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An Architecture for Open Cross-Media Annotation Services

Beat Signer
PRO
October 07, 2009

An Architecture for Open Cross-Media Annotation Services

Presentation given at WISE 2009, Tenth International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering, Poznan, Poland.

ABSTRACT: The emergence of new media technologies in combination with enhanced information sharing functionality offered by the Web provides new possibilities for cross-media annotations. This in turn raises new challenges in terms of how a true integration across different types of media can be achieved and how we can develop annotation services that are sufficiently flexible and extensible to cater for new document formats as they emerge. We present a general model for cross-media annotation services and describe how it was used to define an architecture that supports extensibility at the data level as well as within authoring and visualisation tools.

Research paper: https://beatsigner.com/publications/an-architecture-for-open-cross-media-annotation-services.pdf

Beat Signer
PRO

October 07, 2009
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  1. 2 December 2005
    An Architecture for
    Open Cross-Media Annotation Services
    Beat Signer1 and Moira C. Norrie2
    Department of Computer Science
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel
    1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Institute for Information Systems
    ETH Zurich
    8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    1 2

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  2. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - [email protected]
    October 7, 2009
    Motivation
    Memex Annotea Project
    Digital Libraries Cross-media Annotations

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  3. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - [email protected]
    October 7, 2009
    Motivation …
    ▪ Existing annotation solutions support the annotation of
    a fixed set of multimedia resources
    ▪ How easy can those solutions be extended to support
    emerging future digital or physical resource types?
    ▪ annotation tool should evolve over time
    ▪ An open cross-media annotation solution has to provide
    extensibility
    ▪ on the data level
    ▪ on the annotation authoring and access level (user interface)

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  4. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - [email protected]
    October 7, 2009
    What is an Annotation?
    ▪ A link in a hypermedia system is defined between an
    existing source and target object
    ▪ In addition to a link, the definition of an annotation often
    includes the content authoring of the annotation object
    itself (target object)
    ▪ An annotation service therefore can be seen as a
    specific application of a more general link service

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  5. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - [email protected]
    October 7, 2009
    Annotation Matrix
    ▪ Four existing classes of
    annotation systems
    ▪ A: single source and single
    annotation type
    ▪ B: single source and
    multiple annotation types
    ▪ C: multiple source and
    single annotation type
    ▪ D: multiple source and
    multiple annotation types
    ▪ Proposed open cross-media
    annotations cover the whole
    space
    # resource types
    1 2 3 4 5 ...
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    ...
    # annotation types
    B1
    B2
    D2
    open cross-media
    annotations
    D1
    A1
    ... An
    C1
    C2
    C3

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  6. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - [email protected]
    October 7, 2009
    Annotation Model (RSL Extension)
    Selectors Resources
    Entities
    Links
    XHTML Docs
    XPointer
    source target
    Layers
    Users
    SERVER
    i
    Movies
    Time Spans
    MOVIE
    i
    WEB
    i
    RSL Metamodel
    Annotations
    Annotation Model
    Formal Informal
    Comments
    Explanations
    ...

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  7. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - [email protected]
    October 7, 2009
    Annotation Model (RSL Extension) ...
    B. Signer and M. C. Norrie, As We May Link: A General Metamodel for Hypermedia Systems, in Proc. of ER 2007, Nov 2007
    entity
    link
    Links
    selector resource
    (1,*)
    (1,*)
    (1,1) (0,*)
    (0,*) (0,*)
    RefersTo
    HasTarget
    HasSource
    partition
    HasProperties
    parameter
    Properties
    (0,*)
    (0,*)
    HasResolver
    contextResolver
    Context
    Resolvers
    Entities
    (0,*)
    (0,*)
    user
    Users
    parameter
    Preferences
    group
    Groups
    (0,*)
    (0,*)
    (0,*)
    (0,*)
    HasMembers
    AccessibleTo
    individual
    Individuals
    (0,*)
    (0,*)
    (1,1)
    partition
    Has
    Preferences
    (0,*)
    layer
    Layers
    OnLayer |HasLayers|
    (1,1)
    (0,*) (0,*)
    (0,*)
    |HasChild|
    (1,*)
    (0,*)
    link
    Structural
    Links
    link
    Navigational
    Links
    partition
    link
    Annotations
    CreatedBy
    Resources
    Selectors

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  8. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - [email protected]
    October 7, 2009
    Data and Visual Plug-in Architecture
    Annotation/Link
    Service
    Client Application
    Annotation/Link
    Browser & Editor
    Visual Plug-ins
    Resource Plug-in Repository
    Data Plug-ins
    Visual Plug-ins Data Plug-ins
    Visual Plug-ins

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  9. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - [email protected]
    October 7, 2009
    Data and Visual Plug-in Architecture …
    ▪ Integration of a new resource type includes
    ▪ development of a data plug-in
    ▪ implementation of a visual plug-in
    ▪ registration with the resource plug-in repository
    ▪ Annotation/Link browser loads plug-ins on demand
    ▪ internal or external (third party application) visualisation
    ▪ Third party applications use the annotation/link browser
    for annotation visualisation
    ▪ similar to the integration of third-party applications with web
    browsers
    ▪ Non-monolithic annotation model and authoring tool
    ▪ resource-specific plug-ins

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  10. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - [email protected]
    October 7, 2009
    Visual Plug-ins
    Annotation/Link Browser & Editor Client Application
    showEntity(), getSelectedEntity()
    showEntity()

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  11. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - [email protected]
    October 7, 2009
    Visual Plug-ins …
    ▪ General annotation tool deals only with RSL-specific
    data and not with any media-specific details
    ▪ create/delete links, user management, …
    ▪ Definition of annotation anchors (resources or selectors)
    handled by visual plug-ins
    ▪ separation of concerns
    ▪ Two basic purposes
    ▪ rendering of specific resource types (resources and selectors)
    ▪ creation and deletion of resources and selectors
    ▪ Well defined visual plug-in API

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  12. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - [email protected]
    October 7, 2009
    Conclusions
    ▪ Extensible open cross-media annotation solution
    ▪ plug-ins loaded on demand
    ▪ Separation of concerns between
    ▪ annotation model and resource-specific data plug-ins
    ▪ annotation tool and resource-specific visual plug-ins
    ▪ No distinction between entities that can be used as
    sources or annotations
    ▪ annotations and links as first-class objects
    ▪ Annotation/Link browser and editor can be integrated
    with third party applications

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  13. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - [email protected]
    October 7, 2009
    Further Information
    ▪ Beat Signer, Fundamental Concepts for Interactive
    Paper and Cross-Media Information Spaces,
    ISBN 978-3-8370-2713-6, May 2008
    ▪ https://beatsigner.com

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