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Abridged History of Electrical and Electronics

Abridged History of Electrical and Electronics

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Raghav G Jha

July 01, 2006
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  1. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 1 How old is the Electricity & Electronics? Sources: Wikipedia E-mail: sgjha1960@gmail.com
  2. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 2 “If you would not be forgotten, as soon as you are dead and rotten, either write things worth reading, or do things worth the writing." 1. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
  3. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 3 The formal beginning of electrical engineering goes back to 18th century when Franklin gave the explanation to the cause of thunder and lighting. His famous kite experiment & experiment conducted by Thomas Francois Dalibard on May 10, 1752 using 12 m tall iron rod instead of a kite extracted electrical sparks from a cloud. 1. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
  4. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 4 How did Benjamin Franklin's Kite Experiment Work? When a storm cloud passed over Franklin's kite the negative charges leaked onto his kite, his kite string, his key, and a Leyden jar attached to the key by a thin metal wire . Franklin however, was unaffected by the negative charges as he was holding a dry silk string which insulated him from the charges. 1. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
  5. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 5 When Franklin happened to touch the key, he received a shock, because the negative charges in the key were so strongly attracted to the positive charges in his body that a spark jumped from the key to his hand. Franklin's experiment successfully showed that lightning was actually static electricity. 1. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
  6. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 6 His theory was regarded as the first mathematical expression that defined the electrical charge in a well defined manner. 2. Charles Coulomb (1736-1806)
  7. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 7 The French engineer Charles Coulomb investigated the quantitative relation of forces between charged objects during the 1780's. He used a torsion balance device, created by himself and could determine how an electric force varies as a function of the magnitude of the charges and the distance between them. 2. Charles Coulomb (1736-1806)
  8. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 8 Coulomb demonstrated that the electric force between two stationary charged particles is; 1. Inversely proportional to the square of the distance ‘r’ between the particles & is directed along line that joins them. 2. Proportional to the product of the charges q1 and q2 . 3. Attracted if the charges have opposite electrical sign and repulsed if the charges have equal sign. 2. Charles Coulomb (1736-1806)
  9. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 9 He discovered that the muscles of dead frogs twitched (to draw, pull, or move suddenly and sharply jerk) when struck by a spark. 3. Luigi Galvani (1737-1798)
  10. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 10 In 1783, Galvani dissected a frog and touched an exposed sciatic nerve of the frog with a metal scalpel which had picked up a charge. At that moment, he saw sparks in an electricity machine and the dead frog's leg kick as if in life. The observation made Galvani the first investigator to appreciate the relationship between electricity and animation — or life. 3. Luigi Galvani (1737-1798)
  11. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 11 This finding provided the basis that electrical energy is carried by ions , and not air or fluid is the impetus behind muscle movement. He is poorly credited with the discovery of bio- electricity. The galvanometer, an instrument for measuring a small electric current, was also named after Galvani, who was correct in attributing muscular contractions to electrical stimuli. 3. Luigi Galvani (1737-1798)
  12. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 12 There exists a museum devoted to explaining his work, original instruments and papers. The building, along with his portrait, appeared on Italian 10.000 lira banknote, before the introduction of the euro. 4. Alessandro Volta ( 1745-1827)
  13. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 13 In 1800, as the result of a professional disagreement over the galvanic response, he invented the voltaic pile an early electric battery, which produced a steady electric current. He concluded that when the copper and zinc electrodes are kept in the acid there arises some potential difference between the electrodes and the charges flow from one …... 4. Alessandro Volta ( 1745-1827)
  14. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 14 …. electrode to another if there is any physical connection between them through some conducting wire. In honor of his work in the field of electricity, Napoleon made him a count n 1810. The Emperor of Austria named him a professor of philosophy. In 1881 an important electrical unit, the volt (V), was named in his honour. 4. Alessandro Volta ( 1745-1827)
  15. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 15 In 1825, Orsted made a significant contribution to Chemistry by producing Aluminium for the first time. 5. Hans Christian Orsted (1777 – 1851)
  16. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 16 While preparing for an evening lecture on 21 April, 1820, Orsted developed an experiment which provided evidence that surprised him. As he was setting up his materials, he noticed a compass needle deflected from magnetic north when the electric current from the battery he was using was switched on and off. 5. Hans Christian Orsted (1777 – 1851)
  17. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 17 This deflection convinced him that magnetic fields radiate from all sides of a wire carrying an electric current, just as light and heat do, and that it confirmed a direct relationship between electricity and magnetism. At the time of discovery, Orsted did not suggest any satisfactory explanation of the phenomenon, nor did he try to represent the phenomenon in a mathematical framework. 5. Hans Christian Orsted (1777 – 1851)
  18. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 18 Later on, he proved that an electric current produces a magnetic field as it flows through a wire. The CGS unit of magnetic induction is named in honor of his contributions to the field of electromagnetism. His findings resulted in intensive research throughout the scientific community in electrodynamics & also represented a major step toward a unified concept of energy. 5. Hans Christian Orsted (1777 – 1851)
  19. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 19 He developed a mathematical theory which not only explained the electromagnetic phenomena already observed, but also predicted many new ones. 6. Andre-Marie Ampere (1775-1836)
  20. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 20 On September 11, 1820 he heard of Orsted discovery and only a week later, on September 18, he presented a paper to the Academy containing a far more complete exposition of that and kindred phenomena. He demonstrated that parallel wires carrying currents attract or repel each other (depending on whether currents are in the same or in opposite directions). This laid the foundation of the science of electrodynamics. 6. Andre-Marie Ampere (1775-1836)
  21. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 21 Ampere’s theory became fundamental for 19th century developments in electricity and magnetism. Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction in 1831 and, after initially believing that he had himself discovered the effect in 1822. Ampere agreed that full credit for the discovery should go to Faraday. Weber also developed Ampere’s ideas as did Thomson and Maxwell. 6. Andre-Marie Ampere (1775-1836)
  22. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 22 His brain was preserved and was studied. It weighed 1,492 grams, cerebral area equal to 219,588 mm2 with highly developed convolutions. In 20th century, it was suggested as the explanation of his genius. 7. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855)
  23. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 23 Another famous story, and one that has evolved in the telling, has it that in primary school, his teacher, J.G. Büttner, tried to occupy pupils by making them add a list of integers. The young Gauss reputedly produced the correct answer within seconds, to the astonishment of his teacher and his assistant Martin Bartels. 7. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855)
  24. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 24 Gauss's presumed method, which supposes the list of numbers was from 1 to 100, was to realise that pair-wise addition of terms from opposite ends of the list yielded identical intermediate sums: 1 + 100 = 101, 2 + 99 = 101, 3 + 98 = 101, and so on, for a total sum of 50 × 101 = 5050. 7. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855)
  25. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 25 Using the results of his experiments, Ohm was able to define the fundamental relationship among voltage, current and resistance, which represents the true beginning of electrical circuits analysis. 8. Georg Simon Ohm (1789 – 1854)
  26. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 26 German scholar George Simon Ohm introduced the concept of resistance and conductance. In almost all the conductors there is some resistance that opposes the flow of current through them. That’s why the charges cannot flow in the conductors without the presence of any energy source in the form of potential difference. 8. Georg Simon Ohm (1789 – 1854)
  27. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 27 Ohm’s main interest was current electricity, which had recently been advanced by Alessandro Volta’s invention of the battery. His experimental equipment was primitive. Despite this, he made his own metal wire, producing a range of thickness and lengths of remarkable consistent quality. The nine years he spent at the Jesuit’s college, he did considerable experimental research on the nature of electric circuits. 8. Georg Simon Ohm (1789 – 1854)
  28. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 28 He took considerable pains to be brutally accurate with every detail of his work. In 1827, he was able to show from his experiments that there was a simple relationship between resistance, current and voltage (for some fixed temperature). I = V/R 8. Georg Simon Ohm (1789 – 1854)
  29. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 29 "One day sir, you may tax it." Faraday's reply to William Gladstone, then British Minister of Finance, when asked of the practical value of electricity. 9. Michael Faraday (1791–1867)
  30. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 30 Faraday studied the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a DC electric current and established the basis for the magnetic field concept in physics. He discovered electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and laws of electrolysis. He established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena. 9. Michael Faraday (1791–1867)
  31. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 31 His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became viable for use in technology. Some historians of science refer to him as the best experimental in the history of science. The unit of capacitance is named after him. Faraday’s constant the charge on a mole of electrons (about 96,485 coulomb). 9. Michael Faraday (1791–1867)
  32. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 32 His laws of electromagnetic induction that a magnetic field changing in time creates a proportional electromotive force. The real victory of the electrical engineering was seen under the leadership Michel Faraday. He not only gave birth to some interesting theories, but himself invented some fundamental electrical machines like the transformer and electric motors. 9. Michael Faraday (1791–1867)
  33. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 33 Maxwell is considered by many physicists to be the nineteenth century scientist with the greatest influence on twentieth century physics. His contributions to the science are of the same magnitude as those of Newton and Einstein. 10. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)
  34. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 34 His most significant achievement was the development of the classical electromagnetic theory, synthesizing all previous unrelated observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and even optics into a consistent theory. His set of equations-Maxwell’s equations demonstrated that electricity, magnetism and even light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon: the electromagnetic field. 10. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)
  35. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 35 From that moment on, all other classical laws or equations of these disciplines became simplified cases of Maxwell's equations. Maxwell's work in electromagnetism has been called the "second great unification in physics", after the first one carried out by Newton. 10. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)
  36. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 36 Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space in the form of waves, and at the constant speed of light. He proposed that light was in fact undulations in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. His work in producing a unified model of electromagnetism is considered to be one of the greatest advances in physics. 10. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)
  37. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 37 Contemporary biographers of Tesla have regarded him as "The Father of Physics", "The man who invented the twentieth century" and "the patron saint of modern electricity." 11. Nikola Tesla (1857-1943)
  38. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 38 Tesla is best known for many revolutionary contributions in the field of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current power (AC) systems, including the poly phase power distribution systems and the AC motors. 11. Nikola Tesla (1857-1943)
  39. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 39 The SI unit measuring magnetic flux density or induction (commonly known as the magnetic field), the Tesla, was named in his honour in 1906. In 1943, the supreme court of the United States credited him as being the inventor of the radio. Tesla is said to have contributed in varying degrees to the establishment of radar, computer science and to the expansion of nuclear and theoretical physics. 11. Nikola Tesla (1857-1943)
  40. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 40 "It's of no use whatsoever, this is just an experiment that proves Maestro Maxwell was right - we just have these mysterious electromagnetic waves that we cannot see with the naked eye. But they are there." 12. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857-1894)
  41. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 41 Hertz noticed that a charged object loses its charge more readily when illuminated by ultraviolet light. In 1887, he made observations of the photoelectric effect and of the production and reception of electromagnetic (EM) waves. His receiver consisted of a coil with a spark gap, whereupon a spark would be seen upon detection of EM waves. 12. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857-1894)
  42. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 42 He placed the apparatus in a darkened box in order to see the spark better; he observed, however, that the maximum spark length was reduced when in the box. The glass panel placed between the source of EM waves and the receiver absorbed ultraviolet radiation that assisted the electrons in jumping across the gap but no decrease in spark length when substituted by quartz as quartz does not absorb UV radiation. 12. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857-1894)
  43. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 43 Hertz concluded his months of investigation and reported the results obtained but did not make any attempt at explaining how the observed phenomenon was brought about. 12. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857-1894)
  44. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 44 On 18 June 1912, Marconi gave evidence to the Court of Inquiry into the loss of the Titanic regarding the marine telegraphy's functions and the procedures for emergencies at sea. 13. Marchese Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937)
  45. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 45 During his early years, Marconi had an interest in science and electricity. Hertz's death in 1894 brought published reviews of his earlier discoveries, and a renewed interest on the part of Marconi. Marconi began to conduct experiments, building much of his own equipment in the attic of his home. His goal was to use radio waves to create a practical system of wireless telegraphy. 13. Marchese Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937)
  46. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 46 This was not a new idea—numerous investigators had been exploring wireless telegraph technologies for over 50 years, but none had proven commercially successful. Marconi did not discover any new and revolutionary principle in his wireless-telegraph system, but rather he assembled and improved an array of facts, unified and adapted them to his system. 13. Marchese Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937)
  47. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 47 The Bell (B) is a unit of measurement invented by Bell Labs and named after Bell. The Bell was too large for everyday use, so the decibel (dB), equal to 0.1 B, became more commonly used as a unit for measuring sound intensity. 14. Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)
  48. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 48 When Bell began experimenting with electrical signals, the telegraph had been an established means of communication for some 30 years using dot-and-dash Morse code but was limited to receiving and sending one message at a time. Bell's knowledge of sound and understanding of music led the possibility of transmitting multiple messages over the same wire at the same time. 14. Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)
  49. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 49 On June 2, 1875, Alexander Graham Bell while experimenting with his technique called "harmonic telegraph" discovered he could hear sound over a wire. The sound was that of a twanging clock spring. 10 March 1876, speaking through the instrument to his assistant, Thomas A. Watson, in the next room, Bell utters these famous first words, "Mr. Watson -- come here -- I want to see you." 14. Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)
  50. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 50 The two inventors Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell both independently designed devices that could transmit speech electrically (the telephone). Both men rushed their respective designs to the patent office within hours of each other, Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone first. Both, entered into a famous legal battle over the invention of the telephone, which Bell won. 14. Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)
  51. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 51 Many of life's failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up. 15. Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931)
  52. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 52 Thomas Edison's greatest challenge was the development of a practical incandescent, electric light. Contrary to popular belief, he didn't "invent" the light-bulb, but rather he improved upon a 50-year-old idea. In 1879, using lower current electricity, a small carbonized filament, and an improved vacuum inside the globe, he was able to produce a reliable, long-lasting source of light. 15. Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931)
  53. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 53 The idea of electric lighting was not new, and a number of people had worked on, and even developed forms of electric lighting but up to that time, nothing had been developed. Edison's eventual achievement was inventing not just an incandescent electric light, but also an electric lighting system that contained all the elements necessary to make the incandescent light practical, safe, and economical. 15. Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931)
  54. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 54 After one and a half years of work, success was achieved when an incandescent lamp with a filament of carbonized sewing thread burned for thirteen and a half hours. The first public demonstration of the Thomas Edison's incandescent lighting system was in December 1879, when the Menlo Park laboratory complex was electrically lighted. Edison spent the next several years creating the electric industry. 15. Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931)
  55. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 55 2004 was the centenary of John Ambrose Fleming's momentous patent on the thermionic diode that can be called the birth of electronics. 16. John Ambrose Fleming (1849-1945)
  56. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 56 The story begins with that great American inventor, Thomas Edison. In 1883, he probed inside an incandescent light bulb, first with a wire and then with a metal plate. He found that if this electrode was connected to the positive end of the filament via a galvanometer then a current was detected. If it was connected to the negative end, no current flowed. 16. John Ambrose Fleming (1849-1945)
  57. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 57 This 'Edison effect' was studied by many people over the following 20 years, particulary to examine thermionic emission. Fleming studied it 'carefully' in 1883 and again in 1896, and he may have discussed it with Edison when he met the 'Wizard' during his trip to the USA in 1884. Certainly, for 20 years it was a well known phenomenon before anyone thought of an important application for it. 16. John Ambrose Fleming (1849-1945)
  58. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 58 Fleming's real invention was the use he found for the established Edison effect as a rectifier of high-frequency oscillations. Edison kicked himself when he realised the opportunity he had missed, even though he held what is now seen as the first patent in electronics - the effect used as a voltage indicator (1884). 16. John Ambrose Fleming (1849-1945)
  59. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 59 "While theoretically and technically television may be feasible, commercially and financially it is an impossibility." – 1926 18. Lee De Forest (1873-1961)
  60. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 60 Many inventors tried to improve the Fleming diode, most without success. The only one who succeeded was New York inventor Lee de Forest. In 1907 he patented a bulb with the same contents as the Fleming diode, except for an added electrode. This "grid" was a bent wire between the plate and filament. 18. Lee De Forest (1873-1961)
  61. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 61 De Forest discovered that if he applied the signal from the wireless-telegraph antenna to the grid instead of the filament, he could obtain a much more sensitive detector of the signal. In fact, the grid was changing ("modulating") the current flowing from the filament to the plate. De Forest was creative and energetic, but unable to see the potential or grasp their theoretical implications. 18. Lee De Forest (1873-1961)
  62. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 62 The Audion, was the first successful electronic amplifier. It was the genesis of today's huge electronics industry. 18. Lee De Forest (1873-1961)
  63. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 63 "Great spirits have often encountered violent opposition from weak minds." 19. Albert Einstein (1879-1956)
  64. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 64 Einstein's many contributions to physics include his special theory of relativity, which reconciled mechanics with electromagnetism. His general theory of relativity, which extended the principle of relativity to non-uniform motion, creating a new theory of gravitation. 19. Albert Einstein (1879-1956)
  65. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 65 In 1905, Albert Einstein provided an explanation of the photo-electric effect a *hitherto troubling experiment that the wave theory of light seemed incapable of explaining. He did so by postulating the existence of photons, quanta of light energy with particulate qualities. * (science based theory of universe) 19. Albert Einstein (1879-1956)
  66. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 66 19. Albert Einstein (1879-1956) When light shines on a metal surface, it emits electrons. We can start a current in a circuit just by shining a light on a metal plate.
  67. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 67 In 1922 Einstein was awarded the 1921 Nobel prize "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". Einstein wrote a letter to U.S. President urging U.S. to develop nuclear weapon. In August 1939, Roosevelt received the letter and authorized secret research into the harnessing of nuclear fission for military purposes. 19. Albert Einstein (1879-1956)
  68. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 68 “Hundred year ago, no body was knowing electron. Today, everybody knows it.” 20. Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940)
  69. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 69 Thomson conducted a series of experiments with cathode ray and cathode ray tubes leading him to the discovery of electrons and subatomic particles. In his first experiment, he investigated whether or not the negative charge could be separated from the cathode rays by means of magnetism. Thomson concluded that the negative charge was inseparable from the rays. 20. Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940)
  70. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 70 In his second experiment, he investigated whether or not the rays could be deflected by an electric field (something that is characteristic of charged particles). Thomson found that the rays did indeed bend under the influence of an electric field, in a direction indicating a negative charge. 20. Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940)
  71. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 71 In his third experiment, Thomson measured the charge to mass ratio of the cathode rays by measuring how much they were deflected by a magnetic field and how much energy they carried. He found that the charge to mass ratio was over a thousand times higher than that of a hydrogen ion (H+), suggesting either that the particles were very light or very highly charged. 20. Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940)
  72. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 72 He was awarded the 1906 Nobel prize for the discovery of the electron and his work on the conduction of electricity in gases. In 1906 Thomson demonstrated that hydrogen had only a single electron per atom. Previous theories allowed various numbers of electrons. 20. Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940)
  73. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 73 “If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment.” 24. Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)
  74. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 74 In 1911, Rutherford came forth with his own physical model for subatomic structure, as an interpretation for the unexpected experimental results. 24. Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)
  75. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 75 The Rutherford model was important because it essentially proposed the concept of the nucleus, although this word is not used in the paper. In it, the atom is made up of a central charge (this is the modern atomic nucleus, though Rutherford did not use the term "nucleus" in his paper) surrounded by a cloud of orbiting electrons. 24. Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)
  76. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 76 "An expert is a person who has made all the mistakes that can be made in a very narrow field." 25. Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885-1962)
  77. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 77 In 1913, Bohr published a theory about the structure of the atom based on an earlier theory of Rutherford's. Rutherford had shown that the atom consisted of a positively charged nucleus, with negatively charged electrons in orbit around it. Bohr expanded upon this theory by proposing that electrons travel only in certain successively larger orbits. 25. Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885-1962)
  78. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 78 He suggested that the outer orbits could hold more electrons than the inner ones, and that these outer orbits determine the atom's chemical properties. Bohr also described the way atoms emit radiation by suggesting that when an electron jumps from an outer orbit to an inner one, that it emits light. Later other physicists expanded his theory into quantum mechanics. 25. Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885-1962)
  79. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 79 TV now spans the globe and is the world's most popular form of entertainment, offering multiple channels covering all sorts of subjects, though it has been suggested that Baird might not have altogether approved. 26. John Logie Baird (1888-1946)
  80. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 80 Although the development of television was the result of work by many inventors, Baird is generally credited with being the first person to produce a live, moving, television image from reflected light. Baird achieved this, where other inventors had failed, by obtaining a better photoelectric cell and improving the signal conditioning from the photocell and the video amplifier. 26. John Logie Baird (1888-1946)
  81. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 81 On 2nd October 1925, Baird successfully transmitted the first television picture with a grey-scale image & at five pictures per second rate. Baird went downstairs and fetched an office worker, 20-year-old William Edward Taynton, to see what a human face would look like, and Taynton became the first person to be televised in a full tonal range. 26. John Logie Baird (1888-1946)
  82. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 82 “Today the world produces about as many transistors as it does printed characters in all the newspapers, books, magazines and computer and electronic-copier pages combined.” 27. William Bradford Shockley (1910-1989)
  83. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 83 The transistor was born in 1947 when John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, two scientists working for William Shockley observed that when electrical signals were applied to contacts on a crystal of germanium, the output power was larger than the input. Shockley was not present at that first observation but being a very competitive and sometimes infuriating man, was determined to make his imprint on the discovery. 27. William Bradford Shockley (1910-1989)
  84. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 84 He searched for an explanation & extended the understanding of semiconductor materials and developed the crystal with varying impurities added, which came to be known as the junction transistor. Shockley's invention created a new industry of modern electronics, from supercomputers to talking greeting cards. 27. William Bradford Shockley (1910-1989)
  85. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 85 “It's true that the original idea was mine, but what you see today is the work of probably tens of thousands of the world's best engineers, all concentrating on improving the product, reducing the cost, things of that sort.” 28. Jack St. Clair Kilby (1923-2005)
  86. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 86 In 1958, Kilby was a newly employed engineer at Texas Instruments who did not yet have the right to a summer vacation. He spent the summer working on the problem in circuit design that was commonly called the “tyranny of numbers" and finally came to the conclusion that manufacturing the circuit components in mass in a single piece of semiconductor material could provide a solution. 28. Jack St. Clair Kilby (1923-2005)
  87. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 87 On September 12, he showed the management a piece of germanium with an oscilloscope attached, pressed a switch, and the oscilloscope showed a continuous sine wave proving that his integrated circuit worked and thus that he solved the problem. A patent for a the first integrated circuit, was filed on 6 February, 1959. 28. Jack St. Clair Kilby (1923-2005)
  88. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 88 “In terms of size [of transistor] you can see that we're approaching the size of atoms which is a fundamental barrier, but it'll be two or three generations before we get that.” 30. Gordon Earle Moore (1929- )
  89. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 89 Moore is widely known for "Moore's Law," in which in 1965 he predicted that the number of components the industry would be able to place on a computer chip would double every year. In 1975, he updated his prediction to once every two years. It has become the guiding principle for the semiconductor industry to deliver ever-more-powerful chips while decreasing the cost of electronics. 30. Gordon Earle Moore (1929- )
  90. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 90 In 1968, Rob Noyce and Moore left Fairchild to start Intel, both of whom were very popular already in the field of microelectronics. In 1971 their company invented the first microprocessor well known as 4004 having 2300 transistors on one silicon chip. He became president and CEO in 1975 and held that position until April 1987, when he became Chairman of the Board. 30. Gordon Earle Moore (1929- )
  91. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 91 His knowledge of computers (then still very large machines) allowed him to design the computer-on-a-chip microprocessor (1968), which came on the market as the Intel 4004 (1971), starting the microcomputer industry. 31. Marcian Edward "Ted" Hoff Jr. (1937- )
  92. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 92 In 1971 the Japanese manufacturer Busicom approached Intel requesting integrated circuits for its calculators. While the Japanese company proposed the use of twelve different chips, each to control a different process, Hoff envisioned a single chip that could do it all and began work on bringing his idea to fruition. 31. Marcian Edward "Ted" Hoff Jr. (1937- )
  93. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 93 He invented the first electronic circuit that combined complicated computer functions on a single silicon chip, earning him recognition as the “father of the microprocessor.” This single chip had as much computing power as the first electronic computer, ENIAC, (using 18000 valves) which in 1946 filled a room. The microprocessor created a revolution in computing. 31. Marcian Edward "Ted" Hoff Jr. (1937- )
  94. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 94 The Altair is generally credited with launching the PC revolution in earnest. Microsoft was founded to make its software (BASIC). The MITS Altair 8800 (1975)
  95. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 95 After Altair 8800, Microsoft rose to dominate the home computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s. Microsoft has historically given customer support over Usenet newsgroups and the World Wide Web. The company's official website is one of the most visited on the Internet, receiving more than 2.4 million unique page views per day. Microsoft
  96. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 96 The World Wide Web was created in 1989 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, working at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva and released in 1992. Since then, Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of Web standards and in recent years has advocated his vision of a universal medium for date, information and Knowledge exchange. World Wide Web
  97. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 97 Fax is a telecommunication technology used to transfer copies of documents, especially using affordable devices operating over the telephone network. When sending documents to people at large distances, faxes are instantaneous, yet its disadvantages in quality have relegated it to a position beneath e-mail as the prevailing form of electronic document transfer. Facsimile
  98. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 98 A pager is a simple device which receive a message consisting of a few digits, typically a phone number that the user is then expected to call. Until the popular adoption of mobile phones in the late 1990s, pagers fulfilled the role of common personal and mobile communications. As of 2006, pagers have fallen into obsolescence and are preserved only by of emergency service personnel. Pager
  99. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 99 The first commercial mobile phone service was launched in Japan by NTT in 1978. By June 2006, the total number of mobile phone subscriptions in the world had reached 3.3 billion, or half of the human population Mobile phone is the most widely spread technology and the most common electronic device in the world. Cellular System
  100. Abridged History of Electrical & Electronics July 2006 Shekhar Govind

    Jha, Training Centre, OSRAM India, Sonepat 100 The first mobile phone to enable internet connectivity and wireless email, was released in 1996. By 2007 over 798 million people around the world will accesse the internet or equivalent mobile internet services such as WAP and i- Mode at least occasionally using a mobile phone rather than a personal computer. Internet