exceptions and there are women who choose fields which are more male-oriented by their nature (construction, military service) just as there are men who choose jobs traditionally held by women. Unlike some other fields, women aren't being kept out of programming through any sort of imposed discrimination. [...] Yes, they're a minority, but only out of choice. No one is telling women not to code. http://linux.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=192551&cid=15806271 (2006)
hostile workplace • Unconscious bias in hiring, esp. against mothers • The “second shift” • “We like what (we think) we are good at” • Numerical minority, lack of role models • Stereotype threat • Leadership – "competent but cold" vs "nice but incompetent"
male-dominated domains - “The easiest solution to the problem of being female in a setting in which women are made to feel that they are inferior and do not belong is to become as unfeminine as possible.” p52 Can encourage “antifemale attitudes”
directly • Not clear what activity implies re involvement • Brain structure => psychological function is obscure – making reverse inferences is fraught • "Some neural differences are inconsequential, because they are offset by other compensatory differences. Other neural differences are alternative pathways to the same behavorial end." – Celia Moore, quoted p 143 • “file drawer phenomenon”
spread in male populations (more idiots, more geniuses) Even if it is so now... it is not inevitable or immutable. e.g. not seen in all countries. intellectual ability as a fixed gift vs earned quality that can be developed p 184