ ΫηϯτɼୈೋΞΫηϯτɼऑΞΫηϯτͷ͍ ͣΕ͔Λ୲͏͜ͱʹͳΔɻ • ୈҰΞΫηϯτʹ͓͍ͯɼϐονͷಈ͖͕େ͖ ͘ɼ௕͘ɼڧ͘ͳΔɻʢe.g.

    com-mu-ni-CA-tionʣ • ޠ͕ෳ਺ฒͿͱɼޠͱޠͷؒͰڧऑͷ૊Έ߹Θ ͕ͤͰ͖Δɻˠ ʮ۟ΞΫηϯτʯ ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  37. ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ͔۟Βจʹͳͬͨ৔߹ɼจதͷ͋Δޠʢͷ தͷԻઅʣ͸ڧ͍ΞΫηϯτΛड͚ɼ͋Δ ޠ͸ड͚ͳ͍ɻˠ ʮจΞΫηϯτʯ en gi

    NEER in the END He can HEAR • ओʹΞΫηϯτΛड͚Δޠˠ಺༰ޠ • ड͚ͳ͍ޠˠػೳޠ 41 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  38. 42 • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • จதʹڧऑͷ૊Έ߹Θ͕ͤͰ͖ΔˠʮϦζϜʯ • one, two, three, four,

    five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve • examinee → in case of rain → I tried to study very hard. ʢ஛ྛɾਗ਼ਫɾᜊ౻, 2013, p.136-137ʣ ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  39. ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ʮޠɾ۟ΞΫηϯτʯɾʮϦζϜʯɾʮจΞΫηϯτʯʹ͍ͭͯɼ೔ຊਓ ӳޠֶशऀ͸Կ͕໰୊ʁ • ʮޠΞΫηϯτʯʹ͓͍ͯɼڧ͘ൃԻ͢ΔΑ͏ʹͱͷࢦಋʹ͍ͭͯɼϐο νͷมԽ΍ΞΫηϯτΛड͚ΔԻઅͷ࣋ଓ࣌ؒ௕ʹ͍ͭͯ͸े෼ʹ஫ҙΛ ෷͏͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖͍ͯͳ͍ɻ

    • ΞΫηϯτʹ౳࣌ੑͷ͋Δӳޠʹ͓͍ͯɼϞʔϥʹ౳࣌ੑͷ͋Δ೔ຊޠͷ ӨڹΛ࣋ͪࠐΜͰ͠·͏ɻ 43 (Grant, 2010, p.85) 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ • ׆ಈྫ͸ʁ
  40. ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯͷ׆ಈྫ 5. ͲΕΛಡΜͩʁʢݪଇᶄʣp.4 • จষதͷ͋ΔҰจΛڭࢣ͕ϋϛϯάͰڧऑΛ͚ͭͯಡ Έɼੜె͸Ͳͷจ͕ಡΈ্͛ΒΕ͔ͨ౰ͯΔɻ • ؒҧ͍୳͠ͱͯ͠ͷόϦΤʔγϣϯ΋͋Γɻ 6.ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʢݪଇᶄʣp.5 •

    จষΛࣔ͠ɼ͸͖ͬΓݴ͏ͱ͜Ζ͸Ͳ͔͜Λߟ͑Δɻ • ಺༰ޠͱػೳޠΛ֬ೝͭͭ͠ɼԻಡ͢Δɻ • ౳࣌ੑΛ֬ೝ͢ΔʢखഥࢠɾλοϓɾތுಡΈɾྠΰϜɾ ΞΫγϣϯ౳Λ༻͍ͯʣɻ 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  41. ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯͷ׆ಈྫ 7. ಺༰ޠͷΈͷϦεχϯάʢݪଇᶄʣp.6 • ಺༰ޠͷΈΛ౳ִؒʹಡΈ্͛ɼ಺༰೺ѲΛߦ͏ɻ • ӳޠͷϦζϜͷޮՌΛ஌Δ΄͔ɼϦεχϯάͷํུͱͯ͠಺༰ޠʹ஫ ໨͢Δ࿅शͱͳΔɻ • ϙʔζͱ֩Λख͕͔Γʹɼthought

    groupͷ·ͱ·Γ΍ɼ۠੾Γʹ͓͚ ΔΠϯτωʔγϣϯͷҧ͍ͳͲʹҙࣝΛ޲͚Δɻ 8. σΟΫςʔγϣϯʢݪଇᶄʣp.7 • ػೳޠͷΈΛॻ͍ͨόʔδϣϯͱ಺༰ޠͷΈΛॻ͍ͨόʔδϣϯͷ̎ ͭͷϫʔΫγʔτΛ༻ҙ͢Δɻ • ·ͣ͸ػೳޠͷΈόʔδϣϯΛ࢖͍಺༰ޠΛॻ͖औΔɻͦͷޙɼ಺༰ ޠͷΈόʔδϣϯΛ࢖͍ɼػೳޠΛॻ͖औΔɻͦͷޙ྆ऀΛݟൺ΂ͯ ߹͍ͬͯΔ͔Ͳ͏͔֬ೝ͢Δɻ 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  42. ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯͷ׆ಈྫ 9. ಺༰ޠͷΈࣔ͢ʢݪଇᶄɾᶅʣp.6 • ಺༰ޠͷΈΛॻ͍ͨϫʔΫγʔτΛݟͤΔɻ • ͦΕΛ΋ͱʹ಺༰Λ೺Ѳ͢Δ׆ಈ΍ɼ಺༰Λ ೺Ѳͨ͠ޙʹɼؒʹೖΔػೳޠ͸Կ͔ߟ͑͞ ͤΔ׆ಈ͕Ͱ͖Δɻ •

    ݪଇᶅΛҙࣝ͢Δ৔߹ɼͲ͜Ͱ੾ΕΔ͔εϥο γϡΛೖΕΔʢϙʔζͱ֩Իௐ͕ϙΠϯτʣɻ 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  43. 48 • ֤ݪଇͷ֓આͱͦͷج൫ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑ Λʯ • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ

    ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  44. 49 • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ • ͜ͷݪଇ͸ɼʮthought groupʯɾ ʮԻௐ֩ʢͱͦͷ഑ஔʣʯɾʮτʔϯʯ ͷ͓࿩ •

    ޠɾ۟ɾจΞΫηϯτΛड͚ɼϦζϜ Λܗ੒ͨ͠ൃ࿩ʹߋʹ৘ใ͕ՃΘΔɻ ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  45. 50 • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷ ҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ • จΞΫηϯτ΍ϦζϜʹ͓͍ͯɼڧΞΫ ηϯτΛड͚ΔޠɾԻઅ͕͋Δ͜ͱ͸໌ Β͔ʹͳ͍ͬͯΔɻ • Ұ࿈ͷൃ࿩͸ɼ୹͍จ΍અͳͲΛͻͱ͔

    ͨ·Γͱ۠੾Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δɻ͜ͷ۠੾ Γͷ͜ͱΛɼʮthought groupʯͱ͍͏ɻ ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  46. ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ • ͦ͜ʹؚ·ΕΔୈҰΞΫηϯτΛؚΉޠ܈ͷத Ͱ΋ɼ࠷ޙʹݱΕΔ΋ͷ͕࠷΋໨ཱͭ܏޲ʹ͋ Δɻ໨ཱͨͤΔํ๏͸ɼͦͷԻઅʹ͓͍ͯϐο νΛେ͖͘มಈͤ͞Δ͜ͱʢԻௐ֩ʣɻ 51

    (Grant, 2010, p.103) 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  47. ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋʢֶशʣʹ͓͚Δ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤ Δʯ • ϐονͷมಈʹ͸ɼ্ঢͱԼ߱ɼͦͷ૊Έ߹Θͤͱฏୱ͕ ͋Δɻ • ͜ͷྖҬʹ͓͍ͯɼ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀ͸Կ͕໰୊ʁ •

    ໨ཱͪͷ഑ஔʢ֩഑ஔʣΛޡΓ͕ͪͰ͋Δɻଟ͘ͷ৔߹ɼ thought groupͷ๯಄ʹஔ͖͕ͪɻ͜ΕʹΑΔ৘ใͷয఺ ͷޡղ͕ੜ͡ΔՄೳੑ͕͋Δɻ • ϐονͷಈ͖ʹ͍ͭͯɼ۟຤ͷٸܹͳมಈͰҙਤΛ఻ୡ͠ Α͏ͱ͢Δ܏޲ʹɻ 52 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ • ׆ಈྫ͸ʁ
  48. 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨ ͤΔʯͷ׆ಈྫ 10. Q&Aͷ׆༻ʢݪଇᶅʣ p.8 • จষͷ಺༰ʹ͍ͭͯӳ໰ӳ౴Λߦ͏ɻ •

    ࣭໰ʹԠͯ͡ద੾ͳ֩഑ஔΛͨ͠ฦ౴͕ඞཁɻ • ৽৘ใΛ໨ཱͨͤΔɻ • ౴͑Λ࣭ࣔͯ͠໰Λߟ͑Δͱ͍͏όϦΤʔγϣϯ΋ɻ • ೔ຊޠͷར༻Մೳɻ 11. Ϟϊϩʔά͔Βձ࿩จ΁ʢݪଇᶅʣ p.9 • આ໌จΛձ࿩ͷηϦϑʹݟཱͯɼ߹͍ͷखΛೖΕΔΑ͏ʹ࣭໰Λ ೖΕΔจষʹվม͢Δɻ • ؒҧ͍ͷՕॴͰ֩഑ஔʹΑΔ໨ཱͪΛɻ
  49. 12.ؒҧ͍ΛؚΉจষʢݪଇᶅʣ p.10 • ؒҧ͍ΛؚΉจͱਖ਼͍͠จΛϖΞͰ࣋ͪɼ ؒҧ͍ͷํ͕ಡΈ্͛ɼਖ਼͍͠ํ͕ͦΕΛ గਖ਼͢Δɻ 13. ۭॴΛؚΊͨจষʢݪଇᶅʣ p.11 •

    ۭॴΛؚΉจͱਖ਼͍͠จΛϖΞͰ࣋ͪɼۭ ॴΛೖΕͳ͕ΒಡΈɼਖ਼͍͠ํ͕ͦΕΛగ ਖ਼͢Δɻ ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨ ͤΔʯͷ׆ಈྫ 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  50. 14) ۟ಡ఺ɾจઅʢݪଇᶅʣp.1 • ೔ຊޠͷจͰ͸ɼ۟ಡ఺Λଧͭ͜ͱͰಡΈ ΍͘͢ͳΔ͜ͱΛઆ໌͢Δɻ • ʮͶʯɾʮ͞ʯɾʮΑʯͳͲΛૠೖͯ۠͠ ੾Γ͕͋Δ͜ͱΛҙ͚ࣝͮΔɻ • ӳޠͰ͸Ͳ͏ͳΔ͔Λମײ͢Δɻϙʔζ΍

    ԻௐͰ۠੾Γ͕ߦΘΕΔ͜ͱΛཧղ͢Δɻ ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨ ͤΔʯͷ׆ಈྫ 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  51. 15. ೔ຊޠͷޠॱʢݪଇᶅʣ p.1 • ֩഑ஔ͕σϑΥϧτͰͳ͍৔߹ʹɼ೔ ຊޠͱӳޠͰͲͷΑ͏ʹয఺Λ౰ͯΔ ՕॴΛ֬ೝ͢Δ͔Λମײ͢Δɻ • ೔ຊޠͱӳޠͷޠॱΛ֬ೝ͠ɼޠॱΛ ೖΕସ͑Δ೔ຊޠͱɼޠॱ͸ม͑ͣ֩

    ഑ஔͰয఺Λม͑ΔӳޠͱΛ֬ೝ͢Δɻ ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨ ͤΔʯͷ׆ಈྫ 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ
  52. 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ • ͜͜Ͱʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯͱͦΕΒͷ׆ಈྫΛ ৼΓฦΓͳ͕Β·ͱΊΔͱ… • ʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯʹ͍ͭͯɼޠɾ۟ɾจͱൣ ғ͕޿ൣʹͳͬͨͱͯ͠΋ɼΞΫηϯτ ͷ഑ஔͳͲɼ಺෦ߏ଄͸ຊ࣭తʹ͸มΘ Βͳ͍఺͕ॏཁɻ

    • Πϝʔδͱͯ͠ɼGoogle ϚοϓͰ͙Γ͙ ΓΈΔײ͡ɻ 57
  53. 3. ۩ମతʹͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ 58 •·ͱΊ •ޠʢ୯ʣɹɹɹɹɹɹɹɹɹBOOK •ޠʢෳʣɹɹɹɹɹɹ COOKbook •۟ɹɹɹɹɹɹɹɹɹ a COOKbook

    •จʢ1ʣɹɹHe WANTS a COOKbook •จʢ2ʣɹɹHe WANTS a COOKbook •Gilbert (2008) : Pronunciation pyramid, Grant & Yu (2017)
  54. ຊϫʔΫγϣοϓͷߏ੒ 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ 3.۩ମతʹ͸ʁͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ 4.࣮ફྫͷ঺հ 5.օ͞ΜͳΒʁ 59

  55. 4. ࣮ફྫͷ঺հ • தֶߍͰͷ࣮ફ • େֶͰͷ࣮ફ 61 4. ࣮ફྫͷ঺հ

  56. 4. ࣮ફྫͷ঺հ தֶߍͰͷ࣮ફ • ෟଐத౳ڭҭֶߍͰͷ࣮ફ - ର৅ɿ2016೥ळֶظத౳ڭҭֶߍલظ1೥ੜʢத ֶߍ1೥ੜʣ - ϓϩισΟͷࢦಋΛतۀʹଳ׆ಈͱͯ͠ಋೖ

    - ݪଇᶃ͔ΒΏͬ͘Γͱ - ϙΠϯτΛߜͬͯԿ౓΋܁Γฦ͢͜ͱͷͰ͖ΔΑ ͏ͳλεΫΛʢ׆ಈྫ 1), 2), 3) Λத৺ʹʣ - ܰඌɾେ࿨ʢ2017ʣͰҰ෦Λใࠂ 62
  57. தֶߍͰͷ࣮ફ • ֶظதͷࢦಋͷஈ֊ 1. ӳޠͱ೔ຊޠͷҧ͍ʹؾ͔ͮͤɼԻઅͱ͍͏ݻ ·Γͷଘࡏɼͦͷߏ଄ʹ਌͠Ήஈ֊ 2. ԻઅΛϋϛϯάͱ͠ɼڭՊॻͷޠኮΛத৺ͱ͠ ͯɼ͍ͭ͘ϋϛϯά͕͋Δͷ͔Λ֬ೝ͠ͳ͕Βಡ Ήஈ֊

    3. ෳ਺ԻઅͷޠኮΛఏࣔ͠ͳ͕Βɼ͍ͭ͘ͷϋϛ ϯάʹͳΔͷ͔ɼͦͷ্Ͱͦͷதͷڧऑͷଘࡏʹ ؾ͍͍ͮͯ͘ஈ֊ʢݪଇͷ2΁ͷڮ౉͠ʣ 63 4. ࣮ફྫͷ঺հ
  58. தֶߍͰͷ࣮ફ • ׆ಈྫʢ഑෍ࢿྉͦͷ4ɹp.1 ϫʔΫγʔτͷྫ Λࢀরʣ 1.೔ຊޠɾӳޠͷҧ͍ 2.ϋϛϯάͷಋೖ 3.୯Իઅޠ͔Βෳ਺Իઅޠ΁ • Իಡ՝୊

    •҉এ՝୊ʢڭՊॻͷHumpty Dumptyʣ •Իಡ՝୊ʢMarcel is the white starͷҰ෦ʣ • ҙࣝͷมԽ • Ξϯέʔτ͔Βʢp.1 Ξϯέʔτ߲໨Λࢀরʣɿतۀ֎ʹʁ • ϦʔμʔֶशͰͷऔ૊Έʹ΋೾ٴ 64 4. ࣮ફྫͷ঺հ
  59. தֶߍͰͷ࣮ફ 65 4. ࣮ફྫͷ঺հ

  60. 4. ࣮ફྫͷ঺հ • தֶߍͰͷ࣮ફ • େֶͰͷ࣮ફ 67

  61. େֶͰͷ࣮ફ • ൃදऀͷۈ຿ߍͰͷ࣮ફ - Պ໨ɿ2016೥౓લظୈ1Qɹ ڞ௨ڭҭՊ໨ English Communication 1 -

    ର৅: େֶ1೥ੜʢ3Ϋϥεʣ - ൃԻࢦಋΛतۀͷલ൒30෼ఔ౓Λଳ׆ಈͱ͠ ࣮ͯࢪ - ࢒Γ͸Lectureͷlistening΍note takingͳͲΛ ߦ͏तۀ 68 4. ࣮ફྫͷ঺հ
  62. େֶͰͷ࣮ફ • ൃදऀͷۈ຿ߍͰͷ࣮ફ - ׆ಈྫʢpp.2-5 ϫʔΫγʔτྫΛࢀরʣ - Grant (2014) Λϕʔεʹ

    - ݪଇᶃ͔Βᶅͷॱʹɼ࠷ޙʹ෼અԻΛ͞ΒͬͱΧόʔ - ࠷ऴతʹ3ͭͷݪଇΛఏࣔͯ͠·ͱΊʢؼೲతʣ - Իಡ՝୊ʢp.5 ϫʔΫγʔτྫΛࢀরʣ - ୯ޠɾύοηʔδͷԻಡ - Lectureͷޱ಄ʹΑΔཁ໿՝୊ - ҙࣝͷมԽ - Ξϯέʔτௐࠪ 69 4. ࣮ફྫͷ঺հ
  63. େֶͰͷ࣮ફ 70 4. ࣮ફྫͷ঺հ

  64. 2ͭͷ࣮ફ͔Β • தֶߍͷ࣮ફͰ͸ɼ୲౰ڭһͱ࿈ܞΛऔΓͳ͕ΒɼطशޠኮΛ༻ ͍ͯϫʔΫγʔτΛ࡞੒ͨ͠Γɼ׆ಈྫΛࢀߟʹ͠ͳ͕ΒλεΫ ΍׆ಈΛ࿅͍͖ͬͯ·ͨ͠ɻ • େֶͷ࣮ફͰ͸ɼධՁͷҰ෦ʹ࿥Ի՝୊ΛೖΕΔͳͲɼ໌ࣔతͳ ࢦಋͱͳΓ·ͨ͠ɻ • ޮՌ͕࣮ূ͞Εͨͱ͍͏༁Ͱ͸͋Γ·ͤΜ͕ɼҙࣝௐࠪϨϕϧͰ

    ͸ੜెɾֶੜͷҙࣝʹม༰͕ݟΒΕɼҰఆͷײ৮͸͋Γ·ͨ͠ɻ • ࣮྆ફͱ΋ɼଳ׆ಈʹΑΔϓϩισΟࢦಋͷऔΓೖΕͰͨ͠ɻͦ ͷҙຯͰ͸ɼਖ਼֬ʹ͸ɼतۀʹʮ౷߹తʹʯऔΓೖΕΔ͜ͱ͕Ͱ ͖͍ͯͳ͍͔΋͠Ε·ͤΜɻ • ͜ͷΑ͏ͳ࣮ફࣄྫΛݟͯɼօ͞Μ͸Ͳ͏ײ͡·͔͢ʁ 71 4. ࣮ફྫͷ঺հ
  65. ຊϫʔΫγϣοϓͷߏ੒ 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ 3.۩ମతʹ͸ʁͲͷΑ͏ʹʁ 4.࣮ફྫͷ঺հ 5.օ͞ΜͳΒʁ 72

  66. 5. օ͞ΜͳΒʁ • ࢀՃऀͷօ͞Μͷ୲౰ΫϥεɾतۀͰ͸ɼͲͷ Α͏ͳܗͰऔΓೖΕΔ͜ͱ͕ՄೳͰ͠ΐ͏͔ʁ • ݪଇᶃʙᶅͷߟ͑ํɼ۩ମతͳ׆ಈྫͳͲΛݟ ্ͨͰɼࣗ͝਎ͳΒͲͷΑ͏ʹऔΓೖΕΔ͔Λ ͓࣋ͪͷڭࡐʢ͋Δ͍͸഑෍ࢿྉͷSample textʣΛࡐྉʹߟ͑ͯΈ·͠ΐ͏ɻ

    • ͋Δ͍͸ɼࠓճͷ࿮૊ΈͷఏҊͱ׆ಈྫɼ࣮ફ ྫʹ͍ͭͯɼ࣭͝໰౳͋Ε͹ड͚Δ࣌ؒʹͯ͠ ΋Α͍Ͱ͢ɻ 73
  67. ·ͱΊ 74 • ͯ͞ɼຊ೔ͷ͓୊͸ʮतۀʹऔΓೖΕ͍ͨϓ ϩισΟࢦಋʯͰͨ͠ɻ • ʮ͸͡ΊʹʯͰ߲ࣔͨ͠໨ʹ͍͓ͭͯ࿩͠͠ ͨͭ΋ΓͰ͢ɻ - ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷҐஔ͚ͮ

    - ϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ࿮૊ΈͷఏҊ - ׆ಈྫɾ࣮ફྫͷ঺հ - Ͳ͏औΓೖΕΔʁ • ͦͯ͠ɼ໨తͱͯ͠͸…
  68. ·ͱΊ 75 • ʢ໨తͱͯ͠…ʣ͜ͷϫʔΫγϣοϓΛ௨ͯ͡ɼࢀՃऀͷօ͞Μ͕ɼϓ ϩισΟͷࢦಋʹ͍ͭͯɼ - ʮϓϩισΟࢦಋͷ࿮૊ΈΛ΋ͱʹɼڭࡐݚڀͯ͠ΈΑ͏͔ͳ…ʯ - ʮ2ֶظɼळֶظɼޙظͷतۀͷதͰऔΓೖΕͯΈΑ͏͔ͳ…ʯ -

    ʮ͜ͷ࣮ྫ΍ҊΛ͜Μͳ෩ʹΞϨϯδͰ͖Δ͔ͳɼ͋Μͳ෩ʹΞϨ ϯδͰ͖Δ͔ͳ…ʯ • ͱɼߟ͍͚͑ͯͨͩͨͰ͠ΐ͏͔ʁͦ͏Ͱ͋Ε͹ɼ໨తΛগ͠Ռͨͨ͠ ͜ͱʹͳΓɼ͏Ε͍͠Ͱ͢ɻ • ߋʹɼ͜Ε͔Β࣮ࡍʹ΍ͬͯΈ͍͚ͯͨͩΕ͹ɼ΋ͬͱ͏Ε͍͠Ͱ͢ɻ • ߋʹ͞Βʹɼͦͷ݁ՌͳͲΛϑΟʔυόοΫͯ͠Լ͞Δͱɼ΋ͬͱ΋ͬ ͱ͏Ε͍͠Ͱ͢ɻ • ٙ໰౳͍͟͝·ͨ͠Βɼ͝ԕྀͳ͓͘ਘͶԼ͍͞ɻϝʔϧΞυϨε͸ࢿ ྉʹه͓ͯ͠Γ·͢ɻ