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Geographic Analysis in Context: A Visual Search Task Comparing Zooming Metaphors

Geographic Analysis in Context: A Visual Search Task Comparing Zooming Metaphors

Geospatial analysts are seeking more immersive, context-aware interactions with data that emulate the experience of past analytic processes (e.g. light table and magnifier). We present the results from a pilot study, assessing the usability and utility of interactive zoom windows that were designed to emulate and extend the functionality of a tradition Loupe magnification lens in the digital environment. Twelve participants used two styles of zoom windows and a traditional slippy-map interface to identify, classify, and mark the location of buildings that were either damaged or destroyed during the 2010 Haiti Earthquake. Results show that zoom window interfaces perform at the same level as slippy-map interfaces in this simple task, with a single user on a small touch-enabled screen. Future work with these interfaces will evaluate their performance in complex and team tasks.

Presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the North American Cartographic Information Society

Ryan S Mullins

October 15, 2015

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  1. © 2015 Aptima, Inc._v3 Geographic Analysis in Context A Visual

    Search Task Comparing Zooming Metaphors Aptima Ryan Mullins Chad A. Weiss Adam Fouse Stacy Pfautz Visual Attention Lab Krista Ehinger Avigael M. Aizenman Jeremy Wolfe
  2. © 2015 Aptima, Inc._v3 2 § Background – Geographic Analysis

    in Context – Electric Light Tables – Zooming Metaphors § Experiment – Research Questions – Experimental Conditions – Task Description – Participants and Environment § Results § Meaning Overview
  3. © 2015 Aptima, Inc._v3 4 § Geographic Analysis ➡ Imagery

    Analysis – Extracting information from imagery – Useful in Military, Disaster Response, other applications – Othro, oblique images § Context – How does surrounding geography affect location, object? – What can we infer about an object given its surroundings? – How does this context shape decisions, actions? – Account for both Human and Physical components Geographic Analysis in Context
  4. © 2015 Aptima, Inc._v3 5 Click to edit Master title

    style § Table-sized light box – Analyzing photographic imagery § Advantages – Spatiality of the experience – Easy to see layer intermix § Disadvantages – Not digital – Large space requirements – Dedicated hardware Electric Light Tables Loupe – Small magnifying lens – Enables quick transition between spatial contexts
  5. © 2015 Aptima, Inc._v3 6 Click to edit Master title

    style § Analog light table features, digital package § Advantages – Dynamic filtering, layering – Storage capacity, scalability – Analytic extensibility § Disadvantages – Lacks “spatiality” – Poor user experience – Frequent context switching § Geographic § Functional (tools/features) Digital Light Tables Textron Systems RemoteView Exelis Visual Information Studios ENVI
  6. © 2015 Aptima, Inc._v3 8 Is there a best way

    to digitally emulate the experience of using a light table and a loupe for imagery analysis? Comparing Zooming Metaphors
  7. © 2015 Aptima, Inc._v3 9 Click to edit Master title

    style Slippy Map Style – Pinch-to-zoom base map – Layer toggles in title bar Hypothesis: 1 of 3 Metaphors Zoom Window with Toggle – No zoom on base map – Pinch-to-zoom in windows – Layer toggles in zoom Window Side-by-side Zoom Windows – No zoom on base map – Pinch-to-zoom in windows – 1 window per layer, same footprint
  8. © 2015 Aptima, Inc._v3 10 Click to edit Master title

    style Semantic Events § Timestamp § Location (Lat, Lon) § Event Type § Annotation Type § Participant ID § Map ID § Condition ID Visual Search Task Task – Find, mark buildings in aerial image § 3 Training, 9 Real – Classify as damaged, destroyed § No deduction for incorrect classification Use Case – Humanitarian Aid/Disaster Response – 2010 Haiti Earthquake Imagery § Digital Globe QuickBird § RIT IPLER Metrics – Hit Rate § Mark damaged/destroyed building – Time Delta Damaged Destroyed Icons from GlyphIcons
  9. © 2015 Aptima, Inc._v3 11 § 10 College Students –

    5 Female – 5 Male – Ages 19-24 § All novices in imagery analysis § All familiar with touch-enabled technology § Using 23” Multi-Touch Monitor – Dell Model S2340T Capacitive touch screen Participants
  10. © 2015 Aptima, Inc._v3 13 Click to edit Master title

    style Nope But there might be a loser… Zoom Window with Toggle § Lowest Hit Rate – Largest Deviation § Longest Time Delta Is There A Superior Metaphor?
  11. © 2015 Aptima, Inc._v3 14 Click to edit Master title

    style Interface Marks Hits Rate Dev ΔT Slippy Map 41 22 67.6% 18.3% 7.5s Side-by-Side Zoom Windows 30 19 65.0% 15.4% 9.3s Toggle Zoom Window 36 17 61.6% 18.9% 10.2s Comparing Zooming Metaphors
  12. © 2015 Aptima, Inc._v3 16 Click to edit Master title

    style Slippy Map Style § Best performance – Shortest Time – Most accurate § Most familiar interaction § Zoom means diff context Side-by-Side Zoom Windows § Second best Performance – Lowest variance § Easiest to compare § Large footprint on screen Balancing Benefits
  13. © 2015 Aptima, Inc._v3 17 Click to edit Master title

    style Slippy Map Style § Small screens (30 inches) § Single User Systems – Context in analysts mind Side-by-Side Zoom Windows § Big displays (50+ inches) § Multiple analysts – Shared general context – Individualized zoom context The best modality depends on display size, number of collaborating analysts. Screen Size Hypothesis http://www.engadget.com/2012/07/09/microsoft- acquires-perceptive-pixel/
  14. © 2015 Aptima, Inc._v3 Ryan S Mullins | Research Engineer

    Lead, Interactive Intelligent Systems [email protected] Direct: 781.496.2452 Aptima, Inc. | www.aptima.com 12 Gill Street, Suite 1400 Woburn, MA 01801