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Digital Technology

Digital Technology

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Raghav G Jha

January 01, 2007
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  1. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 1 Digital Technology A Training Module for the Trade Apprentices, Trainees & Workers. This presentation also includes excerpts from my notes during Mechanician (AL) course in the year 1983-85 at Electrical Training School (LTS), INS-Valsura, Jamnagar & Naval Air Technical School (NATS), INS-Garuda, Cochin. email: sgjha1960@gmail.com
  2. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 2 Introduction Number & arithmetic system Logic gates Encoding, decoding Flip-flops Counters Shift registers Converters AC drives PLC’s & Transducers
  3. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 3 History & Fundamentals
  4. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 4 Digital Electronics began 1. When the first person learned to count & associate number names with objects in a group. 2. Most counting was done on the fingers (digits) and for this reason the basic number names (one, two, three, ……………) are known as digits .
  5. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 5 The invention of numbers led to arithmetic and all kinds of calculating devices. The really crucial inventions in the evolution of digital electronics were made in the nineteenth century.
  6. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 6 1801 Jacquard invented an apparatus for weaving yarn or thread. 1833 Babbage visualised the first computer, a machine that used punched cards to carry out arithmetic calculations automatically
  7. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 7 1854 Boole found a new way of thinking, a new way to reason things out. He decided to use symbols instead of words to reach logical conclusions. Boole saw a pattern in the way we think that allowed him to invent Boolean Algebra.
  8. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 8 Numbers & Arithmetic Systems
  9. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 9 1. Good or Bad 2. Life or Death 3. Win or Lose 4. Day or Night 5. Rich or Poor 1. 0 or 1 2. High or Low 3. Yes or No 4. ON or OFF 5. Open or Close TWO STATE OPERATION
  10. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 10 The following devices gives us the operation in 2 states. 1. Switches 2. Magnetic cores 3. Punched cards 4. Magnetic tapes 5. Transistors
  11. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 11 The digits used in our decimal system is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 & 9. With the help of above digits, we can write any number. 2945 = 2000 + 900 + 40 + 5 In powers of 10, this becomes 2945 = 2×103 + 9×102 + 4×101 + 5×100.
  12. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 12 In the similar way, in binary system we have only 2 digits; 0 & 1. For example, 1111 becomes 1111 = 1000 + 100 + 10 + 1 In decimals, this number will be written 15= 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 1×23 + 1×22 + 1×21 + 1×20. = 1×8 + 1×4 + 1×2 + 1×1 = 8 + 4 + 2 + 1.
  13. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 13 When we want to know the value of any given binary number i.e. 10101010 = 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 = x x x x = 1×27 + 1×25 + 1×23 + 1×21 = 128 + 32 + 8 + 2 = 170 Like wise, find out 11001100? Have you got the answer 204?
  14. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 14 How to convert decimal into binary. Let us convert 170 into binary. Change 170 into parts according to the power of 2’s. 170 = 128 + -- + 32 + -- + 8 + - + 2 + - = 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 = 10101010.
  15. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 15 Fractions are converted into corresponding decimal equivalents. 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 1/2 1/4 1/8 1/16 1/32 0.5 0.25 0.125 0.0625 0.0312 Therefore, if we are asked to convert 0.1101 = 0.5 + 0.25 + 0.0625 = 0.8125
  16. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 16 Double-Dabble is also a popular way to convert decimal numbers in to binary numbers. In this method, we progressively divide the decimal number by 2 writing down the remainder after each division. The remainders are taken into reverse order.
  17. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 17 Fractions are converted by multiplying by 2 and recording the carry. The carry is read downwards. 0.85 × 2 = 1.7 = 0.7 with a carry 1 0.70 × 2 = 1.4 = 0.4 with a carry 1
  18. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 18 Octal & Hexa-decimal Numbers: The base of a number system equals the number of digits it uses. Decimal uses 10 digits 0 to 9. Binary uses 2 digits 0 & 1. Octal uses 8 digits 0 to 7 & Hexa-decimal uses 10 digits & 6 alphabet. They are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E & F.
  19. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 19 Decimal Binary Octal Hexadecimal 1 1 1 1 3 11 3 3 7 111 7 7 9 1001 11 9 10 1010 12 A 12 1100 14 C 14 1110 16 E 15 1111 17 F
  20. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 20 The value of 20 = 1 21 = 2 22 = 4 23 = 8 24 = 16 25 = 32 26 = 64 27 = 128 28 = 256 29 = 512 210 = 1024 That is why 1k = 1024 2k = 2048 4k = 4096 8k = 8192 16k = 16384 32k = 32768 64k = 65536 128k = 131072 256k = 262144 512k = 524288
  21. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 21 Rules of binary arithmetic Addition 0 + 0 = 0 0 + 1 = 1 1 + 0 = 1 1 + 1 = 10 Subtraction 0 – 0 = 0 10 – 1 = 1 1 – 0 = 1 1 – 1 = 0 1×0=0 & 1×1=1 0÷1 = 0 & 1÷0 = ∞
  22. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 22 Addition Decimal system 32 + 31 --------- 63 Binary system 100000 11111 ------------------ 111111
  23. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 23 Subtraction Decimal system 32 - 31 --------- 01 Binary system 100000 11111 ------------------ 00001
  24. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 24 1’s & 2’s complement: 1’s complement is obtained by changing all 0’s to 1 and all 1’s to 0. 1’s complement of the following numbers 1010 = 0101 101100 = 010011 2’s complement = 1’s complement + 1
  25. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 25 Coding of numbers: The two coding schemes that are commonly used for data entry into digital computing systems are ASCII & HOLLERITH. ASCII code is used for encoding information. HOLLERITH is used in punched-card.
  26. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 26
  27. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 27 Weighted & Un-weighted codes; The weighted codes are 1. BCD (Binary coded decimal) 2. BCO (Binary coded Octal) 3. BCH (Binary coded Hexa-decimal) 4. 4241 5. 2424 6. 7421
  28. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 28 Un-weighted codes: Excess-3 code Decimal BCD 8421 8421 + 3 Excess-3 0 0000 0000 + 011 0011 1 0001 0001 + 011 0100 3 0011 0101 + 011 0110 5 0101 0101 + 011 1000 7 0101 0101 + 011 1010 9 1001 1001 + 011 1100
  29. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 29 Un-weighted codes: Gray code Decimal Binary Gray 0 0000 0000 1 0001 0001 3 0011 0010 5 0101 0111 7 0111 0100 9 1001 1101
  30. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 30 Logic Gates
  31. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 31 OR Logic Gate While opening bank account with HDFC Bank, you mentioned in the form that “I OR my Wife” can withdraw money. One day, your wife goes to bank. Will the bank manager allow your wife to withdraw money?
  32. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 32 OR Gate is also known as “Any or All Gate”.
  33. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 33 AND Logic Gate While opening bank account with HDFC Bank, you mentioned in the form that “I AND my Wife” can withdraw money. One day, your wife goes to bank. Will the bank manager allow your wife to withdraw money?
  34. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 34 AND Gate is also known as “All or Nothing Gate”.
  35. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 35 NOT Logic Gate The NOT gate or inverter is the simplest of all logic gates. It has only one input and one output.
  36. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 36 NOT Gate is also known as “Inverting Gate”.
  37. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 37 NAND Logic Gate It is the combination of AND & NOT gate. In other words, the out put of the AND gate is connected to the input of the NOT gate. The little bubble on the right end of the symbol means to invert AND gate.
  38. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 38 NAND gate is also known as “Universal Gate”.
  39. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 39 NOR Logic Gate It is the combination of OR & NOT gate. In other words, the out put of the OR gate is connected to the input of the NOT gate. The little bubble on the right end of the symbol means to invert OR gate.
  40. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 40 NOR Gate
  41. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 41 Exclusive OR Logic Gate The name Exclusive OR gate is shortened to XOR. The XOR gate can be designed by combining OR, AND & NOT gates. Its exclusive feature is to give out put 0 when both inputs are 1.
  42. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 42 XOR Gate
  43. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 43 Exclusive NOR Logic Gate The name Exclusive NOR gate is shortened to XNOR. The XNOR gate can be designed by combining OR, AND & NOT gates. This gate is equal to a XOR gate followed by an inverter.
  44. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 44 XNOR Gate
  45. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 45 Why NAND gate is called universal?
  46. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 46 Adding & Subtracting Circuits
  47. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 47
  48. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 48 Full Adder with Truth Table
  49. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 49 A D D S U B
  50. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 50
  51. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 51 Encoders & Decoders
  52. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 52 Encoders & Decoders: The device or circuit which converts decimal form to digital form is called encoder. The device or circuit which converts digital form to decimal form is called decoder.
  53. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 53 D E C I M A L B I N A R Y
  54. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 54 D E C I M A L B I N A R Y
  55. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 55
  56. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 56 Flip-Flops
  57. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 57 Flip-Flop : 1. A flip-flop is a digital circuit that has two stable states. 2. It remains in one of these states until triggered into the other. 3. Flip-flops are used to store binary information.
  58. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 58 RS flip-flop : 1. The most basic type of flip-flop is the reset/set type, hence, it is known as RS flip-flop. 2. The basic RS flip-flop can be constructed from either two NOR gates or two NAND gates.
  59. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 59
  60. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 60
  61. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 61 Clocked RS flip-flop :
  62. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 62 D Flip-flop : 1. The RS flip-flop has two data inputs, R & S. 2. To store a high bit, we need a high S and to store a low bit, we need a high R. 3. Generations of two signals to drive a flip-flop is disadvantageous in many applications.
  63. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 63 4. Further more, the RS flip-flop is susceptible to a race condition. 5. To avoid racing condition, the RS flip -flop is modified and designed to eliminate the possibility of race condition. 6. This is called D flip-flop and has single input. 7. This is also known as delay flip-flop.
  64. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 64
  65. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 65 JK Flip-flop : 1. The JK flip-flop is considered the universal flip-flop because it has the features of all other types of flip-flop. 2. Its unique feature is the toggle mode. 3. No racing problem. (Toggling more than once is called racing).
  66. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 66
  67. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 67 Master-Slave FF When clock is high, master is active & slave is inactive. Clock is low, the master is inactive & slave is active.
  68. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 68 Summary of Basic Flip-Flops 1. Logic circuits are classified as combinational or sequential. 2. Combinational logic circuits use ……….
  69. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 69 2. …… AND, OR & NOT gates which do not have memory. 3. Sequential logic circuits use flip-flop which has memory. 4. Flip-flops are wired together to form counters, registers etc. 5. Flip-flops are edge-triggered. 6. Schmitt triggers are special gates.
  70. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 70 Counters
  71. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 71 Counters : 1. Counter is one of the most important subsystems in a digital system. 2. Counter circuit activated by a clock can count the number of clock cycles. 3. There are two types of counters; Ripple & Synchronous Counter.
  72. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 72 Ripple counters: 1. The ripple counter is simple and requires less hardware. 2. However, it has speed limitation. 3. Each FF is triggered by the previous FF, and thus the counter has a cumulative settling time. 4. These counters are called Serial or Asynchronous.
  73. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 73 Binary ripple counters:
  74. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 74 Working: 1. Let output be 0000. 2. J=1, K=1 clock pulse arrives, FF-1 toggles when pulse goes from 1 to 0. 3. Displays 0001. 4. 2nd pulse comes.
  75. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 75 5. FF-1 toggles. Q becomes 0 which causes FF-2 to toggle. 6. Displays 0010. 7. 3rd clock pulse, FF-1 toggles, FF-2 does not because FF-1 has gone from 0 to 1 which is not negative. 8. Displays 0011. 9. This continues………………..
  76. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 76 Decade counters: When FF-4 & FF- 2 both becomes 1, AND gate is enabled. This is possible only when count reaches 1010.
  77. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 77 Synchronous counters: 1. Each flip-flop has a delay of μs. 2. A ripple counter has cascaded flip- flops in chain. 3. If there are ‘n’ flip-flops in the chain, there will be a total time delay of ‘n’ μs. 4. Thus, ripple counters are slow.
  78. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 78 5. This difficulty is overcome in synchronous (parallel-counter). 6. Here all the flip-flops are simultaneously triggered by the clock.
  79. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 79 4-bit Up-down counter
  80. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 80 Counters as Frequency dividers
  81. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 81 Digital clocks
  82. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 82 Shift Registers
  83. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 83 Registers is a group of flip-flops that can be used to store a binary number. It find a variety of applications in digital system. If the output of each flip-flop is connected to the input of the adjacent flip-flop, then the circuit is called a shift register.
  84. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 84 Shift-Registers: • A typical example of a shift register is found within a calculator. • It is a temporary memory and thus holds the numbers on the display. • It also shifts the number to the left on the display each time a new key is pressed.
  85. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 85 Shift registers are classified depending upon the way in which data is entered and retrieved. They are i. Serial-in serial-out (SISO). ii. Serial-in parallel-out (SIPO). iii.Parallel-in serial-out (PISO). iv.Parallel-in parallel-out (PIPO).
  86. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 86
  87. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 87
  88. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 88
  89. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 89
  90. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 90 Parallel-in-parallel-out (PIPO) IC-74195
  91. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 91 Converters
  92. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 92 Converters: 1. Physical quantities such as pressure, temperature and flow are analogue in nature. 2. Converters are those circuits which converts analogue values into digital and vice-versa.
  93. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 93 Basic digital to analogue converters:
  94. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 94 Ladder type digital to analogue converters:
  95. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 95 Analogue to digital converters:
  96. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 96
  97. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 97
  98. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 98
  99. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 99 3½ Floppy Disc
  100. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 100 Seven Segment Display
  101. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 101 7 LED’s are fabricated as shown. They are commonly known as SSD (seven segment display)
  102. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 102 They are used for displaying decimal numbers because; 1. Power 1.5-5V, 10-150 mW per digit. 2. Good brightness level. 3. Temperature range –40 to + 85 C. 4. Life time is around 100,000 hours. 5. Emits light in ROY & W.
  103. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 103 They are available as common anode & common cathode.
  104. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 104 Memories
  105. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 105 ROM: Read Only Memory Compact disc read only memory CD- ROM is the most wonderful example. It is an optical storage device. It can store information equivalent of more than 200,000 typed pages. The cost of CDROM is around Rs.5/-.
  106. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 106 RAM: Random Access Memory RAM is a read/write or scratchpad memory. The RAM can not be used for permanent memory because it loses its data when the power is switched off. RAM is used where only a temporary memory is needed.
  107. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 107 SRAM: Static Random Access Memory DRAM: Dynamic RAM ROM: Read Only Memory EPROM: Electrically Programmable ROM EEPROM: Electrically Erasable PROM VRAM: Volatile RAM NVRAM: Non Volatile RAM
  108. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 108
  109. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 109 Basics of Digital Computer
  110. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 110 Basic constituents of a computer: 1. Input 2. Memory 3. Instruction 4. Arithmetic logic unit and 5. Output
  111. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 111 Block diagram of a basic digital computer
  112. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 112 Input: This transfers a set of instructions called a program and a set of numbers or other information known as data to the computer. Memory : Here the program and data are stored.
  113. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 113 Instructions : This parts of a computer does the job of a human. Arithmetic Logic Units: This section adds, subtracts, multiplies and divides. Output: This transfers the final answer from the computer to the outside world.
  114. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 114 AC Drives
  115. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 115 The mechanical power may be transmitted at the desired speed & torque by any one of the following methods. 1. Direct drive. 2. Belt drive 3. Rope drive 4. Chain drive and 5. Gear drive.
  116. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 116 Advantages of Electric Drives : 1. It is simple in construction and has less maintenance cost. 2. Its speed control is easy and smooth. 3. It is neat, clean and free from any smoke or flue gases. 4. It has comparatively longer life.
  117. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 117 5. It can be installed at any desired convenient place thus affording more flexibility in the lay out. 6. It can be remotely controlled. 7. Being compact, it requires less space. 8. It can be started immediately without any loss of time.
  118. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 118 Disadvantages: 1. It comes to stop as soon as there is failure of electric supply. 2. It can not be used at far off places which are not served by electric supply.
  119. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 119 Electric drives may be grouped into: 1. Group drive 2. Individual drive 3. Multi-motor drive. Each has its own merits & de-merits.
  120. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 120 Choice for motor: Induction motor with squirrel cage rotor is the most suitable motor because: 1. Simple, rugged & non-destructible. 2. Rotor has conducting bars not wires. 3. Cheap & without maintenance. 4. No carbon brushes.
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 121 Squirrel cage rotor
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 122 Speed: When a three phase winding is energised by a three phase supply, it rotates around the stator synchronously. Synchronous speed Ns = 120  f / P where P is the number of motor poles and f is the frequency of the stator a.c. supply.
  123. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 123 Therefore to change the rpm of the motor, either the number of poles or supply frequency needs to be changed. Changing either of them is not a easy task. In the AC drives, the supply frequency is varied depending upon the required rpm.
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 124 PN =120F 6×N = 120×50 N =1000 PN =120F 12×N = 120×50 N = 500
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 125 Block Diagram of a Electrical Drive Source Motor Load Power Modulator Control Unit Speed Sensor Input Command
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 126 Scalar control method
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 127 Vector control method
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 128 Cyclo-converter
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 129 Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 130 Frequency Vs Speed PN = 120F
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 131 Programmable Logic Circuits
  132. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 132 Programmable logic controller (PLC) is a special computer like device. It is called work horse of an industrial automation. It is used to replace banks of elctro- magnetic relays in industrial process control.
  133. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 133 It is based on digital logic and can be programmed as and when required. All production processes go through a fixed repetitive sequence of operations. This involves logical steps and decision. It controls time and regulate sequence.
  134. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 134 It has special programming because it has to control the machines. A normal computer has a key board or mouse for primary input but PLC’s have sensors. PLC’s can be re-programmed to meet the works requirement. It uses ladder logic programme.
  135. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 135 It interfaces with input and output devices. The common input devices are 1. limit switches 2. pressure switches 3. temperature & optical sensors 4. analogue to digital converters etc.
  136. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 136 The common output devices are 1. motors 2. solenoids 3. pneumatic valves 4. digital to analogue converters etc.
  137. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 137 The basic ladder logic components are 1. Normally open contact 2. Normally close contact and 3. Coil
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 138 Block Diagram of PLC
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 139
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 140
  141. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 141
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 142 Transducers
  143. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 143 Transducers: 1. Transducer is a device, which converts energy or information from one form to another. 2. These are widely used in measurement work. 3. It provides a usable output in response to specific input.
  144. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 144 The transducer may be; 1. Mechanical 2. Electrical 3. Magnetic 4. Optical 5. Chemical 6. Acoustic 7. Thermal 8. Nuclear Also it may be the combination of any two or more of these.
  145. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 145 Advantages: Electrical Transducers 1. Minimum friction. 2. Very small power is required. 3. The electrical output can be amplified to any desired level. 4. The output can be indicated and recorded remotely. 5. The signal may be in the form of voltage, current, frequency, pulses
  146. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 146 Dis-advantages: 1. Low reliability in comparison to that of mechanical transducers. 2. Comparative high cost. 3. In some cases accuracy and resolution attainable are not as high as in mechanical transducers 4. Dependency on power.
  147. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 147 Physical Parameters: 1. Temperature 2. Pressure 3. Angular Velocity 4. Accelerometer 5. Object sensors
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 148 Temperature Measurement
  149. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 149 Pressure Measurement
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 150 Vacuum Measurement
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 151 Measurement of Angular Velocity
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 152 Accelerometer
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 153 Proximity Sensors
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 154 Optical Sensors
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    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 155 TTL IC’s
  156. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 156 TTL IC’s
  157. Fundamentals of Digital Technology January 2007 SG Jha , Training

    Centre, OSRAM INDIA Private Limited, Sonepat Slide: 157 TTL IC’s