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行政プロセスにデータ分析を取り入れるために知っておきたい知識と事例

 行政プロセスにデータ分析を取り入れるために知っておきたい知識と事例

2020年2月6日に開催された「令和元年度 政策評価に関する統一研修」(埼玉会場)の講義資料です。

(2020-02-09追記)
受講者以外の方々にもたくさんご覧頂いているようでありがとうございます。
注意点として、口頭での説明を前提とした資料であるため、スライド中の文章は最小限にとどめてある点ご了承下さい。

Sayoko Shimoyama

February 06, 2020
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  1. ߦ੓ϓϩηεʹ
    σʔλ෼ੳΛ
    औΓೖΕΔͨΊʹ
    ஌͓͖͍ͬͯͨ
    ஌ࣝͱࣄྫ

    Ұൠࣾஂ๏ਓϦϯΫσʔλ
    ୅දཧࣄ
    5IV

    ྩ࿨ݩ೥౓
    ੓ࡦධՁʹؔ͢Δ౷Ұݚम

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  2. ຊࢿྉͷిࢠϑΝΠϧೖखํ๏
    nຊࢿྉͰ͸ࢀߟࢿྉͷURLΛೖΕ͍ͯͨΓɺΧϥʔͰͷϏδϡΞϥΠζΛଟ༻͍ͯ͠
    ΔͨΊɺిࢠϑΝΠϧͰͷӾཡΛ͓͢͢Ί͍ͨ͠·͢
    nຊࢿྉ͸૯຿লͷʮ੓ࡦධՁʹؔ͢Δ౷Ұݚमʯͷެࣜϖʔδ͔Β΋ޙ೔ެ։༧ఆͰ
    ͕͢ɺ͙͢ʹӾཡ͍ͨ͠ํ͸ҎԼͷURL͔Β͝ཡ௖͚·͢
    https://bit.ly/3602N28
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 2

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  3. Enterprise
    Public
    Sector
    Civic
    Tech
    Sayoko
    Shimoyama
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 3

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  4. 2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 4
    https://public.tableau.com/profile/sayoko.shimoyama.linkdata#!/vizhome/30_32/2018

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  5. ໨࣍
    1. ͳͥɺσʔλΛ࢖͏ඞཁ͕͋Δͷ͔
    2. ެڞσʔλͷڞ༗͕΋ͨΒࣾ͢ձతΠϯύΫτ
    3. ੓ࡦཱҊͷͨΊͷσʔλ෼ੳͷྲྀΕ
    4. σʔλ׆༻ʹ͓͚ΔΑ͋͘Δצҧ͍
    5. ͓નΊͷจݙɾࢿྉ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 5

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  6. ͳͥɺ
    σʔλΛ࢖͏
    ඞཁ͕͋Δͷ͔
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  7. ͲͪΒͷࣄނͷํ͕ා͍ͱײ͡·͔͢ʁ
    ඈߦػࣄނ ࣗಈंࣄނ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 7

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  8. ࣮ࡍʹࢮ๢ࣄނʹૺ͏֬཰Λௐ΂ͯΈΔͱ…
    ඈߦػࣄނ
    0.00004%
    ࣗಈंࣄނ
    0.00279%
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 8
    ೥ͷࠃ಺ͷࣗಈंަ௨ࣄނʹΑΔࢮ๢ऀ਺ɿ ૯ਓޱɿ
    ग़యݩɿܯࢹி ૯຿ল౷ܭہ
    ೥ʹੈքͰൃੜͨ͠ඈߦػࣄނ݅਺ɿ೥ؒ૯ϑϥΠτ਺ɿ
    ग़యݩɿ"WJBUJPO4BGFUZ/FUXPSL
    ໿
    ສ݅ʹճ
    ى͜Δ֬཰
    ໿
    ສ݅ʹճ
    ى͜Δ֬཰
    ඈߦػͷ
    ໿

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  9. ʮՄ༻ੑώϡʔϦεςΟοΫʯ
    ͱݺ͹ΕΔ൑அͷ܏޲͕ݪҼ
    nਓ͸ɺ͋ΔࣄྫΛࢥ͍ු͔΂΍͚͢Ε͹ɺ
    ى͜Γ΍͍͢ͱ൑அ͠΍͍͢܏޲͕͋Δ
    nೝࣝɺཧղɺܾఆͷࡍʹɺ
    ࢥ͍ग़͠΍͍͢৘ใ͚ͩʹج͍ͮͯ
    ൑அ͢Δ܏޲Λ
    ʮՄ༻ੑώϡʔϦεςΟοΫ
    (Availability heuristic)ʯͱݺͿ
    nਓ͕ؕΓ΍͍͢ʮೝ஌όΠΞεʯ
    ͷ͏ͪͷ1ͭ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 9
    ඈߦػࣄނ͸େ͖͘ใಓ͞ΕΔ͜ͱ͕ଟ͘ɺ
    ҹ৅ʹ࢒Γ΍͍͢

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  10. ೝ஌όΠΞε
    =ແҙࣝͳࢥߟͷภΓɾޡΓ
    ೝ஌όΠΞεʢcognitive biasʣͱ͸ɺ
    ೝ஌৺ཧֶ΍ࣾձ৺ཧֶͰͷ༷ʑͳ؍࡯ऀޮՌ
    ͷҰछͰ͋Γɺඇৗʹجຊతͳ౷ܭֶతͳޡΓɺ
    ࣾձతؼଐͷޡΓɺهԱͷޡΓʢڏِهԱʣͳ
    Ͳਓ͕ؒ൜͠΍͍͢໰୊Ͱ͋Δɻ
    సͯ͡ೝ஌όΠΞε͸ɺࣄྫূڌ΍๏తূڌͷ
    ৴པੑΛେ͖͘࿪ΊΔɻ
    ग़యɿ
    https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%AA%8D%E7%9F%A5%E3%83%90
    %E3%82%A4%E3%82%A2%E3%82%B9
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 10

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  11. ೝ஌όΠΞεͷྫᶃɿ
    ΞϯΧϦϯάޮՌ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 11

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  12. ೝ஌όΠΞεͷྫᶄɿ
    αϯΫίετʢຒ຅අ༻ʣ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 12

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  13. Ͳ͏͢Ε͹ೝ஌όΠΞεΛ֎ͤΔ͔ʁ
    ͲΜͳೝ஌όΠΞε͕͋Δ͔
    ஌͓͚ͬͯ͹ؾΛ෇͚ΒΕΔ…ʁ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 13

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  14. ໊લͷ෇͍͍ͯΔೝ஌όΠΞε͸190Ҏ্
    http://lelang.sites-hosting.com/naklang/method.html
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 14
    ৗʹશͯΛ
    ҙࣝ͢Δͷ͸
    ແཧʂʂ

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  15. ೝ஌όΠΞε͸ආ͚ΒΕͳ͍
    ࣗ෼΋ɺଞਓ΋ɺೝࣝ΍൑அʹ͸
    ৗʹೝ஌όΠΞε͕
    ͔͔͍ͬͯΔՄೳੑ͕͋Δ
    ͱ͍͏લఏͰ͍Δඞཁ͕͋Δ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 15

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  16. ೝ஌όΠΞεରࡦ
    Ͳ͏͢Ε͹όΠΞε͕͔͔͍ͬͯΔ͜ͱʹؾ෇͖ɺ
    ਖ਼͍͠൑அʹۙ෇͘͜ͱ͕ग़དྷΔͷ͔ʁ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 16
    ओ؍తͳ৘ใ͚ͩͰͳ͘ɺ٬؍తͳ৘ใΛ࢖͏

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  17. ٬؍త = ୭͕ݟͯ΋େମಉ͡ղऍ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 17
    2
    ͲͪΒͷೣ͕େ͖͍ʁ
    2
    ͲͪΒͷೣ͕ՄѪ͍ʁ
    0.3m
    20m
    ٬؍త
    ओ؍త

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  18. ਺஋Λ࢖͏ͱղऍͷᴥᴪΛݮΒͤΔ
    ྫʣ͋Δࢢʹ͓͚Δٹٸୂһ๊͕͍͑ͯͨ՝୊






    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 18

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  19. ਺஋Λ࢖͏ͱղऍͷᴥᴪΛݮΒͤΔ
    ࢢ಺ͷ֤ୂͷୂһ1ਓ͋ͨΓͷ
    ग़ಈ݅਺※ Λࢉग़ͯ͠ൺֱ
    ※࢖༻σʔλɿফ๷೥ใͷ೥ؒٹٸग़ಈ݅਺×֤ୂͷ഑ଐਓ਺
    ࠷େͰ
    7.75ഒ
    ͷࠩ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 19
    n ਺ࣈ͸ݴ༿ΑΓ΋ղऍͷ෯͕ڱ͍
    n ղऍͷᴥᴪ͕ݴ༿ʹൺ΂ͯ
    ى͜Γʹ͍͘
    ग़యݩɿ$PEFGPS+BQBOσʔλΞΧσϛʔʹ͓͚Δ๭࣏ࣗମͷνʔϜͷ౰೔ൃදࢿྉ

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  20. ױ

    ͷ



    ܦݧ΍Χϯ͚ͩͰ͸ͳ͘ɺ
    ͦΕΛཪ෇͚Δ٬؍తͳσʔλ͕ඞཁ
    nEBPMɿEvidence Based
    Policy Making
    …ΤϏσϯεʢՊֶతࠜ
    ڌʣʹج͍ͮͨ੓ࡦཱҊ
    nEBPM͸ҩֶʢEvidence
    Based Medicineʣ͔Β೿ੜ
    ͨ͠ߟ͑ํ
    • 1989೥ɺ౰࣌Ұൠతʹ࢖༻͞Εͯ
    ͍ͨෆ੔຺ͷༀͷޮՌΛσʔλΛ
    औͬͯݕূͨ͠ͱ͜Ζɺ෰༻ʹ
    Αͬͯࢮ๢཰͕ߴ·Δ͜ͱ͕൑໌
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 20
    ౰࣌Ұൠతͳෆ੔຺ͷༀ
    ϓϥηϘʢِༀʣ
    ܦݧత஌ࣝͷΈͰ൑அ͢Δ͜ͱͷ
    ةݥੑ

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  21. σʔλ෼ੳ݁Ռ͕ܦݧ΍ΧϯΛӽ͑ͨྫɿ
    PredPolʢถࠃͷ൜ࡑൃੜ༧ଌγεςϜʣ
    nPredPol ͸ΧϦϑΥϧχΞେֶͷݚڀ
    άϧʔϓ͕։ൃͨ͠൜ࡑ༧ଌγεςϜ
    nաڈͷ๲େͳ൜ࡑ৘ใͷσʔλϕʔεΛ
    ΋ͱʹɺকདྷʮ͍ͭɺͲ͜Ͱʯ൜ࡑ͕
    ى͖Δͷ͔ɺػցֶशΛϕʔεʹ༧ଌ
    nϩαϯθϧεࢢܯͷϓϩͷ൜ࡑ෼ੳ׭ͱ
    PredPolͷ༧ଌΛൺֱͨ͠ͱ͜Ζɺ
    ൜ࡑ෼ੳ׭ʹൺ΂̎ഒҎ্PredPolͷํ͕
    ਖ਼֬ʹ༧ଌͰ͖ͨ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 21
    ैདྷͷܦݧ΍ΧϯཔΓͷํ๏Ͱ͸ͳ͘ɺ
    σʔλʹجͮ͘٬؍తͳࠜڌ͔Β൑அ͢Δํ๏΁γϑτ
    https://www.predpol.com/

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  22. σʔλͰࠜڌΛࣔ͢͜ͱͰ߹ҙܗ੒ΛਐΊͨྫɿ
    εʔύʔϒϩοΫߏ૝ʢόϧηϩφࢢʣ
    nόϧηϩφͰ͸ࣗಈंͷަ௨ྔ͕ଟ͘ɺԚછ෺࣭΍CO2ɺ
    ૽ԻͳͲʹΑΔެ֐͕՝୊
    nʮࢢຽத৺౎ࢢʯΛίϯηϓτʹ͔͔͛ɺஈ֊తʹं͕௨ΕΔಓΛ
    ੍ݶ͢ΔܭըΛ࣮ࢪ
    nަ௨ྔ΍؀ڥʹؔ͢ΔηϯγϯάσʔλΛ༻͍ͯ෼ੳΛߦ͍ɺ
    ܭը͕ਐΜͩ৔߹ʹͲͷ͘Β͍໰୊͕վળ͢Δͷ͔ɺ
    ۩ମతͳ਺஋Ͱࣔ͢͜ͱͰ߹ҙܗ੒Λਪਐ
    • ަ௨ྔ͕21%ݮ
    • 94%ͷࢢຽ͕ةݥͳϨϕϧͷཻࢠঢ়෺࣭ʹࡽ͞ΕΔ͜ͱ͸ͳ͘ͳΔ
    • 73.5%ͷࢢຽ͸ʮ65σγϕϧҎ্ͷ૽ԻʯΛܦݧͤͣʹ͢Ή
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 22
    https://citiesofthefuture.eu/superblocks-barcelona-answer-to-car-centric-city/

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  23. ެڞσʔλͷ
    ڞ༗͕΋ͨΒ͢
    ࣾձతΠϯύΫτ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  24. αϯϑϥϯγείࢢ º :FMQ͔Βݟ͑Δ
    σʔλ͕΋ͨΒࣾ͢ձมֵ
    nαϯϑϥϯγείࢢͰ͸ɺҿ৯ళʹ
    ର࣮ͯ͠ࢪͨ͠อ݈Ӵੜݕࠪͷ݁Ռ
    Λσʔλͱͯ͠ެ։͍ͯ͠Δ
    n:FMQ͸ͦΕΛαʔϏεʹऔΓࠐΈɺ
    l)FBMUI 4DPSFzͱͯ͠఺ຬ఺
    ͷείΞԽ֤ͯ͠ҿ৯ళͷ
    ϨϏϡʔϖʔδʹදࣔ

    n ੈք࠷େڃͷϩʔΧϧϏδωεͷϨϏϡʔαΠτ
    n ೔ຊͰ͍͏ͱ͜Ζͷʮ৯΂ϩάʯతͳαʔϏε
    4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"

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  25. 4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"
    αϯϑϥϯγείࢢ º :FMQ͔Βݟ͑Δ
    σʔλ͕΋ͨΒࣾ͢ձมֵ
    ӴੜείΞɿ

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  26. 4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"
    :FMQ͸ϢʔβʔʹΑΓ҆৺ɾ҆શΛಧ͚ΒΕΔ
    αʔϏεΛఏڙՄೳʹ
    ௚ۙͷอ݈Ӵੜ
    ݕࠪʹ͓͍ͯҧ൓
    ͕߲͋ͬͨ໨
    αϯϑϥϯγείࢢ º :FMQ͔Βݟ͑Δ
    σʔλ͕΋ͨΒࣾ͢ձมֵ

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  27. αϯϑϥϯγείࢢ º :FMQ͔Βݟ͑Δ
    σʔλ͕΋ͨΒࣾ͢ձมֵ

    ΋͠αϯϑϥϯγείࢢ͕
    Ӵੜௐࠪ݁ՌΛαΠτͰެද͍ͯ͠Δ
    ͚ͩͩͬͨΒʁ
    Ұ෦ͷਓ͔͠ݟʹདྷͳ͍
    ΋͠:FMQ͕
    ಠࣗʹҿ৯ళΛධՁ͢Δ
    είΞΛ෇͚͍ͯͨΒʁ
    ެฏੑ͕୲อ͞Εͳ͍
    ڧΈɿళฮͷӦۀσʔλ΍ޱίϛ
    σʔλΛूΊͯɺଟ͘ͷϢʔβ͕
    ू·Δ৔Λ͍࣋ͬͯΔ
    ڧΈɿࢢຽͷ҆શΛकΔͨΊʹ࣮ࢪ
    ͨ͠ௐࠪ݁Ռͱͯ͠ɺެฏͳσʔλ
    ΛఏڙͰ͖Δ
    σʔλ͕ڞ༗͞ΕΔ͜ͱͰ
    ʮ૊৫Λ௒͑ͯಘҙ෼໺Λ෼୲Ͱ͖ΔࣾձʯʹͳΔ
    4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"

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  28. ߦ੓ͷσʔλ͸୭ʹͰ΋࢖͑ΔΑ͏ʹ
    ެ։͞Ε͍ͯΔඞཁ͕͋Δ
    nӴੜௐࠪ͸ࢢͷ੫ۚΛ࢖ͬͯӡ༻͞Ε͍ͯΔͷͰɺ
    ೲ੫ऀ͸౳ͦ͘͠ͷσʔλΛ࢖͏ݖརΛ͍࣋ͬͯΔ
    n୭Ͱ΋ࣗ༝ʹ࢖͑ΔσʔλͰ͋Δඞཁ͕͋Δ
    ΋͠αϯϑϥϯγείࢢ͕
    :FMQ͚ͩʹӴੜௐࠪ݁ՌσʔλΛ
    ౉͍ͯͨ͠Βʁ
    ෆެฏʹର͠ඇ೉͕ूத
    Φʔϓϯσʔλ
    4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"

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  29. Φʔϓϯσʔλͷఆٛ
    ࠃɺ஍ํެڞஂମٴͼࣄۀऀ͕อ༗͢Δ׭ຽσʔλͷ͏ͪɺࠃຽ୭΋͕Πϯλʔωοτ౳Λ௨ͯ͡༰қ
    ʹར༻ʢՃ޻ɺฤूɺ࠶഑෍౳ʣͰ͖ΔΑ͏ɺ࣍ͷ͍ͣΕͷ߲໨ʹ΋֘౰͢ΔܗͰެ։͞ΕͨσʔλΛ
    Φʔϓϯσʔλͱఆٛ͢Δ
    ʲग़యʳʮΦʔϓϯσʔλجຊࢦ਑ʯฏ੒೥݄೔
    ߴ౓৘ใ௨৴ωοτϫʔΫࣾձਪਐઓུຊ෦ɾ׭ຽσʔλ׆༻ਪਐઓུձܾٞఆ
    Ӧར໨తɺඇӦར໨తΛ໰Θͣೋ࣍ར༻Մೳͳϧʔϧ͕
    ద༻͞Εͨ΋ͷ
    ػց൑ಡʹదͨ͠΋ͷ
    ແঈͰར༻Ͱ͖Δ΋ͷ
    4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"

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  30. l0QFO#Z%FGBVMUz
    ೥ (ʮΦʔϓϯσʔλݑষʯʹΑΔࠃࡍతͳ߹ҙ
    ʮ੫ۚΛ࢖ͬͯ࡞ΒΕͨ
    σʔλ͸શͯެڞࡒͱͯ͠
    ެ։͢Δ΂͖Ͱ͋Δʯ
    ͱ͍͏ߟ͑ํΛ
    ݪଇͱͯ͠࠾༻
    2020/2/6 4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"

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  31. “Φʔϓϯσʔλ” ͱ͸ɺ
    ݩʑօ͞Μͷ΋ͷͩͬͨσʔλΛ
    ฦ͢͜ͱͩͱߟ͍͑ͯ·͢ɻ
    - Miquel Mateu, Open Data Manager of Barcelona City

    14-18 June 2016, World Data Viz Challenge 2016,
    Barcelona
    4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"

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  32. ೥ɿ׭ຽσʔλ׆༻ਪਐجຊ๏ࢪߦ
    ˠࠃٴͼ࣏ࣗମ͸ΦʔϓϯσʔλʹऔΓ૊Ή͜ͱ͕ٛ຿෇͚ΒΕͨ
    4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"

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  33. Φʔϓϯσʔλͷҙٛ
    ࠃຽࢀՃɾ׭ຽڠಇͷਪਐΛ௨ͨ͡
    ॾ՝୊ͷղܾɺܦࡁ׆ੑԽ
    ߦ੓ͷߴ౓Խɾޮ཰Խ
    ಁ໌ੑɾ৴པͷ޲্
    ʲग़యʳʮΦʔϓϯσʔλجຊࢦ਑ʯฏ੒೥݄೔
    ߴ౓৘ใ௨৴ωοτϫʔΫࣾձਪਐઓུຊ෦ɾ׭ຽσʔλ׆༻ਪਐઓུձܾٞఆ
    4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"

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  34. Φʔϓϯσʔλͷҙٛ
    ࠃຽࢀՃɾ׭ຽڠಇͷਪਐΛ௨ͨ͡
    ॾ՝୊ͷղܾɺܦࡁ׆ੑԽ
    ߦ੓ͷߴ౓Խɾޮ཰Խ
    ಁ໌ੑɾ৴པͷ޲্
    ʲग़యʳʮΦʔϓϯσʔλجຊࢦ਑ʯฏ੒೥݄೔
    ߴ౓৘ใ௨৴ωοτϫʔΫࣾձਪਐઓུຊ෦ɾ׭ຽσʔλ׆༻ਪਐઓུձܾٞఆ
    4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"

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  35. ͳͥ׭ຽڠಇ͕ඞཁͳͷ͔ʁ
    ͜Ε·Ͱ͸ߦ੓͕ެڞαʔϏεӡӦͷओମͩͬͨ
    2020/2/6 4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"
    ߦ੓ ॅຽ
    ੫ۚ
    ެڞαʔϏε

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  36. ͳͥ׭ຽڠಇ͕ඞཁͳͷ͔ʁ
    ੫ऩ͕ݮΔͱɺ͜Ε·Ͱ௨ΓͷެڞαʔϏε͸
    ҡ࣋Ͱ͖ͳ͘ͳΔ
    2020/2/6 4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"
    ߦ੓ ॅຽ
    ੫ۚ
    ެڞαʔϏε

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  37. ׭ຽڠಇʹΑͬͯ஍ҬΛ࣋ଓՄೳʹ͢Δ
    4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"
    ߦ੓ ॅຽ
    ੫ۚ
    ެڞαʔϏε
    اۀɾݚڀػؔ
    ߦ੓͕ಘҙͳ෦෼ɺ
    ߦ੓ʹ͔͠Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    ෦෼ʹूத͢Δ
    ຽ͕ؒಘҙͳͱ͜Ζ͸
    ຽؒʹ೚ͤΔ

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  38. ΦʔϓϯσʔλʹΑͬͯɺ
    ૊৫Λ௒͑ͯಘҙ෼໺Λ෼୲Ͱ͖Δࣾձ ͕࣮ݱ͢Δ
    4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"
    ߦ੓ ॅຽ
    ੫ۚ
    ެڞαʔϏε
    اۀɾݚڀػؔ
    ߦ੓ͷ࣋ͭ৘ใΛ
    ʮσʔλʯͱ͍͏
    ڞ༗ʹదͨ͠ܗͰ
    ຽؒʹ։์͢Δ
    OPEN
    DATA

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  39. ࣄྫɿʮͣ͠Έͪ*OGPʯ
    ʢ੩Ԭࢢ º τϤλ*5։ൃηϯλʔʣ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ੩Ԭࢢʮͣ͠Έͪ*OGPʯ
    nಓ࿏ަ௨৘ใΛ
    ΦʔϓϯσʔλԽ
    n௨ߦن੍΍ࡂ֐ൃੜ
    ͳͲͷσʔλΛ
    ϦΞϧλΠϜͰ഑৴
    τϤλ*5։ൃηϯλʔ
    nڞಉ࣮ݧͰʮͣ͠Έͪ
    *OGPʯͷσʔλΛऔಘ
    ͠ΧʔφϏͰ৘ใ഑৴
    ʢσʔλެ։ݩʣ
    ن੍ؔ࿈σʔλɿ੩Ԭࢢݐઃہಓ࿏෦ಓ࿏อશ՝
    ๷ࡂؔ࿈σʔλɿ੩Ԭࢢ૯຿ہةػ؅ཧ૯ࣨ
    $&')(!",*1%
    # "" #
    7
    #13/-5/6 #.54506/+2

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  40. ࣄྫɿʮͣ͠Έͪ*OGPʯ
    ैདྷ͸ඞཁͳ৘ใΛඞཁͳਓʹಧ͚ΒΕͳ
    ͔ͬͨ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ௨ߦن੍
    ৘ใ
    νϥγ΍ެࣜ8FCαΠτ౳Ͱ
    ৘ใൃ৴
    ඞཁͳλΠϛϯάͰ
    ඞཁͳ৘ใ͕ಘΒΕͳ͍
    #&'03&
    ߦ੓ υϥΠόʔ

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  41. ࣄྫɿʮͣ͠Έͪ*OGPʯ
    ΦʔϓϯσʔλͰϦΞϧλΠϜʹ৘ใ͕ಧ
    ͚ΒΕΔΑ͏ʹ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ௨ߦن੍
    Φʔϓϯ
    σʔλ
    Φʔϓϯσʔλͱͯ͠
    ௨ߦن੍৘ใΛެ։
    ඞཁͳλΠϛϯάͰ
    ࠷৽৘ใ͕ಘΒΕΔ
    "'5&3
    ߦ੓ υϥΠόʔ
    ຽؒاۀ
    ΧʔφϏ
    ։ൃ͍ͯ͠Δ੡඼ʹ
    ΦʔϓϯσʔλΛࡌͤͯ
    αʔϏεఏڙ
    ˞੩ԬࢢͰ͸ΧʔφϏͳͲͷػց͔Β
    ΦʔϓϯσʔλʹΞΫηεͰ͖ΔΑ͏ʹ
    ͢ΔͨΊʹɺ"1* "QQMJDBUJPO
    1SPHSBNNJOH*OUFSGBDF
    ͱ͍͏࢓૊Έ
    Ͱσʔλ͕ެ։͞Ε͍ͯ·͢

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  42. Φʔϓϯσʔλͷҙٛ
    ࠃຽࢀՃɾ׭ຽڠಇͷਪਐΛ௨ͨ͡
    ॾ՝୊ͷղܾɺܦࡁ׆ੑԽ
    ߦ੓ͷߴ౓Խɾޮ཰Խ
    ಁ໌ੑɾ৴པͷ޲্
    ʲग़యʳʮΦʔϓϯσʔλجຊࢦ਑ʯฏ੒೥݄೔
    ߴ౓৘ใ௨৴ωοτϫʔΫࣾձਪਐઓུຊ෦ɾ׭ຽσʔλ׆༻ਪਐઓུձܾٞఆ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ΦʔϓϯσʔλԽ
    ͢Δ࡞ۀͷ෼ɺ
    ࢓ࣄ͕૿͑ΔͷͰ͸ʜʁ

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  43. ࣄྫɿ
    ৘ใެ։੥ٻͷܰݮʢ੩Ԭࢢʣ
    ੩ԬࢢͰ͸ɺ৘ใެ։੥ٻ݅਺ͷଟ͔ͬͨ৯඼ӴੜڐՄʹؔ͢ΔσʔλΛΦʔϓϯσʔλͱͯ͠
    ެ։͢Δ͜ͱʹΑΓɺۀ຿ෛ୲ͷܰݮʹ੒ޭ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ৯඼ӴੜӦۀؔ܎ڐՄʹ܎Δ৘ใެ։੥ٻ݅਺ʢ੩Ԭࢢʣ
    ग़యɿ7-&%ʮୈճσʔλӡ༻ݕ౼෼Պձʢ೥݄೔ʣʯ੩ԬࢢϓϨθϯࢿྉΛ΋ͱʹ࡞੒
    ೥ؒ
    ݅ݮ
    ˣ
    ໿
    ࣌ؒ
    ۀ຿࣌ؒ࡟ݮ

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  44. τʔλϧίετ͕ߴ͍ͷ͸ͲͪΒʁ
    ৘ใެ։੥ٻ 74Φʔϓϯσʔλ
    "ΦʔϓϯσʔλԽ͠ͳ͍৔߹
    ੥ٻ݅਺ʢ೥໨ʣɿ ݅
    ੥ٻ݅਺ʢ೥໨ʣɿ ݅
    ੥ٻ݅਺ʢ೥໨ʣɿ ݅
    ੥ٻ݅͋ͨΓͷରԠ࣌ؒɿ ࣌ؒ
    ৬һͷ࣌څɿ ԁ
    #ΦʔϓϯσʔλԽͨ͠৔߹
    σʔλ࡞੒ରԠʢॳظίετʣɿ࣌ؒ
    σʔλߋ৽ରԠʢຖ݄ʣɿ ࣌ؒ
    ੥ٻ݅਺ʢ೥໨ʣɿ ݅
    ੥ٻ݅਺ʢ೥໨ʣɿ ݅
    ੥ٻ݅਺ʢ೥໨ʣɿ ݅
    ੥ٻ݅͋ͨΓͷରԠ࣌ؒɿ ࣌ؒ
    ৬һͷ࣌څɿ ԁ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    ੩ԬࢢͷσʔλͱώΞϦϯά݁Ռ˞Λࢀߟʹɺඅ༻ΛγϛϡϨʔγϣϯ
    ˞ओʹରԠ࣌ؒʹؔͯ͠ɺ੩Ԭࢢ৬һ஍Ҭ৘ใԽΞυόΠβʔͷ৽ঙେีࢯʹ৘ใఏڙ௖͖·ͨ͠

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  45. γϛϡϨʔγϣϯ݁Ռɿ
    ΦʔϓϯσʔλԽ͢Δ͜ͱͰରԠίετΛେ෯ʹ࡟ݮͰ͖Δ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB











    ೥໨ ೥໨ ೥໨
    "ΦʔϓϯσʔλԽ͠ͳ͍৔߹ #ΦʔϓϯσʔλԽͨ͠৔߹

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  46. Φʔϓϯσʔλͷҙٛ
    ࠃຽࢀՃɾ׭ຽڠಇͷਪਐΛ௨ͨ͡
    ॾ՝୊ͷղܾɺܦࡁ׆ੑԽ
    ߦ੓ͷߴ౓Խɾޮ཰Խ
    ಁ໌ੑɾ৴པͷ޲্
    ʲग़యʳʮΦʔϓϯσʔλجຊࢦ਑ʯฏ੒೥݄೔
    ߴ౓৘ใ௨৴ωοτϫʔΫࣾձਪਐઓུຊ෦ɾ׭ຽσʔλ׆༻ਪਐઓུձܾٞఆ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

    View full-size slide

  47. ಁ໌ੑɾ৴པͷ޲্͸
    lڞ૑zΛਐΊΔͨΊʹඞཁ
    nڞ૑ $PDSFBUJPO
    nڞ૑ΛਐΊΔͨΊʹ͸ɺߦ੓ͱຽ͕ؒର౳ͳཱ৔Ͱ࿩͕
    Ͱ͖Δඞཁ͕͋Δ
    nͦͷͨΊʹ͸ɺߦ੓ͱຽؒͷʮ৘ใͷඇରশੑʯ
    Λղফ͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δ
    n٬؍తͳσʔλΛڞ༗ͯ͠ɺಉ͡΋ͷΛݟͳ͕Β࿩͕Ͱ
    ͖Δͷ͕ϕετ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  48. Φʔϓϯσʔλ͸
    ி಺ͰσʔλΛద੾ʹ؅ཧͰ͖ͯ
    ͍Δ͔Λࣔ͢໾ׂ΋͋Δ
    nͦ΋ͦ΋ி಺ͰσʔλΛ
    ͖ͪΜͱ؅ཧͰ͖͍ͯͳ͔ͬͨΒɺ
    ެ։͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    nෆਖ਼ͷ཈ࢭྗʹ΋ͳΔ͜ͱ͕
    ظ଴Ͱ͖Δ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  49. Φʔϓϯσʔλͷҙٛ
    ࠃຽࢀՃɾ׭ຽڠಇͷਪਐΛ௨ͨ͡
    ॾ՝୊ͷղܾɺܦࡁ׆ੑԽ
    ߦ੓ͷߴ౓Խɾޮ཰Խ
    ಁ໌ੑɾ৴པͷ޲্
    ʲग़యʳʮΦʔϓϯσʔλجຊࢦ਑ʯฏ੒೥݄೔
    ߴ౓৘ใ௨৴ωοτϫʔΫࣾձਪਐઓུຊ෦ɾ׭ຽσʔλ׆༻ਪਐઓུձܾٞఆ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

    View full-size slide

  50. 4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"
    https://public.tableau.com/profile/sayoko.shimoyama.linkdata#!/vizhome/5946/sheet0

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  51. 4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"
    https://public.tableau.com/profile/sayoko.shimoyama.linkdata#!/vizhome/5946/sheet0
    ࡛ۄݝ
    Ґ
    ʢ౎ಓ෎ݝதʣ

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  52. 4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"
    ࡛ۄݝ಺جૅ࣏ࣗମͷ
    Φʔϓϯσʔλਪਐঢ়گ
    ʢ೥݄೔࣌఺ʣ
    68%
    43/63
    औ૊ࡁ
    ະऔ૊
    https://public.tableau.com/shared/MBGTPWHPZ?:display_count
    =y&:origin=viz_share_link

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  53. ੓ࡦཱҊͷͨΊͷ
    σʔλ෼ੳͷྲྀΕ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  54. 2020/2/6
    ҧ͍Λฉ͔ΕͨΒઆ໌Ͱ͖·͔͢ʁ
    σʔλ ৘ใ
    Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 54

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  55. ʮσʔλʯͱ͸ʁ
    ISOٴͼJISن֨ʹΑΔఆٛ
    "A reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner
    suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.”
    ৘ใͷදݱͰ͋ͬͯɺ
    ఻ୡɺղऍ·ͨ͸ॲཧʹద͢ΔΑ͏ʹܗࣜԽ͞Εɺ
    ࠶౓৘ใͱͯ͠ղऍͰ͖Δ΋ͷ
    ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993 https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:2382:-1:ed-3:en
    ೔ຊ޻ۀن֨ʮX0001 ৘ใॲཧ༻ޠ-جຊ༻ޠʯhttp://kikakurui.com/x0/X0001-1994-01.html
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 55

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  56. ʮ৘ใʯͱ͸ʁ
    ISOٴͼJISن֨ʹΑΔఆٛ
    "Knowledge concerning objects, such as facts, events, things, processes, or ideas,
    including concepts, that within a certain context has a particular meaning.
    ࣄ࣮ɼࣄ৅ɼࣄ෺ɼաఔɼண૝ͳͲͷ
    ର৅෺ʹؔͯ͠஌Γಘͨ͜ͱͰ͋ͬͯɼ
    ֓೦ΛؚΈɼҰఆͷจ຺தͰಛఆͷҙຯΛ΋ͭ΋ͷɻ
    ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993 https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:2382:-1:ed-3:en
    ೔ຊ޻ۀن֨ʮX0001 ৘ใॲཧ༻ޠ-جຊ༻ޠʯhttp://kikakurui.com/x0/X0001-1994-01.html
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 56

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  57. 2020/2/6
    σʔλ͸ɺ৘ใΛܗࣜԽͨ͠΋ͷ
    σʔλ ৘ใ
    ࠶౓৘ใͱͯ͠ղऍͰ͖Δ΋ͷ
    Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 57

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  58. 2020/2/6
    ਺ࣈ
    40
    Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 58

    View full-size slide

  59. 2020/2/6
    ৘ใ
    ԣ඿ࢢ໾ॴͰ
    2018೥11݄23೔ʹ։࠵͞Εͨ
    σʔλ෼ੳϫʔΫγϣοϓͷ
    ࢀՃొ࿥ऀ਺͸
    ਓͰ͢ɻ
    Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 59

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  60. 2020/2/6
    σʔλ
    ϫʔΫγϣοϓ
    ։࠵೔
    ϫʔΫγϣοϓ
    ։࠵৔ॴ
    ࢀՃొ࿥ऀ

    ԣ඿ࢢ໾ॴ
    Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 60

    View full-size slide

  61. ৘ใ⇄σʔλ
    ૒ํ޲ʹม׵Մೳ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 61
    ϫʔΫγϣοϓ
    ։࠵೔
    ϫʔΫγϣοϓ
    ։࠵৔ॴ
    ࢀՃొ࿥
    ऀ਺
    ԣ඿ࢢ໾ॴ
    ԣ඿ࢢ໾ॴͰ
    2018೥11݄23೔ʹ։࠵͞Εͨ
    σʔλ෼ੳϫʔΫγϣοϓͷ
    ࢀՃొ࿥ऀ਺͸
    ਓͰ͢ɻ

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  62. σʔλԽ͢Δ͜ͱͰ
    ଞͷσʔλͱ૊Έ߹ΘͤΒΕΔ
    2020/2/6
    ৽͍͠ʮ৘ใʯ͕
    औΓग़ͤΔ
    Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 62
    30
    35
    40
    24
    29
    34
    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
    ԣ඿঎޻ձٞॴ
    ਆಸ઒ݝி
    ԣ඿ࢢ໾ॴ
    ϫʔΫγϣοϓผ ࢀՃऀ਺ͷൺֱ
    ౰೔ࢀՃऀ਺ ࢀՃొ࿥ऀ਺
    Qɿ֤ϫʔΫγϣοϓͷ
    ʮΩϟϯηϧ཰ʯ͸
    Ͳͷ͘Β͍ʁ

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  63. σʔλ෼ੳ
    = σʔλ͔Β৘ใΛҾ͖ग़͢͜ͱ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 63
    Ωϟϯηϧ཰



    30
    35
    40
    24
    29
    34
    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
    ԣ඿঎޻ձٞॴ
    ਆಸ઒ݝி
    ԣ඿ࢢ໾ॴ
    ϫʔΫγϣοϓผ ࢀՃऀ਺ͷൺֱ
    ౰೔ࢀՃऀ਺ ࢀՃొ࿥ऀ਺

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  64. σʔλ෼ੳ͸
    ໨తΛఆΊ͓͔ͯͳ͍ͱҙຯ͕ͳ͍
    ΠϕϯτӡӦऀ
    ͦͷଞͷਓ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 64
    ͔࣍Β
    ఆһʙ
    ͘Β͍ଟΊʹਃࠐΛ
    ड͚෇͚ͯ΋
    େৎ෉ͦ͏ʂ
    Կͷ໾ʹཱͭ
    ৘ใͳΜͩΖ͏ʁ
    ୭ʹͲΜͳ৘ใΛఏڙ͢Δͷ͔ɺ
    ୭ͷͲΜͳ՝୊Λղܾ͍ͨ͠ͷ͔ɺ
    σʔλ෼ੳΛ͢Δલʹઃఆ͓ͯ͘͜͠ͱ͕ॏཁ

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  65. σʔλ෼ੳʹΑΔ੓ࡦ൓өͷྲྀΕ
    ԾઆΛ
    ཱͯΔ
    σʔλΛ
    ूΊΔ
    ෼ੳ
    ධՁ
    ੓ࡦཱҊ
    ࢦඪ࡞੒
    ՝୊
    ৽͍͠՝୊ͷݕ౼
    Ծઆͷؒҧ͍Λૣظʹൃݟ
    ੓ࡦͷਫ਼౓Λ্͛Δ
    ਺஋໨ඪɺޮՌࢦඪ
    Λ࡞੒͢Δ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 65
    ग़యݩɿ૯຿ল ஍ํެڞஂମʹ͓͚Δσʔλར׆༻ΨΠυϒοΫ 7FS
    ผఴࢿྉɽσʔλΞΧσϛʔʢσʔλ෼ੳฤʣͷڭࡐɾࢿྉ౳ $$#:+1

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  66. σʔλ෼ੳʹΑΔ੓ࡦ൓өͷྲྀΕ
    ԾઆΛ
    ཱͯΔ
    σʔλΛ
    ूΊΔ
    ෼ੳ
    ධՁ
    ੓ࡦཱҊ
    ࢦඪ࡞੒
    ՝୊
    ৽͍͠՝୊ͷݕ౼
    Ծઆͷؒҧ͍Λૣظʹൃݟ
    ੓ࡦͷਫ਼౓Λ্͛Δ
    ਺஋໨ඪɺ
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  67. ޮՌࢦඪɿఆੑతޮՌΛͲ͏ଌΔʁ
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    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 67
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  68. 2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 68
    ϙΠϯτɿ
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  69. 2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 69
    ఆੑతޮՌ͸ఆྔతޮՌʹ෼ղͯ͠ࢦඪԽ͢Δ
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    ࿝೥ਓޱ౰ͨΓհޢ࿝ਓ෱ࢱɾอ݈ࢪઃఆһ਺ʢ೥݄ʣɿްੜ࿑ಇলʮհޢαʔϏεࢪઃɾࣄۀॴௐࠪʯ
    ʙࡀঁੑਓޱ౰ͨΓʙࡀࣇ਺ʢ೥݄ʣɿ૯຿লʮॅຽجຊ୆ாʹجͮ͘ਓޱɺਓޱಈଶٴͼੈଳ਺ʯ
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    Մॅ஍໘ੵ౰ͨΓҿ৯ྉ඼খചࣄۀॴ਺ʢ೥݄ʣɿ૯຿লɾܦࡁ࢈ۀলʮܦࡁηϯαε׆ಈௐࠪʯ
    ਓޱ౰ͨΓҿ৯ళ਺ʢ೥݄ʣ૯຿লɾܦࡁ࢈ۀলʮܦࡁηϯαε׆ಈௐࠪʯ
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    ਓޱ౰ͨΓࡒ੓ࡀग़ֹ ʢ೥౓ʣɿ૯຿লʮࢢொଜผܾࢉঢ়گௐʯ
    ਫಓྉۚʢ೥݄ʣɿ౦༸ܦࡁௐ΂
    Ԛਫॲཧਓޱීٴ཰ʢ೥݄ʣɿࠃ౔ަ௨লɺ೶ྛਫ࢈লɺ؀ڥলௐ΂
    ౎ࢢܭը۠Ҭਓޱ౰ͨΓ౎ࢢެԂ໘ੵʢ೥݄ʣɿࠃ౔ަ௨লʮ౎ࢢެԂ੔උਫ४ௐॻʯ
    ؾީʢ݄ฏۉ࠷ߴɾ࠷௿ؾԹɺ೔র࣌ؒʣʢʙ೥ʣɿؾ৅ிʮϝογϡฏ೥஋σʔλʯ
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    ೲ੫ٛ຿ऀਓ౰ͨΓॴಘʢ೥ʣɿ૯຿লʮࢢொଜ੫՝੫ঢ়گ౳ͷௐʯ
    ॅ୐౰ͨΓԆ΂চ໘ੵʢ೥݄ʣɿ૯຿লʮॅ୐ɾ౔஍౷ܭௐࠪʯ
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  70. 2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 70
    ࢦඪ͸ఆظతʹݟ௚ͯ͠վળ͢Δ͜ͱ΋ॏཁ
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    පӃɾҰൠ਍ྍॴපচ਺ʢਓޱ౰ͨΓʣɿ೥݄೔ݱࡏ ްੜ࿑ಇলʮҩྍࢪઃௐࠪʯ

    հޢ࿝ਓ෱ࢱࢪઃɾհޢ࿝ਓอ݈ࢪઃఆһ਺ʢࡀҎ্ਓޱ౰ͨΓʣɿ೥݄೔ݱࡏ ްੜ࿑ಇলʮհޢαʔϏ
    εࢪઃɾࣄۀॴௐࠪʯ
    ग़ੜ਺ʢʙࡀঁੑਓޱ౰ͨΓʣɿ೥ ૯຿লʮॅຽجຊ୆ாʹجͮ͘ਓޱɺਓޱಈଶʯ
    ೥গਓޱʢʙࡀਓޱʣ૿ݮ཰ɿ೥݄೔×೥݄೔ ૯຿লʮॅຽجຊ୆ாʹجͮ͘ਓޱɺਓޱಈଶʯ
    རศ౓
    খചۀ೥ؒ঎඼ൢചֹʢਓޱ౰ͨΓʣɿ೥݄ ૯຿লɾܦࡁ࢈ۀলʮܦࡁηϯαε׆ಈௐࠪʢ঎ۀ౷ܭʣʯ
    େܕখചళళฮ໘ੵʢਓޱ౰ͨΓʣɿ೥݄ ౦༸ܦࡁʮશࠃେܕখചళ૯ཡʯ

    ҿ৯ྉ඼খചࣄۀॴ਺ʢՄॅ஍໘ੵ౰ͨΓʣɿ೥݄೔ ૯຿লɾܦࡁ࢈ۀলʮܦࡁηϯαε׆ಈௐࠪʢ঎ۀ౷
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    Ԛਫॲཧਓޱීٴ཰ɿ೥݄຤ ࠃ౔ަ௨লɾ೶ྛਫ࢈লɾ؀ڥলʮԚਫॲཧਓޱීٴঢ়گʯɺ֤౎ಓ෎ݝࢿྉ
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    ࡒ੓ྗࢦ਺ɿ೥౓ ૯຿লʮࢢொଜผܾࢉঢ়گௐʯ
    ஍ํ੫ऩೖֹʢਓޱ౰ͨΓʣɿ೥౓ ૯຿লʮࢢொଜผܾࢉঢ়گௐʯ
    ՝੫ର৅ॴಘֹʢೲ੫ٛ຿ऀਓ౰ͨΓʣɿ೥ ૯຿লʮࢢொଜ੫՝੫ঢ়گ౳ͷௐʯ
    ॅډਫ४
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  71. ࢦඪ࡞੒ͷεςοϓ
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  72. ࢦඪઃܭϫʔΫγϣοϓʹ͓͚Δ
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  73. 4UFQཁૉʹ෼ղ
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    ࢥ͍ͭ͘΋ͷΛͲΜͲΜڍ͛ͯΈ·͠ΐ͏
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  74. 4UFQσʔλͱ݁ͼ͚ͭΔ
    4UFQͰڍ֤͛ͨཁૉ͸ɺͲΜͳσʔλͰଌΔ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖ͦ͏͔
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  75. 4UFQσʔλΛूΊΔ
    n4UFQͰڍ͛ͨσʔλ͕࣮ࡍʹ͋Δ͔
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    ͳ͍ͬͯΔ͔ɺ֬ೝ͠·͠ΐ͏
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  76. 4UFQࢦඪΛܭࢉ͢Δ
    ࢦඪʹ࢖͏σʔλͷछྨ͝ͱʹ֤۠ͷ ภࠩ஋ Λܭࢉ͢Δ
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  77. 4UFQϏδϡΞϥΠζ
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  78. ࢦඪઃܭମݧϫʔΫ
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  79. 4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"
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  80. σʔλ෼ੳͷྲྀΕશମΛ࣮ࡍʹମݧ͍ͨ͠ํʹΦεεϝ
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  81. σʔλ׆༻ʹ͓͚Δ
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  82. σʔλ׆༻ʹ͓͚Δ
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    2. ૬͕ؔ͋Ε͹ඞͣҼՌؔ܎͕͋Δ
    3. ΤϏσϯεΛٻΊΒΕͨ࣌͸ɺ
    σʔλΛࣔͤ͹OKʂ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 82

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  83. σʔλ׆༻ʹ͓͚Δ
    Α͋͘Δצҧ͍
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    2. ૬͕ؔ͋Ε͹ඞͣҼՌؔ܎͕͋Δ
    3. ΤϏσϯεΛٻΊΒΕͨ࣌͸ɺ
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  84. σʔλ͸ੑ࣭Ͱେ͖͘2ͭʹ෼͚ΒΕΔ
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  85. ఆྔσʔλͷྫɿ
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    ๭ࢢʹ͓͚Δߦ੓৬һ޲͚σʔλ׆༻ݚमͷΞϯέʔτΑΓ
    ͋ͳͨ͸ɺ೔ʑͷۀ຿ͷதͰɺσʔλΛ׆༻ग़དྷ͍ͯΔͱࢥ͍·͔͢ʁ
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  86. ఆྔσʔλͷ࢖͍Ͳ͜Ζ͸
    ʮ၆ᛌʯ
    n਺஋Ͱൺֱ͢Δ͜ͱͰɺঢ়ଶΛ၆ᛌతʹ೺ѲͰ͖Δ
    n౷Ұ͞Εͨج४ͰൺֱͰ͖Δ
    શडߨऀͷ
    ͕೔ৗͷ
    ۀ຿ͰσʔλΛ׆༻Ͱ͖͍ͯΔ
    2͋ͳͨ͸ɺ೔ʑͷۀ຿ͷதͰɺ
    σʔλΛ׆༻ग़དྷ͍ͯΔͱࢥ͍·͔͢ʁ
    ݚमͷ
    ࣮ࢪ
    ݚम࣮ࢪલ
    શडߨऀͷ
    ͕೔ৗͷ
    ۀ຿ͰσʔλΛ׆༻Ͱ͖͍ͯΔ
    ݚम࣮ࢪ೥ޙ
    2͋ͳͨ͸ɺ೔ʑͷۀ຿ͷதͰɺ
    σʔλΛ׆༻ग़དྷ͍ͯΔͱࢥ͍·͔͢ʁ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 86

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  87. ఆੑσʔλͷྫɿ
    Ξϯέʔτͷࣗ༝هड़߲໨
    ๭ࢢʹ͓͚Δߦ੓৬һ޲͚σʔλ׆༻ݚमͷΞϯέʔτΑΓ
    σʔλ׆༻ʹ͍ͭͯɺ՝୊౳͕͋Ε͹ڭ͍͑ͯͩ͘͞ɻʢࣗ༝هड़ʣ
    ਺஋ԽͰ͖ͳ͍
    ʹఆੑσʔλ
    σʔλऩूɺ׆༻ɺఏڙͷϊ΢ϋ΢ෆ଍
    ݱࡏͷۀ຿಺༰্ɺ͋·Γଟ͘ͷσʔλΛѻΘͳ͍ͨΊɺ׆༻ํ๏ʹ೰ΜͰ͍Δ
    Φʔϓϯσʔλͷ֓೦͕શ͘ਁಁ͍ͯ͠ͳ͍ɺ࢓ࣄ΋σʔλ΋λςׂΓ
    ̥̘౳ɺϋʔυɾιϑτ؀ڥ͕ෆ଍͍ͯ͠Δʢॲཧೳྗ౳ʣ
    ීஈͷۀ຿͔Β׆༻ͨ͠ޙͷΠϝʔδ͕Θ͔Βͳ͍
    σʔλΛݟͯԿ͔Λײ͡ͱΔɺ೺Ѳ͢Δ͜ͱʹۤखҙ͕ࣝ͋Γ׆༻·ͰࢸΒͳ͍ɺηϯεʁ׳Εʁ
    ະ஌ͷ༗ޮ׆༻͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍ி಺σʔλ͕ଘࡏ͢ΔͱࢥΘΕΔ
    ɾɾɾ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 87

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  88. ఆੑσʔλͷ࢖͍Ͳ͜Ζ͸
    ʮਂ۷Γʯ
    nఆྔσʔλΑΓ΋৘ใྔ͸ଟ͍ͨΊɺݸʑͷঢ়ଶΛΑΓਂ۷Γͯ͠೺ѲͰ͖Δ
    n࣍ͷΞΫγϣϯΛݕ౼͢Δ্Ͱͷ͕ࣔࠦಘΒΕΔ
    σʔλऩूɺ׆༻ɺఏڙͷϊ΢ϋ΢ෆ଍
    ݱࡏͷۀ຿಺༰্ɺ͋·Γଟ͘ͷσʔλΛѻΘͳ͍
    ͨΊɺ׆༻ํ๏ʹ೰ΜͰ͍Δ
    Φʔϓϯσʔλͷ֓೦͕શ͘ਁಁ͍ͯ͠ͳ͍ɺ࢓ࣄ
    ΋σʔλ΋λςׂΓ
    ̥̘౳ɺϋʔυɾιϑτ؀ڥ͕ෆ଍͍ͯ͠Δʢॲཧ
    ೳྗ౳ʣ
    ීஈͷۀ຿͔Β׆༻ͨ͠ޙͷΠϝʔδ͕Θ͔Βͳ͍
    σʔλΛݟͯԿ͔Λײ͡ͱΔɺ೺Ѳ͢Δ͜ͱʹۤख
    ҙ͕ࣝ͋Γ׆༻·ͰࢸΒͳ͍ɺηϯεʁ׳Εʁ
    ະ஌ͷ༗ޮ׆༻͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍ி಺σʔλ͕ଘࡏ͢Δ
    ͱࢥΘΕΔ
    ɾɾɾ
    2σʔλ׆༻ʹ͍ͭͯɺ՝୊౳͕͋Ε͹ڭ͍͑ͯͩ͘͞ɻ
    ෼ྨɾ
    ੔ཧ
    σʔλΛࣗ༝ʹ࢖͑Δ؀ڥ͕
    ੔͍ͬͯͳ͍
    ࣗ෼ͷۀ຿ͱ݁ͼ෇͚ͯ
    ߟ͑Δ͜ͱ͕ࠔ೉
    σʔλΛ࢖͏͜ͱʹର͢Δ
    യવͱͨۤ͠खײ͕֮͋Δ
    ݸผͷΠϯλϏϡʔ౳ͰΑΓঢ়گ
    Λਂ͘೺Ѳ
    ϐοΫΞοϓ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 88

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  89. σʔλ׆༻ʹ͓͚Δ
    Α͋͘Δצҧ͍
    1. ఆੑσʔλ͸໾ʹཱͨͳ͍
    →ఆྔσʔλͱఆੑσʔλ͸໨తʹԠͯ͡࢖͍෼͚Δ
    2. ૬͕ؔ͋Ε͹ඞͣҼՌؔ܎͕͋Δ
    3. ΤϏσϯεΛٻΊΒΕͨ࣌͸ɺ
    σʔλΛࣔͤ͹OKʂ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 89

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  90. σʔλ׆༻ʹ͓͚Δ
    Α͋͘Δצҧ͍
    1. ఆੑσʔλ͸໾ʹཱͨͳ͍
    →ఆྔσʔλͱఆੑσʔλ͸໨తʹԠͯ͡࢖͍෼͚Δ
    2. ૬͕ؔ͋Ε͹ඞͣҼՌؔ܎͕͋Δ
    3. ΤϏσϯεΛٻΊΒΕͨ࣌͸ɺ
    σʔλΛࣔͤ͹OKʂ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 90

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  91. ૬ؔͱ͸
    ೋͭͷࣄ৅͕ີ઀ʹ͔͔ΘΓ߹͍ɺҰํ͕มԽ͢Ε͹ଞํ΋มԽ͢ΔΑ͏ͳؔ܎ɻ
    ෛͷ૬ؔ
    ਖ਼ͷ૬ؔ
    Ұํͷ஋͕େ͖͘ͳΔͱɺ
    ΋͏Ұํͷ஋΋େ͖͘ͳΔ
    Ұํͷ஋͕େ͖͘ͳΔͱɺ
    ΋͏Ұํͷ஋͸খ͘͞ͳΔ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 91

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  92. ૬ؔ≠ҼՌؔ܎
    ྫʣΞΠεΫϦʔϜͷചΓ্͛ͱనࢮऀͷ਺ʹ૬͕ؔ͋ͬͨ
    ΞΠε͕ചΕΔ
    ͜ͱʹΑͬͯ
    నࢮऀ͕૿͑Δ
    ؾԹͷ্ঢ
    ڞ௨ཁҼ

    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 92
    ؾԹ্͕͕Δ
    ͜ͱʹΑͬͯ
    ΞΠε͕ചΕΔ
    ؾԹ্͕͕Δ
    ͜ͱʹΑͬͯ
    ʢւ΍઒Ͱӭ͙ਓ͕
    ૿͑ͯʣ
    నࢮऀ͕૿͑Δ

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  93. ૬͕ؔ͋ͬͯ΋ҼՌؔ܎͕ͳ͍έʔεᶃɿ
    ڞ௨ͷཁҼ͕͋Δʢަབྷʣ
    nC͕AͱBʹӨڹΛ༩͍͑ͯΔঢ়ଶ
    nAͱBͷؒʹ௚઀తͳؔ܎ੑ͸ͳ͍
    A B
    C
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 93

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  94. ૬͕ؔ͋ͬͯ΋ҼՌؔ܎͕ͳ͍έʔεᶃɿ
    ڞ௨ͷཁҼ͕͋Δʢަབྷʣ
    nྫʣʮίʔώʔΛҿΉྔʯͱʮ৺ےߎ࠹ͷൃ঱཰ʯʹਖ਼ͷ૬͕ؔ͋ͬͨ






    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 94
    ίʔώʔΛΑ͘ҿΉਓͰ
    λόίΛٵ͏ਓ͕ଟ͔ͬͨ
    ٤Ԏ͕৺ےߎ࠹ൃ঱ͷ
    ཁҼʹͳ͍ͬͯͨ

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  95. ૬͕ؔ͋ͬͯ΋ҼՌؔ܎͕ͳ͍έʔεᶄɿ
    ҼՌؔ܎ͷํ޲͕ٯ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 95
    n"ʹΑͬͯ#͕Ҿ͖ى͜͞ΕͨͷͰ͸ͳ͘ɺ#ʹΑͬͯ"͕Ҿ͖ى͜͞Εͨ
    n૬ؔ෼ੳͰ͸࣌ؒతͳલޙؔ܎͕ݟ͑ͳ͍ͨΊɺؾ͖ͮʹ͍͘
    A B

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  96. ૬͕ؔ͋ͬͯ΋ҼՌؔ܎͕ͳ͍έʔεᶄɿ
    ҼՌؔ܎ͷํ޲͕ٯ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 96
    nྫʣʮࣄނͷൃੜ݅਺ʯͱʮ஫ҙשىͷ؃൘ͷઃஔ਺ʯʹ
    ਖ਼ͷ૬͕ؔ͋ͬͨ




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  97. ૬͕ؔ͋ͬͯ΋ҼՌؔ܎͕ͳ͍έʔεᶅɿ
    બ୒όΠΞε
    nAͱBͷ෼ੳର৅σʔλ͕ҼՌͷ߹ྲྀ఺Cʹ͓͍ͯɺબൈʗ૚ผʗௐ੔͞Εͯ
    ͠·͍ͬͯΔӨڹͰɺҼՌؔ܎͕ͳ͍ͷʹ૬͕ؔੜͯ͡͠·͏έʔε
    A B
    C
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 97

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  98. ૬͕ؔ͋ͬͯ΋ҼՌؔ܎͕ͳ͍έʔεᶅɿ
    બ୒όΠΞε
    nྫʣ࣮ٕࢼݧͷ఺਺ͱֶྗࢼݧͷ఺਺ͷ߹ܭ఺Ͱ߹൱͕ܾ·Δࢼݧʹ͓͍ͯɺ
    ߹֨ऀͷʮ࣮ٕࢼݧͷ఺਺ʯͱʮֶྗࢼݧͷ఺਺ʯʹෛͷ૬͕ؔ͋ͬͨ








    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 98

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  99. ૬͕ؔ͋ͬͯ΋ҼՌؔ܎͕ͳ͍έʔεᶆɿ
    શ͘ͷۮવ
    nશ͘Կͷؔ܎΋ͳ͍AͱBͰ͋ͬͯ΋ɺۮવ૬͕ؔੜͯ͡͠·͏έʔε
    A B
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 99

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  100. ૬͕ؔ͋ͬͯ΋ҼՌؔ܎͕ͳ͍έʔεᶆɿ
    શ͘ͷۮવ
    nྫʣʮϓʔϧʹ͓͚Δనࢮऀ਺ʯͱʮχίϥεɾέΠδͷөըग़ԋ਺ʯʹਖ਼ͷ૬͕ؔ
    ͋ͬͨ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 100
    http://www.tylervigen.com/spurious-
    correlations

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  101. σʔλ׆༻ʹ͓͚Δ
    Α͋͘Δצҧ͍
    1. ఆੑσʔλ͸໾ʹཱͨͳ͍
    →ఆྔσʔλͱఆੑσʔλ͸໨తʹԠͯ͡࢖͍෼͚Δ
    2. ૬͕ؔ͋Ε͹ඞͣҼՌؔ܎͕͋Δ
    →૬͕ؔ͋ͬͯ΋ҼՌؔ܎͕ͳ͍৔߹͕͋Δ
    3. ΤϏσϯεΛٻΊΒΕͨ࣌͸ɺ
    σʔλΛࣔͤ͹OKʂ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 101

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  102. σʔλ׆༻ʹ͓͚Δ
    Α͋͘Δצҧ͍
    1. ఆੑσʔλ͸໾ʹཱͨͳ͍
    →ఆྔσʔλͱఆੑσʔλ͸໨తʹԠͯ͡࢖͍෼͚Δ
    2. ૬͕ؔ͋Ε͹ඞͣҼՌؔ܎͕͋Δ
    →૬͕ؔ͋ͬͯ΋ҼՌؔ܎͕ͳ͍৔߹͕͋Δ
    3. ΤϏσϯεΛٻΊΒΕͨ࣌͸ɺ
    σʔλΛࣔͤ͹OKʂ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 102

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  103. Before/Afterσʔλ͚ͩͰ
    ҼՌؔ܎Λਪఆ͢Δͷ͸ࠔ೉
    n࣮ݧࣨ಺ͳΒɺӨڹΛٴ΅͢Մೳੑͷ͋ΔཁૉΛഉআ͢ΔΑ͏ʹ
    ৚݅ΛίϯτϩʔϧͰ͖Δ
    n͔͠͠ɺ࣮ࣾձͰ͸ಛఆͷཁૉΛഉআ͢Δ͜ͱ͸ࠔ೉
    n#FGPSF"GUFSͷσʔλ͚ͩͰ͸ɺࢪࡦʹΑͬͯ՝୊͕վળ͞Ε͔ͨ͸
    ෼͔Βͳ͍ʢଞͷཁҼͷՄೳੑΛഉআͰ͖ͳ͍ʣ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 103
    ࢪࡦ࣮ࢪલ ࢪࡦ࣮ࢪޙ
    ࢪࡦͷ
    ࣮ࢪ
    ՝୊ͷ
    վળ
    ʁ

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  104. ϥϯμϜൺֱԽࢼݧ
    (Randomized Controlled Trial: RCT)
    nର৅ΛϥϯμϜʹάϧʔϓ෼͚ͯ͠ࢦඪΛܭଌ͠ൺֱ
    1. ࢪࡦΛ࣮ࢪ͢Δάϧʔϓʢॲஔ܈ʣ
    2. ࢪࡦΛ࣮ࢪ͠ͳ͍άϧʔϓʢରর܈ʣ
    nϥϯμϜɾάϧʔϐϯάʹΑͬͯଞͷཁҼʹΑΔӨڹΛഉআ
    ର৅
    ॲஔ܈
    ରর܈
    ࢦඪΛܭଌ
    ࢦඪΛܭଌ
    ࢪࡦޮՌ
    ࠩΛൺֱ
    ϥϯμϜʢແ࡞ҝʣ
    ʹάϧʔϐϯά
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 104

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  105. ΤϏσϯεͷڧ͞ͷ֊૚
    nʮΤϏσϯεʹجͮ͘ҩྍ (Evidence-Based Medicine) ʯʹ
    ୺Λൃͨ͠ΤϏσϯεͷ֊૚ (Ϩϕϧ) ͕ࣾձՊֶʹ΋Ԡ༻͞Ε͍ͯΔ
    nϨϕϧ্͕͕Δ΄ͲΑΓਖ਼֬ʹҼՌؔ܎ΛਪఆͰ͖Δͱݟͳ͞ΕΔ
    ग़యɿਖ਼໦๎໵ɺ௡୩تҰ࿠ʢʣʮΤϏσϯεʹجͮ͘ҩྍʢ&.#ͷܥේͱํ޲ੑɿอ݈
    ҩྍධՁʹՌͨ͢ίΫϥϯڞಉܭըͷ໾ׂͱະདྷʣʯʰ೔ຊධՁݚڀ ୈרୈ߸ʱQQ
    4

    b
    a
    1b
    1a ෳ਺ͷϥϯμϜԽൺֱࢼݧͷϝλɾΞφϦγε
    গͳ͘ͱ΋̍ͭͷϥϯμϜԽൺֱࢼݧ
    গͳ͘ͱ΋̍ͭͷඇϥϯμϜԽൺֱࢼݧ
    গͳ͘ͱ΋̍ͭͷ४࣮ݧతݚڀ
    ඇ࣮ݧతݚڀɺهड़తݚڀ
    ઐ໳Ոͷใࠂ΍ҙݟɺݖҖऀͷܦݧ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 105

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  106. ࣄྫɿਆಸ઒ݝ༿ࢁொͷ
    ์ஔ͝Έ࡟ݮࢪࡦͷޮՌݕূ
    n༿ࢁொ͸2008೥ɺ೔ຊͰ3൪໨ʹʮθϩɾ΢ΣΠετ੓ࡦʯʢ͝ΈͷపఈతͳࢿݯԽɾݮྔԽʣΛಋೖ
    nࢿݯ͝Έͷऩूڌ఺Ͱ͋Δࢿݯεςʔγϣϯͷ؅ཧ͸ɺθϩɾ΢ΣΠετͷୡ੒ʹ޲͚ͨॏཁࢪࡦ
    nࢿݯεςʔγϣϯͰͷ์ஔ͝Έ͕ݮΒͳ͍͜ͱʹொɾॅຽ͕಄Λ೰·͍ͤͯͨ
    →ࢪࡦ࣮ݧΛ࣮ࢪ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 106
    ϞχλϦϯάର৅
    εςʔγϣϯ

    ରࡦɿνϥγ഑෍

    ରࡦɿ؃൘ܝࡌ

    ରࡦͳ͠

    ࣄલϞχλϦϯά
    ʹج͖ͮϥϯμϜ
    ʹάϧʔϓԽ
    ࠩ͸ແ͔ͬͨ
    ʢޮՌͳ͠ʣ
    ଟ͘
    ࡟ݮͰ͖ͨ
    ʢ࡟ݮޮՌ͋Γʣ
    ϞχλϦϯά
    Λ࣮ࢪ͠ɺ
    ݁ՌΛൺֱ
    ग़యɿ੓ࡦͷޮՌΛͲ͏ଌఆ͢Δ͔ʁɿւ֎ʹ͓͚ΔʮΤϏσϯεʹجͮ͘੓ࡦʯͷ࠷৽ಈ޲
    IUUQTXXXSJFUJHPKQKQFWFOUTCCMIUNM
    શொల։

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  107. ࣄྫɿਆಸ઒ݝ༿ࢁொͷ
    ์ஔ͝Έ࡟ݮࢪࡦͷޮՌݕূ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 107
    ग़యɿʮΤϏσϯεΛ੓ࡦʹͲ͏࢖͏͔ ΠΪϦεͷಈ޲ͱ೔ຊ΁ͷద༻ࣄྫ͔Βͷࣔࠦʯ খྛ༱ฏ
    IUUQTXXXSJFUJHPKQKQFWFOUTCCMQEG

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  108. ࣄྫɿਆಸ઒ݝ༿ࢁொͷ
    ์ஔ͝Έ࡟ݮࢪࡦͷޮՌݕূ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 108
    ग़యɿʮΤϏσϯεΛ੓ࡦʹͲ͏࢖͏͔ ΠΪϦεͷಈ޲ͱ೔ຊ΁ͷద༻ࣄྫ͔Βͷࣔࠦʯ খྛ༱ฏ
    IUUQTXXXSJFUJHPKQKQFWFOUTCCMQEG

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  109. ࣄྫɿਆಸ઒ݝ༿ࢁொͷ
    ์ஔ͝Έ࡟ݮࢪࡦͷޮՌݕূ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 109
    ग़యɿʮΤϏσϯεΛ੓ࡦʹͲ͏࢖͏͔ ΠΪϦεͷಈ޲ͱ೔ຊ΁ͷద༻ࣄྫ͔Βͷࣔࠦʯ খྛ༱ฏ
    IUUQTXXXSJFUJHPKQKQFWFOUTCCMQEG

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  110. RCT͕࣮ࢪͰ͖ͳ͍৔߹ɺ
    ࣭ͷߴ͍ΤϏσϯεΛಘΔ͜ͱ͸ෆՄೳʁ
    n౴͑͸ʮNoʯ
    nϥϯμϜൺֱԽࢼݧ (RCT) Λߦͳͬͨͷͱಉ༷ͷঢ়گͷ
    σʔλ͕ೖखͰ͖Ε͹Մೳ
    nطଘͷߦ੓σʔλ͕࢖͑Δ৔߹͕͋Δ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 110

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  111. ྫʣΧϦϑΥϧχΞभʹ͓͚Δ
    ిྗফඅྔͷ෼ੳ
    ग़యɿ੓ࡦͷޮՌΛͲ͏ଌఆ͢Δ͔ʁɿւ֎ʹ͓͚ΔʮΤϏσϯεʹجͮ͘੓ࡦʯͷ࠷৽ಈ޲
    IUUQTXXXSJFUJHPKQKQFWFOUTCCMIUNM
    n෼ੳͷ໨తɿ
    ʮిྗͷྉۚΛ্͛Δͱɺফඅऀ͕Ͳͷ͘Β͍ͷྔΛઅి͢Δͷ͔஌Γ͍ͨ ʯ
    n෼ੳ࣮ࢪऀɿγΧΰେֶެڞ੓ࡦେֶӃ ҏ౻ެҰ࿕ࢯ
    nڠྗػؔɿ CaIifornia Energy Commission (੓෎),
    SCE, SDG&E (ిྗձࣾ)
    nར༻σʔλɿੈଳ͝ͱͷ݄ؒిྗফඅσʔλ10೥෼
    pΧϦϑΥϧχΞभͷ͋Δ౎ࢢͰ͸ೆ๺Ͱ
    ిྗձ͕ࣾҟͳΔ
    p྆ํͷిྗձࣾͷిྗྉ͕ۚಉ༷ʹ
    มԽ͍ͯͨ࣌͠ظͱɺೆ෦͚ͩ
    ిྗྉ্͕͕ۚͬͨ࣌ظ͕͋Δ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 111

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  112. ྫʣΧϦϑΥϧχΞभʹ͓͚Δ
    ిྗফඅྔͷ෼ੳ
    ྆ํͷిྗձࣾͷిྗྉ͕ۚಉ༷ʹมԽ͍ͯͨ࣌͠ظͱൺֱ͢Δͱɺೆ෦Ͱిྗྉ্͕͕ۚͬͨ
    ࣌ظͷిྗফඅྔ͸12-13%ݮগ͍ͯͨ͠
    →ిྗྉ্͕͕ۚΔͱফඅऀ͸અి͢Δ
    ྆஍ҬͰྉ͕ۚಉ༷ͩͬͨ࣌ظ ೆ෦͚ͩྉ্͕͕ۚͬͨ࣌ظ
    ๺෦ ೆ෦ ๺෦ ೆ෦
    Koichiro Ito, American Economic Review 2014, 104(2): 537–563
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.104.2.537
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 112

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  113. σʔλ׆༻ʹ͓͚Δ
    Α͋͘Δצҧ͍
    1. ఆੑσʔλ͸໾ʹཱͨͳ͍
    →ఆྔσʔλͱఆੑσʔλ͸໨తʹԠͯ͡࢖͍෼͚Δ
    2. ૬͕ؔ͋Ε͹ඞͣҼՌؔ܎͕͋Δ
    →૬͕ؔ͋ͬͯ΋ҼՌؔ܎͕ͳ͍৔߹͕͋Δ
    3. ΤϏσϯεΛٻΊΒΕͨ࣌͸ɺ
    σʔλΛࣔͤ͹OKʂ
    →ΤϏσϯεʹ΋࣭ͷϨϕϧ͕ଘࡏ͢ΔͨΊɺ
    ͨͩσʔλΛ͚ࣔͩ͢Ͱ͸Պֶతࠜڌͱͯ͠ऑ͍৔߹͕͋Δ
    2020/2/6 Sayoko Shimoyama, LinkData 113

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  114. ͓નΊͷจݙɾࢿྉ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  115. σʔλΛར׆༻ͨ͠੓ࡦཱҊϓϩηεΛֶͼ͍ͨํ΁
    σʔλ׆༻Ͱ஍ҬͷϛϥΠΛม͑Δʂ
    ՝୊ղܾͷ4UFQ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    nҎ্ͷ࣏ࣗମ͕डߨͨ͠
    σʔλར׆༻ݚम
    lσʔλΞΧσϛʔz ͷΤοηϯεΛ
    ࡭ʹू໿
    n೥݄ʹൃച͞Εͨ͹͔Γ
    ͷ৽ץ
    IUUQTTIPQHZPTFJKQQSPEVDUTEFUBJM

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  116. ਓʹʮ఻͑ΔʯͨΊͷσʔλՄࢹԽख๏Λֶͼ͍ͨํ΁
    άϥϑΛͭ͘ΔલʹಡΉຊ
    IUUQTXXXBNB[PODPKQEQSFGDN@TX@S@U
    X@EQ@6@Y@+H;O%C1/1"9/
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB

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  117. ޮՌతͳΞϯέʔτௐࠪͷख๏Λֶͼ͍ͨํ΁
    ࣾձڭҭௐࠪϋϯυϒοΫ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    nʮࣾձڭҭௐࠪʯͱ୊͞Ε͍ͯΔ͕ɺ
    ࣮ࡍ͸Ξϯέʔτௐࠪશൠʹ࢖͑Δߟ͑ํ΍
    UJQT͕ղઆ͞Ε͍ͯΔ
    nಛʹʮୈᶚ෦ ௐࠪථͷ࡞Γํʯ͸
    ΞϯέʔτΛઃܭ͢Δํඞݟʂ
    n1%'Ͱμ΢ϯϩʔυՄೳ
    IUUQTXXXOJFSHPKQKJTTFODIPTBIBOECPPLIUN

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  118. ݸਓ৘ใͷѻ͍ʹ৺഑Λ͍࣋ͬͯΔํ΁
    ݸਓ৘ใΛؚΉσʔλ׆༻ݕ౼ͷͨΊͷϫʔΫγʔτ
    4BZPLP4IJNPZBNB -JOL%BUB
    n૯຿লʮ஍ํެڞஂମʹ͓͚Δσʔλ
    ར׆༻ΨΠυϒοΫʯͷ෇࿥ͱͯ͠ެ։
    ͞Ε͍ͯΔ
    nݸਓ৘ใΛؚΉσʔλ׆༻Λݕ౼͢Δࡍ
    ʹɺ࠷௿ݶ֬ೝ͢΂͖ࣄ߲Λ੔ཧ͢ΔͨΊ
    ͷϫʔΫγʔτ
    nઍ༿ࢢͱඣ࿏ࢢͰͷ࣮ূͷࡍͷݕ౼ྫΛ
    ܝࡌ
    IUUQXXXTPVNVHPKQNFOV@TFJTBLV
    JDUTFJTBLVJDUSJZPVCJHEBUBIUNM

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  119. Ұൠࣾஂ๏ਓϦϯΫσʔλ
    ୅දཧࣄ Լࢁ ࣿ୅ࢠ
    Email: [email protected]
    ຊࢿྉʹؔ͢Δ࣭͝໰ɾ͝ҙݟ΍ɺ
    σʔλ׆༻ݚमɾϫʔΫγϣοϓ։࠵ͷ͝૬ஊͳͲ͸
    ͪ͜Β΁͓د͍ͤͩ͘͞ɻ
    4":0,04)*.0:"." -*/,%"5"

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